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Full text of "History of Lafayette county, Mo. , carefully written and compiled from the most authentic official and private sources, including a history of its townships, cities, towns, and villages, together with a condensed history of Missouri; the Constitution of the United States, and state of Missouri; a military record of volunteers in either army of the great civil war .."

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Lafayette  County,  Mo., 





Townships,  Cities, Towns  and  Villages, 


▲  condensed  history  of  missouri;  the  constitution  of  the  united  states, 

and  state  of  missouri;  a  military  record  of  its  volunteers  in  either 

army  of  the  great  civil  war;    general   and  local  statistics; 

miscellany;     reminiscences,   grave,   tragic   and   humorous; 

biographical  sketches  of  prominent  men  and  citizens 

identified   with  the  interests  of  the  county. 


St.    LOUIS: 





30<3  ' 




In  our  diligent  search  for  four  months  seeking  the  information  embod- 
ied in  this  history,  a  few  men  have  been  indifferent  about  it,  but  almost 
universally  we  were  met  with  welcome,  and  those  who  could  furnish 
information  were  glad  to  do  so.  And  a  few  have  taken  such  pains  to  ren- 
der us  valuable  assistance  that  we  wish  to  make  our  special  acknowledg- 
ments to  them  for  it.  Ethan  Allen,  Esq.,  furnished  us  the  oldest  files  of 
Lafayette  county  newspapers  now  in  existence.  Captain  Andrews,  the 
deputy  county  clerk,  has  our  thanks  for  the  uniform  kindness  and  good 
will  with  which  he  aided  us  in  our  frequent  occasions  to  examine  the  musty 
and  mouldy  old  records  in  the  county  vaults.  We  are  indebted  to  Cap- 
tain A.  A.  Lesueur,  editor  of  the  Lexington  Intelligencer,  for  personal 
favors  that  were  helpful;  also  to  G.  Clayton,  John  Burden,  and  E.  Win- 
sor,  for  loan  of  scrap-books  containing  many  valuable  records,  narratives, 
military  orders,  official  reports,  and  other  documents  of  the  war  time  not 
found  in  any  of  the  printed  histories.  To  Dr.  J.  B.  Alexander  for  many 
favors;  to  Henry  Turner,  postmaster,  for  bound  files  of  the  Lexington 
Register',  to  H.  C.  Chiles,  Esq.,  for  his  Centennial  Fourth  of  July  history 
of  the  county;  to  Dr.  Gordon  for  special  assistance  in  regard  to  old  and 
long-forgotten  pioneer  school  matters;  to  Captain  J.  O.  Wilson,  of  Lex- 
ington, and  Col.  W.  F.  Switzler,  of  Columbia,  Mo.,  for  loan  of  valuable 
books;  to  the  Lexington  Intelligencer  company  for  free  access  to  all  their 
files,  etc.,  etc.  It  was  a  vast  work.  This  county  has  had  a  long  and  intensely 
history-making  career.  We  found  material  plenty  to  make  three  books 
instead  of  one;  and  the  burden  of  difficulty  was  to  select  those  things  which 
would  be  of  most  permanent  interest  and  value  to  our  patrons,  and  then 
condense  them  to  the  necessary  limits  of  the  promised  volume.  The  work 
has  been  done  with  conscientious  care,  with  painstaking  and  arduous  labor, 
with  unpartisan  candor,  with  good  faith  and  good  will  towards  all;  and 


now  it  is  respectfully  submitted  to  the  judgment,  acceptance,  and  use  of 
those  who  have  kindly  given  their  pledges  in  support  of  the  undertaking — 
confident  that  it  is  in  full  measure  of  every  promise  on  our  part,  and  trust- 
ing that  it  will  be  entirely  satisfactory  to  our  patrons. 

Yours  truly, 





Historical  and  Political 9 

Prehistoric  Missouri 10 

The  White  Race  in  Missouri 15 

Missouri  as  a  State 25 

Summary  of  Events  and  Dates 25 

Counties  and  population 26 

Census  Report,  1880 27 

State  Finances 29 

Presidential  Vote,  1820  to  1880 ,. . .  30 

Governors  From  1820  to  1880 31 

United  States  Senators 31 

Members  of  Congress 32 

Public  School  System 34 

Protectional  Laws 40 

Homestead  Exemption 40 

Exemption  of  Personal  Property....  42 

Rights  of  Married  Women 43 

Taxation 43 

Public  Debt  Limitation 44 

Comparative  Tax  Rate 45 

Federal  Officers  in  the  State 46 

Missouri's  Distinguished  Men — 

Daniel  Boone 47 

Thomas  H.  Benton 47 

James  B .  Eads 48 

Carl  Schurz 49 

Prof.  Charles  V.  Riley 49 

Missouri  in  Civil  War 50 


Geology  and  Minerals 66 

Geological  Chart 67 

Mineral  Resources 72 

Earth,  Clays,  Ochres,  etc 77 

Geography  of  Missouri 78 

Rivers  and  Water  Courses 81 

Notable  Springs 82 

Soils  and  Their  Products 83 

Wild  Game 85 

Climate 87 

Healthfulness  of  the  State 89 

Agriculture 90 

Staple  Crops 91 

Horticulture 93 

The  Grasshoppers 96 

Navigation  and  Commerce 99 

The  Lewis  and  Clark  Expedition 100 

First  Steamboats  in  Missouri 101 

The  Barge  System 103 

Railroads  in  Missouri 104 

Manufacturing  in  Missouri 107 

Principal  Cities  in  Missouri 108 

Constitution  of  the  United  States 113 

Constitution  of  Missouri  124 

Abstracts  of  State  Laws  and  Forms. . .  .160 

Practical  Rules  for  Every  Day  Use 190 

Names  of  the  States  of  the  Union  and 
Their  Significance ....196 



Pioneer  Events 20jfT 

First  Court 208 

Geology  of  County 226 

Schools  and  Colleges 242 

County  Organizations 264 

Newspapers 272 

Events-  and  Incidents  by  Years 282 

Elections 296 

County  Finances 305 

Railroads 310 

War   History 329 

The  Battle  of  Lexington  339 


Price's  Raid 367 

Confederate  Soldiers'  Record 376 

Federal  Soldiers'  Record 386 

Township  Histories — 

Clay  Township 396 

Davis   Township 405 

Dover  Township 413 

Freedom  Township 422 

Lexington  Township 431 

Middleton  Township 463 

Sniabar  Township *. 467 

Washington  Township 476 



Clay  Township 482 

Davis  Township 509 

DoverTownship 537 

Freedom  Township 569 

City  of  Lexington 612 


Lexington  Township 633 

Middleton  Township 654 

Sniabar  Township 673 

Washington  Township 683 

Additional  Biog.  Davis  Township  . .  .701 

History  of  the  State  of  Missouri. 



When  a  book  is  written,  it  is  presumed  that  the  writer  had  some  object 
in  view  and  some  end  to  achieve  by  his  labor  in  collecting  the  material 
and  writing  the  book;  and  it  is  right  that  he  should  put  himself  on  good 
terms  with  his  readers  at  the  outset  by  making  a  brief,  but  frank  and 
honest  statement  of  his  object,  plan  and  purpose  in  the  book  which  he 
offers  to  public  patronage.  The  writer  of  this  History  of  Missouri  has 
aimed  to  embody  in  a  brief  space  the  greatest  amount  of  solid  and  reliable 
information  about  things  which  directly  hinge  and  center  upon  or  within 
the  territory  of  this  State — this  international  commonwealth,  which  holds 
by  right  divine  the  royal  prerogative  of  a  destiny  imperial  and  grand,  if 
she  can  acquire  or  develop  human  brain  and  muscle  adequate  to  utilize 
wisely,  honorably  and  energetically  her  magnificent  natural  resources, 
both  of  commercial  position  and  of  agricultural  and  mineral  wealth.  The 
writer's  desire  and  effort  has  been  to  present  nothing  which  would  not  be 
read  with  deep  interest  by  every  intelligent  citizen  of  Missouri  at  the 
present  time;  and  also  stand  as  a  permanent  body  of  information,  at  once 
useful  and  reliable  for  future  reference.  Discussion  of  theories,  problems 
or  doubtful  matters  has  been  avoided;  solid  facts  have  been  diligently 
sought  after;  and  the  narrative  has  been  made  to  embody  as  many  facts 
and  events  as  possible  without  falling  into  the  dry-bones  method  of  mere 
statistical  tables.  In  fact,  the  limit  of  space  allotted  him  has  compelled  the 
writer  to  condense,  epitomize,  shorten  up  —  and  therefore  continually  to 
repress  his  desire  to  embellish  the  narrative  with  the  graces  of  rhetoric 
and  the  glow  of  an  exuberant  and  fervid  enthusiasm.  This,  however, 
secures  to  the  reader  more  facts  within  the  same  space. 

In  preparing  this  work  more  than  a  hundred  volumes  have  been  con- 
sulted, to  collate  incidents  and  authenticate  dates  and  facts,  besides  much 
matter  gathered  from  original  sources  and  not  before  embraced  in  anv 


book.  It  is  not  presumed  that  there  are  no  mistakes  or  errors  of  state- 
ment herein  made;  but  it  is  believed  that  there  are  fewer  of  such  lapses 
than  commonly  occur  with  the  same  amount  of  data  in  similar  works. 
The  classification  of  topics  is  an  attempt  to  give  them  a  consecutive  and 
consistent  relative  place  and  order  in  the  book,  for  convenience  of  inci- 
dental reference  or  of  selective  reading. 



Every  State  has  a  pre-historic  history  —  that  is,  remains  and  relics  are 
found  which  show  that  the  land  was  inhabited  by  a  race  or  races  of  men 
long  before  its  discovery  and  occupation  by  a  race  sufficiently  advanced 
in  the  arts  of  civilization  to  preserve  a  written  record  of  their  own 
observations  and  doings.  It  is  now  well  established  that  every  portion  of 
the  United  States  was  inhabited  by  a  race  of  men  grouped  under  the 
general  name  of  "  Mound-builders,"  who  preceded  the  modern  hunter 
tribes  called  "Indians."  It  further  appears,  from  all  the  evidence  accumu- 
lated, that  the  Mound-builders  were  a  race  that  made  permanent  settle- 
ments, and  built  earthworks  of  considerable  extent  for  defense  against 
enemies,  both  man  and  beast;  also  for  sepulture,  for  religious  rites,  and 
for  memorial  art;  it  is  also  evident  that  they  cultivated  the  soil  to  some 
extent,  made  rude  textile  fabrics  and  clay  pottery,  and  wrought  imple- 
ments of  domestic  use,  ornaments,  charms,  toys,  pipes,  etc.,  and  weapons 
of  war  and  of  the  chase,  from  flint,  porphyry,  jasper,  hornstone,.  granite, 
slate,  and  other  varieties  of  rocks;  also  from  horn,  bone,  shells,  and  other 
animal  products;  and  from  native  copper.  But  they  had  no  knowledge 
of  iron,  nor  any  art  of  smelting  copper;  they  merely  took  small  pieces  of 
the  native  ore  and  hammered  it  cold  with  their  stone  tools  until  it  took 
some  rude  shape  of  utility,  and  then  they  scoured  and  polished  it  to  its 
utmost  brilliancy;  and  it  is  altogether  probable  that  these  articles  wrere 
only  possessed  by  the  chieftains  or  ruling  families.  Plates  of  mica  are 
also  found  among  their  remains,  with  holes  for  suspension  on  cords 
around  the  neck  or  body;  and  lumps  of  galena  or  lead  ore  sometimes 
occur,  but  these  must  have  been  valued  merely  as  trinkets  or  charms, 
because  of  their  lustre.  Remains  of  this  people  are  found  frequently 
both  on  the  bluffs  and  bottom  lands  of  the  Mississippi  and  Missouri 
rivers,  and,  in  many  States,  far  inland,  also. 

The  first  mention  of  such  remains  in   Missouri  is  made  by  a  U.  S. 


exploring  expedition  under  Major  S.  H.  Long,  in  1819.  This  expedition 
went  in  the  first  steamboat  that  ever  puffed  and  paddled  its  way  against 
the  swift,  muddy  current  of  the  Missouri  river;  *the  boat  was  named 
"  Western  Engineer,"  but  it  had  a  double  stern-wheel,  or  two  wheels,  one 
of  them  named  in  large  letters,  "James  Monroe,"  and  the  other  "John 
C.  Calhoun,"  in  honor  of  the  then  President  and  Secretary  of  War. 
This  steamer  had  to  stop  at  St.  Louis  for  some  repairs;  and  two  members 
of  the  expedition,  Messrs.  Thomas  Say  and  T.  R.  Peale,  improved  the 
time  by  surveying  a  group  of  twenty-seven  ancient  mounds  which  occu- 
pied ground  that  is  now  all  covered  over  by  the  modern  city  of  St.  Louis. 
This  occurred  in  June,  1819;  Mr.  Say  prepared  a  map  of  the  mounds 
and  a  brief  account  of  them,  and  this  appears  to  be  the  first  authentic 
record  of  such  ancient  works  within  the  territory  now  constituting  the 
State  of  Missouri;  his  notes  on  these  mounds  were  published  in  1823,  in 
the  report  of  Major  Long's  expedition,  but  his  map  of  them  was  never 
published  until  1862,  when  it  appeared  on  page  387  of  the  "  Smithsonian 
Report"  for  the  year  1861.     In  his  account  Mr.  Say  says: 

"Tumuli  and  other  remains  of  the  labors  of  nations  of  Indians  (?)  that 
inhabited  this  region  many  ages  since  are  remarkably  numerous  about 
St.  Louis.  Those  tumuli  immediately  northward  of  the  town  and  within 
a  short  distance  of  it,  are  twenty-seven  in  number,  of  various  forms  and 
magnitudes,  arranged  nearly  in  a  line  from  north  to  south.  The  common 
form  is  an  oblong  square,  and  they  all  stand  on  the  second  bank  of  the 
river.         *  It  seems  probable  these  piles  of  earth   were  raised 

as  cemeteries,  or  they  may  have  supported  altars  for  religious  cer- 

It  was  from  these  mounds  that  St.  Louis  derived  her  pseudonym  of  the 
"Mound  City";  but  this  name  is  now  almost  entirely  obsolete,  since  the 
city  has  risen  up  to  claim  the  prouder  title  of  "  Inter-Metropolis  of  North 
America".  When  the  largest  one  of  the  mounds  was  leveled  some 
skeletons  were  found,  and  some  thick  discs  with  holes  through  them; 
they  had  probably  served  as  beads,  and  were  wrought  from  shells  of  a  spe- 
cies of  fresh  water  clam  or  mussel.  Numerous  specimens  of  wrought  flints 
were  found  between  St.  Louis  and  Carondelet,  in  1660;  and  in  1861  an 
ancient  flint  shovel  was  dug  up  while  building  military  earthworks. 

In  Mississippi  county,  in  the  southeastern  corner  of  the  State,  there  is  a 
group  ol  mounds  covering  ten  acres,  in  section  6,  t.  24,  r.  17,  varying 
from  ten  to  thirty  feet  in  height.  About  lb55  these  mounds  were 
explored  by  two  gentlemen  from  Chicago,  and  they  lound  some  pottery, 
with  men  represented  upon  its  sides:  one  figure  appeared  to  be  a  priest 
or  some  official  personage,  as  shown   by  his  head-dress,  and  the  other 

*  Campbell's  History  of  Howard  County  says:  '•  May  28th,  1819,  the  first  steamboat— 
the  '  Independence,'  Capt.  Nelson,  time  from  St.  Louis,  including  all  stops,  twelve  days — 
landed  at  Franklin  on  her  way  up  the  [Missouri]  river."  Thus  it  seems  that  Major  Long's 
boat  was  really  the  second  one  to  go  up,  although  in  most  histories  it  is  mentioned  as  th« 
first — and  it  wo*  the  first  that  went  up  any  great  distance. 


represented  a  captive  bound  with  thongs.  Both  figures  showed  the 
peculiar  contour  of  head  and  features  which  marks  the  mound-builder 

In  December,  1868,  some  laborers  engaged  in  grading  Sixth  street,  in 
East  St.  Louis,  dug  up  a  nest  of  unused  flint  hoes  or  shovels,  and  another 
deposit  of  shells  with  string-holes  worked  in  them,  and  another  deposit  of 
boulders  of  flint  and  greenstone,  ready  to  make  more  tools  or  weapons 
from.  These  deposits  were  on  high  ground,  and  about  half-way  between 
two  ancient  mounds. 

In  1876  or  1877  some  ancient  mounds  were  discovered  on  the  banks  of 
the  Missouri  river  near  Kansas  City.  They  were  in  groups  of  three 
and  five  together,  at  different  points  for  five  miles  up  and  down  the  river. 
Some  were  built  entirely  of  earth,  and  some  had  a  rude  stone  chamber  or 
vault  inside,  but  covered  with  earth  so  that  all  looked  alike  outside.  They 
were  of  an  irregular  oval  shape,  from  four  to  six  feet  high,  and  had 
heavy  growths  of  timber  on  top.  Mr.  W.  H.  R.  Lykins,  of  Kansas 
City,  noticed  a  burr-oak  tree  five  feet  in  diameter,  growing  on  top  of 
one  of  them,  and  the  decayed  stump  of  a  black  walnut  of  about  the  same 
size,  on  another.  In  describing  the  exploration  of  some  of  these  mounds 
Mr.  Lykins  gives  some  points  that  will  be  of  interest  to  every  one.  He 

"  We  did  not  notice  any  very  marked  peculiarity  as  to  these  bones 
except  their  great  size  and  thickness,  and  the  great  prominence  of  the 
supraciliary  ridges.  The  teeth  were  worn  down  to  a  smooth  and  even 
surface.  The  next  one  we  opened  was  a  stone  mound.  On  clearing  off 
the  top  of  this  we  came  upon  a  stone  wall  inclosing  an  area  about  eight 
feet  square,  with  a  narrow  opening  for  a  doorway  or  entrance  on  the 
south  side.  The  wall  of  this  inclosure  was  about  two  feet  thick;  the 
inside  was  as  smooth  and  compactly  built  and  the  corners  as  correctly 
squared  as  if  constructed  by  a  practical  workman.  No  mortar  had  been 
used.  At  a  depth  of  about  two  feet  from  the  top  of  the  wall  we  found  a 
layer  of  five  skeletons  lying  with  their  feet  toward  the  south."  * 

Nont:  of  the  other  walls  examined  were  so  skilfully  laid  as  this  one. 
The  bones  were  crumbly,  and  only  a  few  fragments  were  preserved  by 
coating  them  well  with  varnish  as  quickly  as  possible  after  they  were 
exposed  to  the  air.  One  stone  enclosure  was  found  full  of  ashes,  char- 
coal and  burnt  human  bones,  and  the  stones  and  earth  of  which  the 
mound  was  composed  all  showed  the  effects  of  fire.  Hence  it  is  pre- 
sumed that  this  was  either  a  cremation  furnace  or  else  an  altar  for  human 
sacrifices — most  probably  the  latter.  Some  fragments  of  pottery  were 
found  in  the  vicinity. 

L.  C.  Beck  in  1823f  reported  some  remains  in  the  territory  now  con- 
stituting Crawford  county,  Missouri,  which  he  thought  showed  that  there 

*  Smithsonian  Report,  1877,  p.  252. 

f  Gazetteer  of  Illinois  and  Missouri,  published  by  L.  C.  Beck,  in  1820-28. 


was  in  old  time  a  town  there,  with  streets,  squares,  and  houses  built  with 
stone  foundations  and  mud  walls.  He  also  mentions  the  ruins  of  an 
ancient  stone  building  described  to  him  by  Gen.  Ashley,  as  situated  on  a 
high  cliff  on  the  west  side  of  the  Gasconade  river.  And  another  one  said  to 
be  in  Pike  county,  is  thus  described:  "  It  presents  the  dilapidated  remains 
of  a  building  constructed  of  rough,  unhewn  stones,  fifty-six  feet  long  and 
twenty-two  broad,  embracing  several  divisions  and  chambers.  The 
walls  are  from  two  to  five  feet  high.  Eighty  rods  eastward  of  this 
structure  is  found  a  smaller  one  of  similar  construction.  The  narrow 
apartments  are  said  to  be  arched  with  stone,  one  course  overlapping  the 
other,  after  the  manner  of  the  edilices  of  Central  America." 

I.  Dille,  Esq.,  of  Newark,  Ohio,  reported  that  he  had  examined  some 
of  these  pre-historic  town  ruins,  in  the  vicinity  of  Mine-la-Motte  and 
Fredericktown,  in  Madison  county,  Missouri.  He  speaks  of  them  as 
groups  of  small  tumuli,  and  says:  "I  have  concluded  the}'  are  the 
remains  of  mud  houses.  They  are  always  arranged  in  straight  lines, 
with  broad  streets  intervening  between  them,  crossing  each  other  at  right 
angles.  The  distance  apart  varies  in  different  groups,  but  it  is  always 
uniform   in  the   same  group.  *         I  have  counted  upwards  of 

two  hundred  of  these  mounds  in  a  single  group.  Arrow  heads  of  jasper 
and  agate,  and  axes  of  sienite  and  porphyry  have  been  found  in  their 
vicinity."  * 

Mounds  or  other  pre-historic  structures  have  been  found  on  Spencer's- 
creek  in  Ralls  count)-;  on  Cedar  creek  in  Boone  county;  on  Crow's  Fork 
and  other  places  in  Callaway  count)-;  near  Berger  Station  in  Franklin 
county;  near  Miami  in  Saline  county;  on  Blackwater  river  in  John- 
son county;  on  Salt  river  in  Pike  county;  on  Prairie  Fork  in  Mont- 
gomery county;  near  New  Madrid;  and  in  many  other  parts  of  the 

The  class  of  ancient  ruins,  partly  built  of  stone,  said  to  exist  in 
Clay,  Crawford,  Pike  and  Gasconade  counties,  Missouri,  are  not  found 
further  north,  but  are  frequent  enough  further  south,  and  are  supposed 
to  indicate  a  transitional  period  in  the  development  of  architectural 
knowledge  and  skill,  from  the  grotesque  earth-mounds  of  Wisconsin  to 
the  well-finished  adobe  structures  of  New  Mexico,  and  the  grander  stone 
ruins  of  Yucatan.  But,  no  matter  what  theory  we  adopt  with  regard  to 
these  pre-historic  relics,  the  present  citizens  of  Missouri  can  rest  assured 
that  a  different  race  of  human  beings  lived  and  flourished  all  over  this 
region  of  country,  hundreds — yes,  thousands  of  years  ago,  and  that  they 
were  markedly  different  in  their  modes  of  life  from  our  modern  Indians. 

*  Many  large  and  costly  works  have  been  published  by  scientists,  devoted  to  the  general 
subject  of  Pre-Historic  Man;  but  of  cheap  and  popular  works  for  the  general  reader,  the 
best  are  Poster's  "  Pre-Historic  Races  of  the  United  States" ;  and  Baldwin's  "  Ancient 


And  there  are  at  least  two  discoveries  known  which  show  that  these  people 
were  here  before  the  extinction  of  the  mastodon,  or  great  American 
elephant.  In  the  "  Transactions  of  the  St.  Louis  Academy  of  Sciences," 
1857,  Dr.  Kock  reports  that  in  the  year  1839  he  dug  up  in  Gasconade 
county  [as  that  county  then  was]  the  bones  of  a  mastodon,  near  the 
Bourbeuse  river.  The  skeleton  of  this  gigantic  creature  was  buried  in 
such  a  position  as  to  show  that  it  had  got  its  hind  legs  down  in  a  bog  so 
deeply  that  it  could  not  climb  out,  although  its  fore  feet  were  on  dry 
ground.  The  natives  had  attacked  it  with  their  flint  arrows  and  spears, 
most  of  which  were  found  in  a  broken  condition;  but  they  had  finally 
managed  to  build  a  big  fire  so  close  to  its  head  as  to  burn  it  to  death,  the 
head-bones  and  tusks  being  found  all  burnt  to  coals.  The  account  of 
this  discovery  was  first  printed  in  the  Philadelphia  Presbyterian,  Jan.  12, 
1839,  and  copied  into  the  "American  Journal  of  Science  "  the  same  year. 
The  authenticity  of  the  incident  has  been  disputed,  on  the  assumed 
ground  that  man  did  not  exist  as  long  ago  as  when  the  mastodon  roamed 
over  these  pre-historic  plains ;  but  science  now  has  indisputable  evidence 
that  man  existed  even  in  the  Tertiary  age  of  the  geological  scale,  (see 
note  to  chart  in  chapter  on  Geology)  long  before  the  glacial  epoch;  hence 
that  objection  has  no  force  at  present. 

Dr.  Koch  further  reports  that  about  a  year  after  unearthing  the  Gas- 
conade county  monster,  he  again  found  in  the  bottom  land  of  the  Pom- 
me-de-Terre  river,  in  Benton  county,  a  nearly  complete  skeleton  of  the 
great  extinct  beast  called  Missourium,  with  arrow-heads  under  it  in  such 
a  way  as  to  show  beyond  question  that  they  were  made  and  used  while 
the  animal  was  alive.     This  skeleton  is  now  in  the  British  Museum.  * 

Human  footprints  have  been  found  in  the  rocks  at  De  Soto  in  Jefferson 
county,  also  in  Gasconade  county,  and  at  St.  Louis.  H.  R.  Schoolcraft, 
in  his  book  of  travels  in  the  Mississippi  river  country  in  1821,  said  of 
these  footprints:  "The  impressions  in  the  stone  are,  to  all  appearance, 
those  of  a  man  standing  in  an  erect  posture,  with  the  left  foot  a  little 
advanced,  and  the  heels  drawn  in.  The  distance  between  the  heels,  by 
accurate  measurement,  is  6^  inches  and  between  the  extremities  of  the 
toes  13^  inches.  The  length  of  these  tracks  is  10 J  inches;  across  the 
toes  4£  inches  as  spread  out,  and  but  2£  at  the  heel." 

Our  eminent  U.  S.  Senator,  Thomas  H.  Benton,  wrote  a  letter  April 
29th,  1822,  in  which  he  says:  "The  prints  of  the  human  feet  which  you 
mention,  I  have  seen  hundreds  of  times.  They  were  on  the  uncovered 
limestone  rock  in  front  of  the  town  of  St.  Louis.  The  prints  were  seen 
when  the  country  was  first  settled,  and  had  the  same  appearance  then  as 
now.  No  tradition  can  tell  anything  about  them.  They  look  as  old 
as  the  rock.     They  have  the  same  fine  polish  which  the  attrition   of  the 

*  Bee  Foster's  "  Pre-Historic  Races  of  the  United  States,"  pp.  6^-3-4-5-6. 


sand  and  water  has  made  upon  the  rest  of  the  rock  which  is  exposed  to 
their  action.  I  have  examined  them  often  with  great  attention.  They 
are  not  handsome,  but  exquisitely  natural,  both  in  the  form  and  position. 
*  *  A  block  6  or  8  feet  long  and%5  or  4  feet  wide,  containing  the 
prints,  was  cut  out  by  Mr.  John  Jones,  in  St.  Louis,  and  sold  to  Mr. 
Rappe,  of  New  Harmony,  Indiana."* 

Prof.  G.  C.  Broadhead,  and  some  other  writers,  think  these  were  not 
natural  impression  of  human  feet,  but  sculptures  made  by  hand.  This 
theory  requires  a  belief  that  the  pre-historic  men  of  Missouri  had  tools 
with  which  they  could  cut  the  most  delicate  lines  in  hard  rocks;  and  that 
they  studied  the  human  form  in  its  finest  details  of  muscular  action  and 
attitude,  and  had  the  art  of  sculpturing  these  things  so  as  to  look  "  exqui- 
sitely natural"  as  Col.  Benton  expresses  it — thus  rivalling,  if  not  excelling 
the  most  famous  sculptors  of  ancient  Greece;  all  of  which  is  wholly  incon- 
sistent with  the  known  facts.  And  besides  this,  there  is  no  better  geolog- 
ical reason  for  doubting  their  genuineness  as  natural  footprints,  than  there 
is  in  the  case  of  the  famous  bird  and  reptile  tracks  in  the  sandstones  of 
Connecticut,  or  those  found  by  Prof.  Mudge  in  Kansas,  in  1873.  There 
is  no  valid  reason,  either  of  an  aesthetic,  historical,  or  scientific  nature,  for 
pronouncing  them  anything  but  just  what  they  show  themselves  to  be  — 
fossil  footprints  of  a  man  who  stood  in  the  mud  barefooted ;  and  in  course 
of  time  that  mud  became  solid  stone,  preserving  his  footprints  just  as  he 
left  their  exact  impression  in  the  plastic  material. 



In  1512  the  Spanish  adventurer  Ponce  de  Leon  discovered  Florida;  and 
at  this  time  and  for  some  years  after  the  old  countries  of  Europe  were  filled 
with  the  wildest  and  most  extravagant  stories  about  the  inexhaustible  mines 
of  gold,  silver  and  precious  stones  that  existed  in  the  country  north  of  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico ;  also  of  great  and  populous  cities  containing  fabulous  wealth, 
beyond  what  Pizarro  and  Cortes  had  found  in  Peru  and  Mexico.  And 
besides  all  this,  the  "fountain  of  perpetual  youth,"  which  all  Europe  had  gone 
crazy  after,  about  this  time,  was  supposed  to  be  in  that  region.  Indeed, 
it  can  hardly  be  doubted  that  the  Spaniards  in  Mexico  had  gathered  from 
the  natives  some  inkling  of  the  wonderful  healing  waters  now   known  as 

*  See  Smithsonian  Report,  1879,  pp.  357-58.  Also  "  American  Antiquities,"  by  Josian 
Priest,  1833,  pp.  1850-51-52. 


Hot  Springs,  Arkansas,  and  the  brilliant  quartz  crystals   found  in  that 
region,  as  well  as  the  glittering  ores  of  Missiouri. 

Ferdinand  de  Soto  was  a  wealthy  cavalier  who  had  won  fame  as  a 
leading  commander  in  Pizarro's  conquest  of  Peru;  he  imbibed  deeply  the 
current  imaginings  about  the  undiscovered  wonders  of  the  new  world, 
and  was  eager  to  immortalize  his  name  by  bringing  to  his  king  and  coun- 
try the  glory  of  still  more  important  conquests  and  discoveries;  and  he 
especially  desired  to  find  the  supposed  "  fountain  of  perpetual  youth." 
Accordingly,  in  1538  he  received  permission  from  the  king  of  Spain  to 
conquer  Florida  at  his  own  cost  — "  Florida "  then  meaning  all  the 
unknown  country  from  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  to  the  Northern  ocean.  He 
collected  a  band  of  more  than  six  hundred  young  bloods  who  were  able 
to  equip  themselves  in  all  the  gorgeous  trappings  and  splendor  of  a  Span- 
ish cavalier  dress  parade,  and  with  this  plumed  and  tinselled  troupe,  very 
like  the  grand  entree  riders  of  a  modern  circus,  he  landed  in  Tampa  Bay, 
Florida,  in  1539.  From  here  he  boldly  struck  out  into  the  interior,  wan- 
dering about  and  pushing  forward  with  dogged  perseverance,  in  spite  of 
bogs  and  streams  and  bluffs;  in  spite  of  tangling  thickets  and  dense  for- 
ests; in  spite  of  heats  and  rains;  in  spite  of  the  determined  hostility  of 
the  natives — until  in  May,  1541,  he  discovered  the  Great  River,  a  few 
miles  below  where  the  city  of  Memphis  now  stands;  and  thus  he  made 
his  name  memorable  for  all  time.  After  some  delay,  to  construct  boats, 
they  crossed  the  river  and  pushed  on  northward  as  far  as  where  the  city  of 
New  Madrid  now  stands ;  and  this  was  the  first  time  that  the  eyes  of  white 
men  looked  upon  any  portion  of  the  soil  now  comprised  within  the  State 
of  Missouri.*  But,  so  fruitless  was  this  visit  that  no  white  man  set  foot 
within  our  present  State  boundary  again  until  one  hundred  and  thirty-two 
years  afterward,  when  the  French  missionaries,  Marquette  and  Jcliet, 
came  from  the  great  lakes  down  the  Wisconsin  and  Mississippi  rivers,  to 
the  mouth  of  the  Missouri,  in  June,  1673.  This  was  the  first  time  white 
men  had  beheld  the  waters  of  this  great  stream,  and  they  named  it  Peki- 
tonom,  or  "  Muddy  Water  River ".  It  was  known  by  this  name  until 
about  1710  or  1712,  when  it  began  to  be  called  "  the  river  of  the  Mis- 
souris,"  referring  to  a  tribe  of  Indians  that  dwelt  at  its  mouth,  chiefly  on 
the  lands  now  comprised  in  St.  Louis  county.  Marquette  and  Joliet  went 
on  down  the  river  as  far  south  as  the  mouth  of  the  Arkansas  river,  of  course 
making  several  camping  stops  on  Missouri  soil,  and  discovering  the  Ohio 
river.     From  the  Arkansas  they  returned  northward  the  same  way  they 

*  De  Soto  and  his  army  came  into  Missoari  Irom  the  south,  twice  crossing  the  Ozark 
mountains.  He  spent  the  winter  of  1541-42  in  Vernon  county,  in  the  extreme  western 
part  of  the  State.  Ruins  of  their  winter  camp  structures  and  smelting  operations  are  still 
found  there.  They  melted  lead  ore  for  silver,  and  the  glittering,  lustrous,  yellow,  zinc 
blende  or  Smithsonite  for  gold ;  but  were  deeply  disgusted  to  find  at  last  that  they  had 
been  handling  only  the  basest  metals. 


came  down,  and  reached  Green  Bay,  Wisconsin,  again  in  September  of 
that  year  — 1673. 

The  next  visit  of  white  men  to  this  State  was  in  1682.  In  1678  the 
French  had  built  a  fort  with  a  missionary  station  a:id  trading  post,  near 
where  the  city  of  Peoria,  Ills.,  now  stands.  During  the  winter  of  1681 
-82,  Robert  de  la  Salle  made  preparations,  first  in  Canada,  and  then  at 
this  Illinois  fort,  to  explore  the  Mississippi  river  to  its  mouth.  He  left  the 
fort  with  a  company  of'  twenty  Frenchmen,  eighteen  Indian  men  and  ten 
squaws,  in  such  boats  and  canoes  as  he  could  provide.  They  rowed  down 
the  Illinois  river  and  reached  its  mouth  on  the  6th  of  February;  a  few 
days  were  spent  here  making  observations,  repairing  boats,  preparing 
food,  and  establishing  signals  that  they  had  been  there  and  taken  posses- 
sion of  the  land  in  the  name  of  their  great  king.  By  February  13th  La  Salle 
was  ready  to  push  on,  and  started  with  his  little  fleet  to  solve  the  great 
mystery  of  a  navigable  waterway  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  Of  course  this 
expedition  passed  along  the  eastern  border  of  Missouri,  but  no  points  are 
mentioned  to  identify  any  landing  which  they  may  have  made  within  our 
State.  Early  in  April  La  Salle  accomplished  the  grand  object  of  his  ven- 
ture by  discovering  the. three  principal  mouths  of  the  Mississippi;  and  on 
the  nearest  firm  dry  land  he  could  find  from  the  mouth  he  set  up  a  col- 
umn bearing  the  cross  and  the  royal  arms  of  France,  while  the  whole 
company  performed  the  military  and  religious  rites  of  loyalty  to  their 
king  and  country — and  La  Salle  himself,  acting  as  chief  master  of  cere- 
monies, in  a  clear,  loud  voice  proclaimed  that  he  took  possession  of  all 
the  country  between  the  great  gulf  and  the  frozen  ocean,  "in  the  name  of 
the  most  high,  mighty  and  victorious  prince,  Louis  the  Great,  by  the 
grace  of  God  king  of  France  and  Navarre,  14th  of  the  name,  this  9th  day 
of  April,  1682."  In  honor  of  his  sovereign  he  named  the  whole  vast 
region  Louisiana — that  is,  Louis'  land,  and  named  the  river  itself  St. 
Louis.  And  thus  it  was  that  our  State  of  Missouri  first  became  a  part 
of  historic  Louisiana,  and  passed  under  the  nominal  ownership  and 
authority  of  France. 

The  next  historic  appearance  of  white  men  within  our  State  was  in 
1705.  The  French  settlers  in  this  vast  new  country  had  kept  themselves 
entirely  on  the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi  river;  but  during  this  year 
they  sent  an  exploring  party  up  the  Missouri  river  in  search  of  gold ;  it 
prospected  as  far  as  the  mouth  of  the  Kansas  river,  where  Kansas  City 
now  stands,  without  finding  anything  valuable,  and  returned  disheartened 
and  disgusted.  On  September  14,  1712,  the  king  of  France,  Louis  XIV, 
gave  to  a  wealthy  French  merchant  named  Anthony  Crozat,  a  royal  patent 
of  "  all  the  country  drained  by  the  waters  emptying  directly  or  indirectly 
into  the  Mississippi,  which  is  all  included  in  the  boundaries  of  Louisiana." 
Crozat  appointed  his  business  partner,  M.  de  la  Motte,  governor,  and  he 


arrived  in  1713;  Kaskaskia,. Illinois,  was  then  the  provincial  headquarters, 
and  source  of  supplies  for  Upper  Louisiana,  which  was  also  sometimes 
called  Illinois;  but  New  Orleans  was  the  nominal  seat  of  government  for 
the  whole  Louisiana  territory.  The  old  town  of  Mine-la-Motte,  in  Mad- 
ison county,  commemorates  this  first  governor.  Crozat  expected  to  find 
inexhaustible  mines  of  gold  and  silver  in  this  territory,  and  spent  immense 
sums  of  money  in  vain  efforts  to  attain  his  object.  Practical  miners  were 
sent  every  where  that  the  natives  reported  any  glittering  substance  to  exist. 
The  explorers  found  iron,  zinc,  copper,  lead,  mica,  pyrites,  quartz  crystals, 
etc.,  in  great  abundance,  but  no  gold,  silver  or  diamonds;  and  after  five 
years  of  disastrous  failure  and  disappointment,  in  1717,  Crozat  returned  his 
luckless  charter  to  the  king. 

Next,  in  1716  an  adventurous  Scotchman  named  John  Law,  got  up  a 
grand  scheme  for  making  everybody  rich  without  work,  and  induced  the 
French  king  and  court  and  people  to  engage  in  it.  This  wild  financial 
venture  is  known  in  history  as  the  "  Mississippi  bubble,"  the  "  South  Sea 
bubble,"  etc.  The  charter  of  Louisiana  and  monopoly  of  all  its  trade  was 
given  to  a  corporation,  called  the  "  Company  of  the  West,"  whose  cap- 
ital stock  was  to  be  100,000,000  francs,  with  power  to  issue  stock  in  small 
shares,  and  establish  a  bank,  etc.  Shares  rose  to  twenty  times  their 
original  value,  and  the  bank's  notes,  though  essentially  worthless,  were 
in  circulation  to  the  amount  of  more  than  $200,000,000.  Law  himself 
sunk  $500,000  in  the  scheme;  but  it  bursted,  as  bodiless  as  a  bag  of  wind; 
while  he,  the  originator  and  manager  of  it,  had  to  escape  from  Paris  for 
his  life,  and  died  poor  at  Venice  in  1729.  In  1731  the  charter  of  Louis- 
iana was  again  returned  to  the  crown.  However,  the  excitement  over 
this  great  scheme  for  making  fabulous  wealth  out  of  nothing,  had 
brought  many  adventurous  Frenchmen  into  the  territory  as  gold-hunters, 
who  failing  in  that,  worked  some  of  the  lead  mines,  and  sent  their  pro- 
ducts back  to  Europe. 

In  1720  or  1721,  an  enterprising  Frenchman  named  Renault  took 
charge  of  a  large  lead  mining  enterprise.  He  brought  M.  La  Motte, 
who  was  a  professional  mineralogist,  with  about  two  hundred  expert 
miners  and  metallurgists,  and  five  hundred  negroes,  to  develop  the  mineral 
wealth  that  actually  did  exist.  He  made  his  headquarters  at  Fort  de  Char- 
tres,  on  the  Illinois  side,  ten  miles  above  St.  Genevieve,  and  sent  out  explor- 
ing and  working  parties  to  locate  mining  camps  west  of  the  Great  River. 
Mine-la-Motte,  in  Madison  county,  was  one  of  the  first  of  these  loca- 
tions; also  Potosi  and  Old  Mine  in  Washington  county;  and  many 
others.  In  1765  a  few  families  located  at  Potosi.  Much  of  the  mining 
was  surface  work — hence,  scattered  and  transitory;  and  their  smelting 
operations  were  merely  to  melt  the  ore  in  a  wood  fire  and  then  clear  away 
the   ashes   and   gather  up  the  lumps  of  lead.      This   was   carried  to 


the  river  on  pack-horses  or  on  rude  ox-carts,  and  thence  shipped  to  New 
Orleans  by  fleets  of  drifting  keel-boats,  which  returned  laden  with  for- 
eign goods.  Many  of  the  immigrants  of  this  period  also  engaged  in 
agriculture,  especially  in  Illinois,  so  that  there  really  began  to  be  a  settled 
occupation  of  the  country,  as  a  final  outcome  of  the  greatest  speculative 
delusion  known  to  history.  Lippincott's  Gazetteer  of  the  World  says: 
u  Fort  Orleans,  near  where  Jefferson  City  now  stands,  was  built  by  the 
French  in  1719";  this  was  a  temporary  safeguard  for  John  Law's  crazy 
gold-hunters,  but  did  not  make  a  permanent  settlement.  Kaskaskia,  now 
in  Randolph  county,  Ills.,  was  settled  by  the  French  in  1673,  and  was 
for  about  a  century  the  metropolis  of  the  vast  territory  sometimes  called 
"Upper  Louisiana,"  sometimes  "Illinois,"  and  sometimes  the  "Northwestern 
Territory."  And  in  1735  some  emigrants  from  Kaskaskia,  moved  across 
the  Great  River  and  made  a  settlement  at  what  is  now  St.  Genevieve, 
Missouri,  which  was  the  first  permanent  white  settlement  made  and 
maintained  within  the  State;  the  previous  adventurers  in  search  of  min- 
eral wealth  had  located  mining  camps  at  several  points,  but  had  not 
established  any  permanent  town  or  trading  post. 

The  next  settlement  that  can  be  historically  traced  to  its  origin  was 
that  of  St.  Louis.  A  Frenchman  named  Pierre  Liguest  Laclede,*  who 
lived  in  New  Orleans  in  1762,  organized  the  "Louisiana  Fur  Company," 
under  a  charter  from  the  director-general  of  the  province  of  Louisiana; 
this  charter  gave  them  the  exclusive  right  to  carry  on  the  fur  trade  with 
the  Indians  bordering  on  the  Missouri  river,  and  west  of  the  Mississippi, 
*'  as  far  north  as  the  river  St.  Peter"  (the  same  that  is  now  called  the  Min- 
nesota river,  and  empties  into  the  Mississippi  at  Fort  Snelling).  Laclede 
seems  to  have  formed  a  definite  plan  and  purpose  to  establish  a  permanent 
trading  post  at  some  point  in  Upper  Louisiana,  for  he  made  up  a  company 
of  professional  trappers,  hunters,  mechanics,  laborers,  and  boatmen,  and 
with  a  supply  of  goods  suitable  for  the  Indian  trade,  they  left  New 
Orleans  in  August,  1763,  bound  for  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  river. 
The  manner  of  navigating  these  boats  against  the  current  of  the  Missis- 
sippi for  a  distance  of  1,194  miles,  was  of  the  most  rude,  primitive  and 
laborious  sort.  Sometimes  when  the  wind  was  favorable  they  could  sail 
a  little;  but  the  main  dependence  was  by  means  of  push-poles  and  tow- 
ropes.  The  boats  were  long  and  narrow,  with  a  plank  projecting  six  or 
eight  inches  on  each  side.  The  boat  would  of  course  keep  near  the  shore; 
a  man  at  each  side,  near  the  bow  of  the  boat,  would  set  his  pole  on  the 
river  bottom,  then  brace  his  shoulder  against  the  top  of  the  pole  with 

*  Campbell's  Gazetteer  of  Missouri  says  this  man's  family  name  was  Liguest;  B. 
Gratz  Brown  gives  it  in  Johnson's  Cyclopedia  as  Lingueste;  but  the  man  himself  appears 
to  have  written  his  name  Laclede,  of  the  firm  of  Laclede,  Moxan  &  Co.,  who  constituted 
the  historic  "Louisiana  Fur  Company." 


all  his  might,  and  as  the  boat  moved  under  him  he  would  walk  along 
the  narrow  plank  until  he  reached  the  stern,  and  the  boat  had  thus  been 
propelled  forward  the  distance  of  its  length ;  then  he  would  walk  back 
to  the  bow,  dragging  his  pole  along  in  the  water,  set  it  on  the  bottom 
and  push  again  as  before.  And  thus  it  was  that  the  rugged  pioneers  of 
civilization  in  the  new  world  for  more  that  a  hundred  years  navigated 
the  Mississippi,  Ohio,  Missouri,  Illinois,  Wisconsin,  and  some  other  rivers, 
with  what  were  in  later  years  called  keel-boats.  But  sometimes,  for  a 
rest,  or  when  the  beach  was  favorable,  a  gang  of  men  would  go  ashore 
with  a  long  rope  attached  to  the  boat,  and  thus  tow  it  along  against  the 
current,  or  they  would  tie  the  forward  end  to  a  tree  or  snag  and  let  those 
on  the  boat  pull  in  the  rope  and  thus  draw  the  boat  along — meanwhile 
those  on  shore  going  ahead  with  another  rope,  making  another  tie — and 
so  on;  this  was  called  "warping";  but  when  it  was  necessary  to  cross 
the  stream  they  had  recourse  to  oars  or  paddles.  It  took  Laclede  three 
months  in  this  way  to  get  from  New  Orleans  up  to  St.  Genevieve,  or 
Fort  de  Chartres,  the  military  post  on  the  east  side  a  few  miles  further  up 
the  river,  where  he  arrived  on  the  third  of  November.  Here  he  left  his 
goods  and  part  of  his  company,  but  taking  a  few  picked  men,  he  himself 
pushed  on  to  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri.  He  seems  to  have  had  a  sort  of 
prophetic  forecast  that  this  was  the  right  spot  to  locate  the  future  trading 
post  for  all  that  vast  region  of  country  which  was  drained  by  the  two  prin- 
cipal great  rivers  of  the  new  world.  At  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  he 
found  no  site  that  suited,  him  for  a  town,  and  he  turned  back  down  the 
Mississippi,  carefully  exploring  the  west  bank  until  he  reached  the  high, 
well  protected  and  well  drained  location  where  the  city  of  St.  Louis  now 
stands.  This  was  the  nearest  spot  to  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  which 
at  all  met  his  idea,  and  he  began  at  once  to  mark  the  place  by  chopping 
notches  in  some  of  the  principal  trees.  This  was  in  December,  1763. 
He  then  returned  to  the  fort  and  pushed  on  his  preparations  for  the  new 
settlement,  saying  enthusiastically  to  the  officers  of  the  fort  that  he  had 
"found  a  situation  where  he  was  going  to  plant  his  colony;  and  the  site 
was  so  fine,  and  had  so  many  advantages  of  position  for  trade  with  all 
this  region  of  country,  that  it  might  in  time  become  one  of  the  finest  cities 
in  America." 

Early  in  February,  1764,  a  company  of  thirty  men,  in  charge  of 
Auguste  Chouteau,  set  out  from  Fort  de  Chartres  and  arrived  at  the 
chosen  spot  on  the  14th.  The  next  day  all  hands  went  to  work  clearing 
the  ground  and  building  a  storehouse  for  the  goods  and  tools,  and  cabins 
for  their  own  habitation.  In  April  Laclede  himself  joined  them  and  pro- 
ceeded to  lay  out  the  village  plat,  select  a  site  for  his  own  residence,  and 
name  the  town  Saint  Louis,  in  honor  of  his  supposed  sovereign,  Louis  XV. 
This  very  territory  had   been  yielded  up  to  Spain  in  1762,  but  these  loyal 


Frenchmen  in  naming  their  new  town  after  the  French  king  never 
dreamed  that  they  were  then  and  for  nearly  two  years  had  been  Spanish 
subjects,  instead  of  French;  the  unwelcome  news  had  reached  New 
Orleans  in  the  same  month,  April,  but  did  not  arrive  at  St.  Louis  until  late 
in  the  year;  and  when  it  came  the  inhabitants  were  appropriately  wroth 
and  indignant,  for  they  hated  Spain  with  a  fighting  hatred.  However,  the 
change  made  very  little  practical  difference  to  the  town  or  its  people.  In 
1763  all  the  French  possessions  on  the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi  river, 
and  also  Canada,  had  been  ceded  to  England,  but  it  was  late  in  1764 
before  the  English  authorities  arrived  to  take  possession  of  Kaskaskia,  or 
Fort  de  Chartres,  and  other  military  posts;  and  when  they  did  come, 
many  of  the  French  settlers  moved  over  to  St.  Louis,  giving  it  a  consid- 
erable start,  both  in  population  and  business.  The  Indians,  too,  being 
generally  more  friendly  toward  the  French  than  the  English,  came  over 
to  St.  Louis  to  trade  their  peltries,  instead  of  going  to  Kaskaskia,  as  they 
had  formerly  done;  and  this  fact  gave  the  new  town  a  powerful  impulse. 
From  this  time  forward  new  settlements  began  to  spring  up  within  our 
present  boundaries.  New  Bourbon  was  settled  in  1789.  In  1762  a 
hunter  named  Blanchette  built  a  cabin  where  the  city  of  St.  Charles  now 
stands,  and  lived  there  many  years;  but  just  when  the  place  began  to  be 
a  town  or  village  does  not  appear  to  be  known.  However,  in  1803,  St. 
Charles  county  was  organized,  and  then  comprised  all  the  territory  lying 
north  of  the  Missouri  and  west  of  the  Mississippi;  thus  taking  in  all  of 
north  Missouri,  and  the  entire  States  of  Iowa,  Minnesota,  Dakota,  and  on 
west  to  the  Pacific  ocean.  This  was  the  largest  single  "  county "  ever 
known  in  the  world,  and  St.  Charles  city  was  the  county  seat. 

In  1781  the  Delaware  Indians  had  a  considerable  town  where  New 
Madrid  now  stands ;  and  that  year  Mr.  Curre,  a  fur  trader  of  St.  Louis, 
established  a  branch  house  here.  In  1788  a  colony  from  New  Jersey 
settied  here,  and  laid  out  a  plat  for  a  large  city,  giving  it  the  name  of  New 
Madrid,  in  honor  of  the  capital  of  Spain.  But  they  never  realized  their 
high  hopes  of  building  up  a  splendid  city  there. 

Among  the  historic  incidents  of  early  settlement  worthy  of  mention  at 
this  point,  is  the  case  of  Daniel  Boone,  whose  hunter  life  in  Kentucky 
forms  a  staple  part  of  American  pioneer  history.  Boone  came  to  this 
territory  in  1797,  renounced  his  citizenship  in  the  United  States,  and  took 
the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  Spanish  crown.  Delassus  was  then  the 
Spanish  governor;  and  he  appointed  Boone  commander  of  a  fort  at 
Femme  Osage,  now  in  the  west  part  of  St.  Charles  county.  He  roamed 
and  hunted  over  the  central  regions  of  Missouri  the  rest  of  his  life,  and  it 
was  for  a  long  period  called  the  "  Boone's  Lick  country,"  from  some  salt 
licks  or  springs  which  he  discovered  and  his  sons  worked,  and  which 
were  choice  hunting  grounds  because  deer  and  other  animals  came  there 


to  lick  salt.  Col.  Boone  died  Sept.  26,  1820,  in  St.  Charles  county,  but 
was  buried  in  Marthasville  in  Warren  county,  as  was  his  wife  also. 
Their  bones  were  subsequently  removed  to  Frankfort,  Kentucky. 


In  1801  the  territory  west  of  the  Mississippi  was  ceded  back  to  France 
by  Spain;  in  1803  President  Jefferson  purchased  from  the  French 
Emperor  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  the  entire  territory  of  Louisiana,  for  $15,- 
000,000;  the  formal  transfer  was  made  at  New  Orleans,  December  20, 
1803.  On  the  26th  of  March,  1804,  Congress  passed  an  act  dividing  this 
vast  accession  into  two  parts,  the  lower  one  being  named  the  "Terri- 
tory of  Orleans,"  with  its  capital  at  New  Orleans ;  the  upper  division 
was  called  the  "  District  of  Louisiana,"  with  its  capital  at  St.  Louis. 
This  latter  district  comprised  the  present  State  of  Arkansas  and  all  from 
that  north  to  nearly  the  north  line  of  Minnesota,  and  west  trom  the  Mis- 
sissippi river  to  the  Rocky  Mountains.  Don  Carlos  Dehault  Delassus 
had  been  the  last  Spanish  governor  at  St.  Louis,  and  no  change  was 
made  after  its  re-cession  to  France,  until  in  March,  1804,  when  he  delivered 
the  keys  and  the  public  documents  of  his  governorship  to  Capt.  Amos 
Stoddard,  of  the  United  States  army,  who  immediately  raised  the  first 
American  flag  that  ever  floated  west  of  the  Mississippi  river,  over  the 
government  buildings  at  St.  Louis.  There  it  has  floated  proudly  and 
uninterruptedly  ever  since,  and  there  it  will  float  until  St.  Louis  becomes 
the  central  metropolis  and  seat  of  empire  of  the  entire  North  American 

It  should  be  mentioned  here  that  the  war  of  the  American  Revolution 
did  not  involve  any  military  operations  as  far  west  as  the  Mississippi  river; 
hence  the  little  French  fur-trading  village  of  St.  Louis  was  not  affected 
by  the  clash  of  arms  which  was  raging  so  desperately  through  all  the 
States  east  of  the  Ohio  river.  But  the  success  of  the  colonies  in  this 
unequal  conflict  gave  them  control  of  all  south  of  the  river  St.  Lawrence 
and  the  great  lakes,  as  far  west  as  the  Mississippi  river;  and  when  Napo- 
leon had  sold  to  the  new  republic  the  extensive  French  possessions  west 
of  the  Mississippi,  he  remarked  that  this  accession  of  territory  and  con- 
trol of  both  banks  of  the  Mississippi  river  would  forever  strengthen  the 
power  of  the  United  States;  and  said  he,  with  keen  satisfaction,  "I  have 
given  England  a  maritime  rival  that  will  sooner  or  later  humble  her 

On  the  3d  of  March,  1805,  Congress  passed  at  act  to  organize  the 
Territory  of  Louisiana;  and  President  Jefferson  then  appointed  as  territo- 
rial governor,  Gen.  James  Wilkinson;  secretary,  Frederick  Bates;  judges, 
Return  J.   Meigs   and  John    B.    Lucas.      Thus  civil  matters  went  on, 


and  business  increased  rapidly.  When  the  United  States  took  pos- 
session of  this  district  or  territory  it  was  reputed  to  contain  nine  thous- 
and white  inhabitants  and  about  three  thousand  negroes.  The  first  cen- 
sus of  St.  Louis  was  taken  in  1799,  and  it  then  had  897  inhabitants. 
This  is  presumed  to  have  included  the  village  of  Carondelet  also,  which 
was  started  as  a  rival  town  soon  after  the  founding  of  St.  Louis. 

In  June,  1812,  Congress  passed  another  act  with  regard  to  this  new 
country,  and  this  time  it  was  named  the  Territory  of  Missouri,  instead  of 
Louisiana.  The  President  was  to  appoint  a  governor;  the  people  were 
to  elect  representatives  in  the  ratio  of  one  for  every  five  hundred  white 
male  inhabitants;  this  legislative  body  or  lower  house,  was  to  nominate 
to  the  President  eighteen  of  their  own  citizens,  and  from  those  he  was  to 
select  and  commission  nine  to  form  a  senate  or  legislative  council.  The 
house  of  representatives  was  to  consist  of  thirteen  members  at  first;  they 
were  to  hold  their  office  two  years,  and  must  hold  at  least  one  legislative 
session  at  Saint  Louis  each  year.  The  territory  was  also  authorized  to 
send  one  delegate  to  Congress. 

In  October,  1812,  the  first  territorial  election  was  held,  and  these  peo- 
ple experienced  for  the  first  time  in  their  lives  the  American  privilege  of 
choosing  their  own  law-makers.  There  were  four  candidates  for  Con- 
gress, and  Edward  Hempstead  was  elected.  He  served  two  years  from 
December  7th,  1812;  then  Rufus  Easton  served  two  years;  then  John 
Scott  two  years;  Mr.  Easton  was  one  of  the  four  candidates  at  the  first 
election ;  and  Mr.  Scott  was  one  of  the  members  from  St.  Genevieve  of 
the  first  legislative  council.  The  first  body  of  representatives  met  at  the 
house  of  Joseph  Robidoux,in  St.  Louis,  on  December  7th,  and  consisted 
of  the  following  members: 

From  St.  Charles  — John  Pitman,  Robert  Spencer. 

St.  Louis — David  Musick,  B.  J.  Farrar,  Wm.  C.  Carr,  Richard  Caulk. 

St.  Genevieve —  George  Bullet,  R.  S.  Thomas,  Isaac  McGready. 

Cafe  Girardeau — G.  F.  Ballinger,  Spencer  Byrd. 

New  Madrid — John  Shrader,  Samuel  Phillips. 

They  were  sworn  into  office  by  Judge  Lucas.  Wm.  C.  Carr  of  St. 
Louis,  was  elected  speaker.  The  principal  business  of  this  assembly  was 
to  nominate  the  eighteen  men  from  whom  the  President  and  U.  S.  Sen- 
ate should  select  nine  to  constitute  the  legislative  council;  they  made  their 
nominations  and  sent  them  on  to  Washington,  but  it  was  not  known  until 
the  next  June  who  were  selected.  June  3d,  1813,  the  secretary  and  acting 
governor,  Frederick  Bates,  issued  a  proclamation  declaring  who  had  been 
chosen  by  the  President  as  the  council  of  nine,  and  the)'-  were  — 

From  St.  Charles — James  Flaugherty,  Benj.  Emmons. 

St.  Louis — Auguste  Chouteau,  Sr.,  Samuel  Hammond. 

St.  Genevieve — John  Scott,  James  Maxwell. 


Cafe  Girardeau — Wm.  Neely,  Joseph  Cavener. 

New  Madrid — Joseph  Hunter. 

In  July  of  this  year  the  newly  appointed  governor,  Wm.  Clarke,  took 
his  seat,  and  held  it  until  Missouri  became  a  State  in  1820.* 

December,  1813,  the  second  session  of  the  territorial  legislature  was 
convened  in  St.  Louis,  and  continued  until  January  19,  1814.  This  year 
the  second  territorial  election  occurred,  and  the  new  general  assembly 
met  December  5,  this  being  the  third  sitting  of  the  territorial  legisla- 
ture. The  fourth  commenced  in  November,  1S15,  and  continued  until 
about  the  last  of  January,  1816.  And  it  was  during  this  session  that  the 
common  law  of  England,  and  her  general  statutes  passed  prior  to  the 
fourth  year  of  James  I,  were  adopted  as  the  laws  of  Missouri,  except 
such  changes  as  were  necessary  to  phrase  them  for  the  United  States 
and  its  system  of  government,  instead  of  England. 

April  29,  1816,  Congress  again  legislated  for  this  territory,  and  pro- 
vided that  the  legislative  council  or  senate  should  be  elected  by  the  peo- 
ple instead  of  being  appointed  by  the  President;  that  the  legislature 
should  meet  biennially  instead  of  annually;  and  that  the  U.  S.  judges 
should  be  required  to  hold  regular  terms  of  circuit  court  in  each  county. 
The  fifth  legislative  session  (being  the  first  under  this  act)  met  the  first 
week  in  December  of  this  year,  and  continued  until  February  1,  1817. 
Then  there  was  no  further  legislation  until  the  regular  biennial  session 
which  met  about  December  first,  1818.  But  during  1817,  Henry  S. 
Gayer,  Esq.,  compiled  a  digest  of  all  the  laws,  including  those  of  French, 
Spanish,  English  and  American  origin,  which  were  still  in  force  in  this 
territory.  This  was  a  very  important  work,  in  view  of  the  fact  that 
there  were  land  titles  and  instances  of  property  inheritance  deriving 
their  legal  verity  from  these  different  sources;  and  it  was  now  desirable 
to  get  all  titles  and  vestitures  clearly  set  upon  an  American  basis  of  law 
and  equity.  The  next  or  sixth  session  of  the  legislature  continued 
through  December,  1818,  and  January,  1819;  and  the  most  important  thing 
done  was  applying  to  Congress  for  Missouri  to  be  admitted  as  a  State. 
John  Scott,  of  St.  Genevieve  county,  was  then  the  territorial  delegate  in 
Congress,  and  presented  the  application.  A  bill  was  introduced  to 
authorize  the  people  of  Missouri  to  elect  delegates  to  a  convention  which 
should  frame  a  State  constitution.  The  population  of  Missouri  territory 
at  this  time  (or  when  the  first  census  was  taken,  in  1821,)  consisted 
of  59,393  free  white  inhabitants  and  11,254  slaves.  A  member  of 
Congress  from  New  York,  Mr.  Talmadge,  offered  an  amendment  to  the 
proposed  bill,  providing  that  slavery  should  be  excluded  from  the  proposed 
new  State.     This  gave  rise  to  hot  and   angry  debate  for   nearly  two 

*  Gov.  Clarke  died  Sept.  31,  1838,  at  St.  Louis. 


years,  and  which  at  times  seemed  to  threaten  an  immediate  dissolution  of 
the  National  Union.  But  the  strife  was  finally  quieted  by  the  adoption  in 
Congress  on  March  6,  1820,  of  what  is  famous  in  history  as  the  "  Mis- 
souri Compromise,"  by  which  it  was  agreed  that  Missouri  might  come 
into  the  Union  as  a  slave-holding  State ;  but  that  slavery  should  never  be 
established  in  any  State  which  might  thereafter  be  formed  from  lands 
lying  north  of  latitude  36  deg.  30  min.  The  elections  were  held  for  dele- 
gates, the  constitutional  convention  met  at  St.  Louis,  accepted  the  terms 
of  admission  prescribed  by  Congress,  and  on  July  19th,  1820,  Missouri 
took  her  place  as  one  of  the  sovereign  States  of  the  National  Union. 


July  19,  1820,  Missouri  laid  off  the  vestments  of  territorial  tutelage  and 
put  on  the  matronly  robes  of  mature  statehood,  as  the  constitutional  conven- 
tion was  authorized  to  frame  the  organic  law  and  give  it  immediate  force 
without  submitting  it  to  a  vote  of  the  people,  and  this  constitution  stood 
in  force  without  any  material  change  until  the  free  State  constitution  of 
1865  was  adopted.  The  first  general  election  under  the  constitution  was 
held  in  August,  1820,  at  which  time  Alexander  McNair  was  chosed  gov- 
ernor and  John  Scott  representative  in  Congress.  Members  of  legisla- 
ture had  been  chosen  at  the  same  time,  comprising  fourteen  senators  and 
forty  three  representatives;  and  this  first  general  assembly  of  the  State 
convened  in  St.  Louis  in  the  latter  part  of  September.  The  principal 
thing  of  historic  interest  done  by  this  assembly  was  the  election  to  the 
United  States  Senate  of  Thomas  H.  Benton,  who  continued  there  unin- 
terruptedly until  1851,  a  period  of  thirty  years,  and  was  then  elected  in 
1852  as  representative  in  Congress  from  the  St.  Louis  district.  The 
other  senator  elected  at  this  time  was  David  Barton,  who  drew  the  "short 
term,"  and  was  re-elected  in  1824. 


Application  made  to  Congress  for  a  state  government  March  16, 
1818,  and  December  18,  1818. —  A  bill  to  admit  was  defeated  in  Congress, 
which  was  introduced  February  15, 1819. —  Application  made  to  Congress 
for  an  enabling  act,  December  29,  1819. —  Enabling  act  (known  as  the 
Missouri  Compromise}  passed  by  Congress  March  6,  1820. —  First  state 
constitution  formed  July  19,  1820. —  Resolution  to  admit  as  a  state  passed 
Senate  December  12,  1820;  rejected  by  the  House  February  14,  1821. — 



Conditional  resolution  to  admit  approved  March  2,  1821. —  Condition 
accepted  by  the  legislature  of  Missouri  and  approved  by  governor,  June 
26,  1821. —  By  proclamation  of  the  President,  admitted  as  a  state  August 
10,  1821. 

The  State  capital  was  first  at  St.  Louis;  then  at  St.  Charles  about  five 
years;  but  on  October  1st,  1826,  it  was  moved  to  Jefferson  City,  and 
has  remained  there  ever  since. 


The  first  census  of  the  State  was  taken  in  September,  1821,  and  showed 
the  population  by  counties  as  follows: 

Boone  county 3,692 

Calloway 1,797 

Cape  Girardeau 7,852 

Chariton 1,426 

Cole 1,028 

Cooper 3,483 

Franklin 1,928 

Gasconade 1,174 

Howard 7,321 

Jefferson 1,838 

Lillard  (afterward  called  La- 
fayette)...v 1,340 

Lincoln 1,674 

Marion 1,907 

Montgomery 2,032 

New  Madrid 2,444 

Perry 1,599 

Pike 2,677 

Ralls 1,684 

Ray 1,789* 

Saline 1,176 

St.  Charles 4,058 

St.  Genevieve 3,181 

St.  Louis 8,190- 

Washington 3,741 

Wayne 1,614 

The  total  was  70,647,  of  which  mumber  11,254  were  negro  slaves. 
The  area  of  the  State  at  this  time  comprised  62,182  square  miles;  but  in 
1837  the  western  boundary  was  extended  by  authority  of  Congress,  to 
include  what  was  called  the  "  Platte  Purchase,"  an  additional  area  of 
3,168  square  miles,  which  is  now  divided  into  the  counties  of  Platte, 
Buchanan,  Andrew,  Holt,  Nodaway  and  Atchison.  This  territory  was 
an  Indian  reservation  until  1836. 

The  last  census  was  taken  in  June,  1880,  when  the  state  had  an  area  of 
65,350  square  miles,  divided  into  one  hundred  and  fourteen  counties,  with 
populations  as  follows: 



Counties.  Total. 

Adair 15,190 

Andrew 16.318 

Atchison 14,565 

Audrain 19.739 

Barry 14,424 

Barton 10,332 

Bates 25,382 

Benton: 12,398 

Bollinger 11,132 

Boone 25.424 

Buchanan 49,824 

Butler '. 6,011 

Coldwell 13,654 

Calloway 23,670 

Camden 7,267 

Cape  Girardeau 20,998 

Carrroll 23,300 

Carter 2,168 

Cass 22.431 

Cedar 10,747 

Chariton 25,224 

Christian 9,632 

Clark 15,031 

Clay 15.579 

Clinton 16.073 

Cole 15,519 

Cooper 21.622 

Crawford 10,763 

Dade 12.557 

Dallas 9,272 

Daviess 1  9,174 

DeKalb 13,343 

Dent 10.647 

Douglass 7,753 

Dunklin 9,604 

Franklin 26.536 

Gasconade 11,153 

Gentry 17,188 

Greene 28,817 

Grundy 15,201 

Harrison 20.318 

Henry 23,914 

Hickory 7.388 

Holt 15.510 

Howard 18,428 

Howell 8,814 

Iron 8.183 

Jackson 82.328 

Jasper 32,021 

Jefferson 18,736 

Johnson 28  177 

Knox 13^047 

Laclede 11,524 

Lafayette 25,731 

Lawrence 17,585 

Lewis 15,925 

Lincoln 17.443 

Linn 20016 

Livingston 20,205 

McDonald 7,816 

Macon. ..." 26,223 

Madison 8,860 

Maries 7.304 

Marion 24,837 


































































































10  186 






















































7  763 

















































































































































































































































CENSUS  REPORT  OF  THE  STATE  FOR  THE  YEAR  1880.— Continued. 

Counties.  Total. 

Mercer 14,674 

Miller 9,807 

Mississippi 9,270 

Moniteau 14,349 

Monroe 19,075 

Montgomery .- 16,250 

Morgan 10,134 

New  Madrid 7,694 

Newton 18,948 

Nodaway 29,560 

Oregon 5,791 

Osage 11,824 

Ozark 5,618 

Pemiscot 4,299 

Perry 11,895 

Pettis 27,285 

Phelps 12,565 

Pike 26,716 

Platte 17,372 

Polk 15,745 

Pulaski 7,250 

Putnam 13,556 

Ralls 11,838 

Randolph ■ 22,751 

Ray 20,193 

Reynolds 5,722 

Ripley 5,377 

St.  Charles 23,060 

St.  Clair 14,126 

St.  Francois 13,822 

St.  Genevieve 10,390 

St.  Louis 31,888 

Saint  Louis  (City) 350,522 

Saline 29,912 

Schuyler 10,470 

Scotland 12,507 

Scott 8,587 

Shannon    3,441 

Shelby 14,024 

Stoddard  . . . . :   13,432 

Stone 4,405 

Sullivan 16,569 

Taney 5,605 

Texas 12,207 

Vernon 19,370 

Warren 10,806 

Washington 12,895 

Wayne 9,097 

Webster. 12,175 

Worth 8,208 

Wright 9,733 

Male.       Female.     Native.     Foreign.      White.        Col'd. 

















•     6,883 

















































































































































































































The  classification  footings  of  the  census  of  1880  show: 

Males....  •• 1,127,424 

Native  born 1,957,564 

White 2,023,568 

Females 1,041,380 

Foreign  born 211,240 

Colored* 145,236 

Total  population  in  June,  1880,  2,168,804. 

*This  includes  92  Chinese,  2  half-Chinese,  and  96  Indians  and  half-breeds. 


The  following  table  shows  the  population  of  Missouri  at  each  Federal 
census  from  1810  to  1880: 

Tears.  White. 

1810 17,227 

1820 55,988 

1830 114,795 

1840 323,888 

1850 592,004 

1860 1,063,489 

1870 1,603,146 

1880 2,023,568 



Total  Popu- 















The  bonded  indebtedness  of  Missouri  has  various  periods  to  run.  The 
following  table  is  compiled  from  the  State  Auditor's  report  for  1879- 
1880,  and  embodies  all  state  bonds  that  will  become  payable  from  1882 
to  1897,  at  6  per  cent  interest. 

St.  Louis  &  Iron  Mountain  Railroad  series $1,361,000 

Cairo  &  Fulton  Railroad 267,000 

North  Missouri  Railroad 1,694,000 

State  Debt  proper 439,000 

Pacific  Railroad 2,971,000 

Consolidation 2,727,000 

Platte  County  Railroad 504,000 

State  University 201,000 

Northwestern  Lunatic  Asylum 200,000 

State  Bank  Stock,  refunding 104,000 

State  Funding 1,000,000- 

Penitentiary  Indemnity 41,000 

Renewal  Funding 3,850,000 

School  Fund  Certificates    900,000 

Total $16,259,000 

In  addition  to  this  there  are  $250,000  of  revenue  bonds,  issued  June  1, 
1879;  and  $3,000,000  bonds  issued  to  the  Hannibal  &  St.  Joseph  Railroad 


The  receipts  of  the  State  from  all  sources  during  the  years  1879  and 
1880  were  as  follows: 



State  Revenue  Fund $3,024,084.39 

State  Interest  Fund 2,429,040.71 

State  School  Fund 335.55 

Swamp  Land  Indemnity  Fund 15,408.05 

Insurance  Department  Fund 31,096.40 

Executors'  and  Administrators'  Fund 6,790.07 

State  School  Moneys 241,080.00 

State  Seminary  Moneys 3,660.00 

Earnings  Missouri  Penitentiary 214,358.97 

Militia  Fund 82.25 

Total $5,965,936.39 

The  total  balance  of  all  moneys  in  the  State  treasury  January  1,  1881, 
was  $517,517.21. 

During  the  year  1879,  the  state  paid  a  total  of  $6,458.00  as  bounty  on 
wolf  scalps;  but  in  1880  the  amount  was  only  $1,428.50. 



Yl.«r  Presidential  Candidates  Political  Parties 

*ear-  Voted  lor  in  Missouri.  comical  parties. 

1820        James  Monroe Democratic 

1824        John  Q.  Adams Coalition 

Andrew  Jackson Democratic 

Henry  Clay Democratic 

1828        Andrew  Jackson Democratic 

John  Q.  Adams National  Republican. 

1832        Andrew  Jackson* Democratic 

1836       Martin  Van  Buren Democratic 

W.  H.  Harrison Whig 

Hugh  L.  White Independent 

1840       W.  H.  Harrison Whig 

Martin  Van  Buren Democratic 

1844       Jas.  K.  Polk Democratic 

Henry  Clay Whig 

1848        Zachary  Taylor Whig 

Lewis  Cass Democratic 

1852        Franklin  Pierce Democratic 

Winfield  Scott Whig 

1856       Jas.  Buchanan Democratic 

Millard  Fillmore American 

1860       Abraham  Lincoln Republican 

J.  C.  Breckenridge State  Rights  Dem'cr't 

John  Bell Old  Line  Whig 

Stephen  A.  Douglas  . .  .Union  Democrat 

1864       Abraham  Lincoln Republican 

Geo.  B.  McClcllan Democratic 


o  a 

1            Vice-President 

o  O 


\               Candidates. 


D.  D.  Tompkins. 


Nathan  Sanford. 


John  C.  Calhoun. 



Andrew  Jackson. 



John  C.  Calhoun. 


Richard  Rush. 


Martin  Van  Buren. 



R.  M.  Johnson 


Francis  Granger. 


John  Tyler. 


John  Tyler. 



R.  M.  Johnson. 



Geo.  M.  Dallas. 


Th.  Frelinghuysen. 


Millard  Fillmore. 



Wm.  O.  Butler. 



Wm.  R.  King. 


Wm.  A.  Graham. 



J.  C.  Breckenridge. 


A.  J.  Donelson. 


Hannibal  Hamlin. 


Joseph  Lane. 


Edward  Everett. 



H.  V.  Johnson. 



Andrew  Johnson. 


George  H.  Pendleton. 

•This  year  Gen.  Jackson  received  5,192  majority;  -but  the  popular  vote  of  Missouri  for  this  year  does 
not  appear  in  anyef  the  statistical  tables.  The  other  presidential  oandidates  this  year  were:  Henry 
Clay,  National  Republican;  John  Floyd,  Independent;  Wm.  Wirt,  Anti-Mason. 



PRESIDENTIAL  VOTES  OF  MISSOURI  FROM  1820  TO  1880.— Continued. 




Presidential  Candidates  Political  Parties  g.o> 

Voted  for  in  Missouri.  ^P 

Ulysses  S.  Grant Republican 86,860 

Horatio  Seymour Democratic 65,628 

Ulysses  S  Grant Republican 119,196 

Horace  Greeley Dem.  and  Liberal 151,434 

Chas.  O'Connor Democratic 2,429 

Thos.  A.  Hendricks 

B.  Gratz  Brown 

David  Davis 

Rutherford  B.  Hayes . . .  Republican 145,029 

Samuel  J.  Tilden Democratic 203,077 

Peter  Cooper Greenbacker 3,498 

G.  C.  Smith Prohibitionist 64 

Scattering 97 

James  A.  Garfield Republican 153,567 

W.  S,  Hancock Democratic 203,609 

James  B.  Weaver Greenback 35,135 

O  1> 





Vice  President 

Schuyler  Colfax. 

F.  P.  Blair,  Jr. 
Henry  Wilson. 
B.  Gratz  Brown. 
Geo.  W.  Julien. 
John  M.  Palmer. 
T.  E.  Bramlette. 
Willis  B.  Machem. 
William.  A  Wheeler. 
Thomas  A.  Hendricks. 
Samuel  F.  Carey. 

G.  T.  Stewart. 

Chester  A  Arthur. 
W.  H.  English. 
B.J.  Chambers. 

LIST  OF  GOVERNORS  FROM  1820  TO  1880. 


1820  AlexanderMcNair 

1824  Frederick  Bates died  in  office. 

1825  Abraham  J.  Williams vice  Bates. 

1826  John  Miller 

1828  John  Miller 

1832  Daniel  Dunklin resigned;  appointed  Serv.  Gen.  U.  S. 

1836  Lilburn  W.  Boggs vice  Dunklin. 

1840  Thos.  Reynolds died  1844. 

1844  M.  M.  Marmaduke vice  Reynolds. 

1844  John  C.  Edwards 

1848  Austin  A.  King- 

1852  Sterling  Price 

1856  Trusten   Polk    resigned. 

1857  Hancock  Jackson   vice  Polk. 

1857  Robert  M.  Stewart "       "  [State  Convention. 

1860  C.  F.  Jackson office   declared    vacant   by  Unionist 

1861  Hamilton  R.  Gamble appointed  governor  by  State  Conven- 

1864  Willard  P.  Hall vice  Gamble.        [tion;  died  in  office. 

1864  Thos.  Fletcher 

1868  Joseph  W.  McClurg 

1870  B.  Gratz  Brown 

1872  Silas  Woodson 

1874  Charles  H.  Hardin 

1876  John  S.  Phelps term  now  4  years  instead  of  2. 

1880  Thos.  T.  Crittenden 



Names.  Year.  Names. 

Thomas  Hart  Benton  

David  Barton 

Thomas  Hart  Benton 

Alexander  Buckner died  in  1833 

Thomas  Hart  Benton 

Lewis  Field  Linn vice  Buckner 

1857  Trusten  Polk -. 

1861  Waldo  Porter  Johnson 

1862  Robert  Wilson 

1863  B.  Gratz  Brown 

1863  JohnB.  Henderson 

1867  Chas.  D.  Drake resigned  1870 



LIST  OP  UNITED  STATES  SENATORS  FROM  1820  TO  1880.— Continued. 

Tear.  Names. 

1836  Lewis  Field  Linn 

1838  Thomas  Hart  Benton 

1842  Lewis  Field  Linn died  1843 

1843  David  R.  Atchison vice  Linn 

1844  David  R.  Atchison 

1844  Thomas  Hart  Benton 

1849  David  R.  Atchison 

1851  Henry  S.  Geyer 

1857  Jas.  S.Green 

Year.  Names. 

1869  Carl  Schurz .' 

1870  Daniel  F.  Jewett vice  Drake 

1871  Francis  P.  Blair,  Jr 

1873    Lewis  V.  Bogy 

1875    Francis  M.  Cockrell 

1879  Daniel  H.  Armstrong 

1880  James  Shields vice  Bogy 

1881  George  G.  Vest 


1820  17 

1822  18 

1824  19 

1826  20 

1828  21 

1830  22 

1831  22 

1832  23 

1834  24 

1836  25 

1838  26 

1838    26 
1840    27 

1842    28 

1844    29 

1846    29 
1846    30 

1848    31 

1850    32 

1852    33 


John  Scott 

John  Scott 

John  Scott 

Edward  Bates 

Spencer  Pettis 

Spencer  Pettis,  died  1831  . . . 
Wm.  H.  Ashley,  vice  Pettis. 

Win.  H.  Ashley 

John  Bull 

Wm.  H.  Ashley 

Albert  G.  Harrison 

Albert  G.  Harrison 

John  Miller 

Albert  G.  Harrison,  died  in 


John  Miller 

J.Jamison,  vice  Harrison.. 

John  Miller 

John  C.  Edwards 

James  M.  Hughes 

James  H.  Relfe 

John  Jamisom 

John  B.  Bowlin 

Gustavus  M.  Brown 

James  B.  Bowlin 

James  H.  Relfe 

Sterling  Price,  resigned 

John  S.  Phelps 

Leonard  H.  Sims 

Wm.  McDaniels,  vice  Price. 

James  B.  Bowlin 

John  Jameson 

James  S.  Green 

Willard  P.  Hall 

John  S  Phelps 

James  B.  Bowlin 

William  V.  N.  Bay 

James  S.  Green 

Willard  P.  Hall 

John  S.  Phelps 

John  F.  Darby 

Gilchrist  Porter 

John  G.  Miller 

Willard  P  Hall 

John  S.  Phelps 

Thos  H.  Benton 

Alfred  W.  Lamb 

1852  33 

1854  34 

1855  34 

1856  34 

1857  35 

1858  36 

1860    36 
1860    37 

1862    37 
1862    38 

§  NAMES. 


3  JohnG.Miller 

4  Mordecai  Oliver 

5  John  S.Phelps 

James  I.  Lindley,  at  large. . 
Samuel  Carruthers,  at  large; 

1  L.  M.  Kennett 

2  Gilchrist  Porter 

3  John  I.  Linxlley 

4  Mordecai  Oliver 

5  John  G.  Miller,  died  1855. . . 

6  John  S.  Phelps 

7  Samuel  Carruthers 

5  Thos.  P.  Aiken,  vice  Miller. 

1  Francts  P.  Blair 

2  T.L.Anderson [1857 

3  Jas.  S.  Green,  elec.  U.  S.  Sen. 

4  James  Craig 

5  James  H.  Woodson 

6  John  S.  Phelps 

7  Sam'l  Carruthers 

3  John  B.  Clark,  vice  Green . . 

1  J.  Richard  Barrett,  declared 

not  elected 

2  Thos.  L.  Anderson 

3  John  B.  Clark 

4  Jas  Craig 

5  Jas.  H.  Woodson 

6  John  S.  Phelps 

7  JohnW.  Noell 

1  Francis  P.  Blair,  Jr.,  resigned 

1  J.  Richard  Barrett,  vice  Blair 

1  Francis  P.  Blair,  Jr 

2  Jas.  S.  Rollins 

3  John  B.  Clark,  expelled 

4  E.  H.  Norton 

5  John  W.  Reid,  expelled.... 

6  John  S.Phelps 

7  JohnW.Noell 

3  Wm.  A.  Hall,  vice  Clark .... 

5  Thos.  L.  Price,  vice  Reid  . . . 

1  Francis  P.  Blair 

2  Henry  T.  Blow 

3  John  W.  Noell,  died  1863. . . 

4  Sempronius  S.  Boyd 

5  Joseph  W.  McClurg 

6  Austin  A.  King 

7  Benjamin  F.  Loan 



MEMBERS  OF  CONGRESS  FROM  1820  TO  1880.— Continued. 

1862    38 

1864    39 

1866    40 

1867  40 

1868  41 

1870    42 

1872    43 

g  NAMES. 


8  W.  A.  Hall 

9  John  S.  Rollins 

3    John  G.  Scott,  vice  Noell. . . 

1  John  Hogan 

2  Henry  T.  Blow 

3  Thos.  E.  Noell 

4  John  R.  Kelsoe 

5  Joseph  W.  McClurg 

6  Robert  T.  Van  Horn 

7  Benjamin  F.  Loan 

8  John  F.  Benjamin 

9  George  W.  Anderson 

1  William  A.  Pile 

2  C.  A.  Newcombe 

3  Thomas  E.  Noell.  deceased . . 

4  J.J.  Gravely 

5  Jos.  W.  McClurg,  resigned 

6  Robert  T.  Van  Horn 

7  Benjamin  F.  Loan 

8  John  F.  Benjamin 

9  George  W.  Anderson 

3  J.  R.  McCormack,  vice  Noell 

5  John  H.Stover,vice  McClurg 

1  Erastus  Wells 

2  G.  A.  Finkelnburg 

3  J.  R.  McCormack 

4  S.  H.  Boyd 

5  Samuel  S.  Burdett 

6  Robert  T.  Van  Horn 

7  Joel  F.  Asper 

8  John  F.  Benjamin 

9  David  P.Dyer 

1  Erastus  Wells 

2  G.  A.  Finkelnburg 

3  J.  R.  McCormack 

4  H.  E.  Havens 

5  Samuel  S.  Burdett.   

6  A.  Comingo 

7  Isaac  C.  Parker 

8  James  G.  Blair 

9  Andrew  King 

1  E.  O.  Stanard 

2  Erastus  Wells 

3  W.  H.  Stone 

4  Robert  A.  Hatcher 

5  Richard  P.  Bland 

6  Harrison  E.  Havens 

7  Thomas  F.  Crittenden 

8  Abram  Comingo 

9  Isaac  C.  Parker 

10  Ira  B.  Hyde 

11  John  B.Clark,  Jr 

12  John  M.  Gk>ver 

13  A.  H.  Buckner 

1874    44 

1876    45 

1878    46 

1879    46 

1880    47 

g  NAMES. 


1  Edward  C.  Kerr 

2  Erastus  Wells 

3  William  H.  Stone 

4  Robert  A.  Hatcher 

5  Richard  P.  Bland 

6  Charles  H.  Morgan 

7  John  F.  Philips 

8  Benjamin  J.  Franklin 

9  David  Rea 

10  Rezin  A.  DeBolt 

11  John  B.  Clark,  Jr 

12  John  M.  Glover 

13  Aylett  H.  Buckner 

1  Anthony  Ittner 

2  Nathan  Cole 

3  Lyne  S.  Metcalfe 

4  Robert  H.  Hatcher 

5  Richard  P.  Bland 

6  Charles  H.  Morgan 

7  Thos.  T.  Crittenden 

8  Benjamin  J.  Franklin 

9  David  Rea 

10  Henry  M.  Pollard 

11  Jonn  B.  Clark,  Jr 

12  John  M.  Glover 

13  Aylett  H.  Buckner 

1  Martin  L.  Clardy 

2  Erastus  Wells 

3  Richard  G.  Frost 

4  Lowndes  H.  Davis 

5  Richard  P.  Bland 

6  James  R.  Waddill 

7  Alfred  M.  Lay,  died 

7  John  F.  Philips,  vice  Lay. 

8  Samuel  L.  Sawyer 

9  Nicholas  Ford 

10  Gideon  F.  Rothwell 

11  John  B.  Clark,  Jr 

12  Wm.  H-  Hatch 

13  Aylett  H  Buckner 

1  Martin  L.  Clardy 

2  Thomas  Allen 

3  Richard  G.  Frost 

4  Lowndes  H.Davis 

5  Richard  P.  Bland 

6  Ira  S.  Hazeltine 

7  Theron  M.  Rice 

8  Robert  >T.  Van  Horn 

9  Nicholas  Ford 

10  J.  H.  Burroughs 

11  John  B.  Clark,  Jr 

12  Wm.  H.  Hatch 

13  Aylett  H.  Buckner 

The  election  for  members  of  the  legislature  and  members  of  Congress 
occurs  biennially  on  the  Tuesday  after  the  first  Monday  in  November  of 


the  even  numbered  years — as  1880,  1882,  etc.;  and  the  legislature  meets 
on  the  first  Wednesday  after  January  1st,  in  the  odd  numbered  years — 
as  1881,  1883,  etc.  The  governor  is  elected  every  four  years,  at  the  same 
time  with  the  presidential  election. 



The  State  of  Missouri  has  made  liberal  provision  for  the  support  of 
public  schools,  equal  to  any  other  state  in  the  Union.*  The  main  fea- 
tures of  our  school  system  are  well  epitomized  in  a  report  made  by  the 
state  superintendent  in  1879,  as  follows : 

School  Revenue — Is  derived  from  invested  state  funds,  bearing  inter- 
est at  the  rate  of  six  per  cent  per  annum,  and  one-fourth  of  the  state  reve- 
nue collections,  annually,  equal  to  a  tax  of  five  cents  on  the  $100  of  valu- 
ation; from  the  invested  county  funds  at  rates  from  6  to  10  per  centum 
annually,  secured  by  real  estate  mortgages;  from  the  sixteenth  section  or 
township  fund  invested  and  producing  income  in  the  same  manner  as  the 
county  funds. 

The  state  and  township  permanent  funds  arise  principally  from  the  sale 
of  lands  donated  by  the  general  government.  The  income  is  used  only 
for  teachers'  wages,  and  is  apportioned  upon  the  number  of  children  to 
districts  having  maintained  the  minimum  term  of  school. 

The  deficiency  is  supplied  by  local  taxation,  limited  in  amount,  and  con- 
trolled in  the  first  instance  by  boards  of  directors,  and  second,  by  the 
tax-payers  in  annual  meeting  assembled. 

State  Boards. —  State  Board  of  Education  consists  of  the  super- 
intendent of  public  schools,  the  governor,  secretary  of  state,  and  attorney- 
general.  The  duties,  practically,  are  simply  the  investment  and  care  of 
the  state  permanent  fund. 

Board  of  Curators  of  the  State  University  —  Consists  of  nine 
members,  appointed  by  the  governor,  with  the  consent  of  the  senate,  for 
a  term  of  six  years,  three  being  appointed  every  two  years.  They  con- 
trol and  manage  the  university,  agricultural  college  and  school  of  mines 
and  metallurgy. 

Boards  of  Regents — Of   normal  schools   consist  of  six  members 

*  The  first  free  day  school  ever  opened  in  Missouri  was  by  the  Church  of  the  Messiah, 
in  St.  Louis.  This  church  was  organized  in  1834,  by  Rev.  Wm,  G.  Elliott,  D.  D.,  who  waa 
the  founder,  and  is  now  Chancellor  of  Washington  University. 


to  each  school,  appointed  by  the  governor,  with  consent  of  the  senate, 
from  the  locality.  The  state  superintendent  of  public  schools  is  ex 
officio  member  of  each  board. 

Boards  of  Control  —  Of  other  institutions  vary  in  name  and  num- 
ber of  members.     They  are  usually  appointed  by  the  governor. 

Superintendent  of  Public  Schools  —  Has  general  supervision  of 
the  public  schools;  collects  and  tabulates  the  school  statistics  of  the  state; 
apportions  the  state  school  funds  to  the  counties;  gives  information  to 
school  officers  upon  construction  of  school  law ;  prepares  and  furnishes 
blanks  for  use  of  school  officers ;  spends  five  days  in  each  congressional  dis- 
trict of  the  state,  yearly,  consulting  and  advising  teachers  and  other  school 
officers,  and  delivering  lectures;  is  a  member  of  the  board  of  regents  of 
the  normal  schools,  and  president  of  state  board  of  education ;  receives 
reports  from  the  county  commissioners  and  state  institutions  of  learn- 
ing; makes  annual  reports  to  the  governor  and  general  assembly  alter- 
nately; and  is  the  executive  manager  of  the  state  school  fund  under  the 
direction  of  state  board  of  education. 

County  School  Commissioners — Elected  at  the  annual  school  meet- 
ings of  the  various  school  districts  for  the  term  of  two  years;  compen- 
sation varies  according  to  population  of  county,  from  twenty  to  forty 
dollars  per  annum  and  a  fee,  additional,  of  one  and  one-half  dollars  from 
each  teacher  undergoing  examination;  examines  teachers,  grants  and 
revokes  certificates;  has  final  jurisdiction  over  appealed  cases  of  changes 
of  district  boundaries,  appealed  from  the  annual  meetings;  condenses 
and  reports  to  state  superintendent  of  public  schools  the  educational 
statistics  of  the  county,  as  received  by  him  from  the  district  boards  of 
directors;  supplies  the  districts  with  copies  of  the  law,  and  all  blanks 
needed;  performs  any  and  all  duties  required  by  the  State  Superintend- 
ent, and  in  counties  where  the  people  have  voted  in  favor  of  it,  employs 
his  whole  time  in  supervision  and  school  work. 

Miscellaneous. — To  draw  public  money,  districts  must  maintain  at 
least  three  months  public  school  in  each  year,  but  the  law  requires  and 
provides  that  four  months  shall  be  taught.  Any  person  between  the 
ages  of  six  and  twenty  years  may  attend  the  public  schools.  In  cities, 
towns  and  villages,  the  boards  are  authorized  to  hold  from  five  to  ten 
months  term  of  school  each  year,  and  in  the  country  districts  the  people 
may  vote  an  extension  of  term  over  four  months.  The  rate  of  taxation 
for  school  purposes,  in  addition  to  the  distributed  state,  county  and  town- 
ship, or  sixteenth  section  funds,  is  limited  to  forty  cents  on  the  $100  valu- 
ation, except  that  the  people,  at  the  annual  school  meeting,  may  vote  an 
increase  not  to  exeed  sixty-five  cents  on  the  $100,  by  a  majoritv  vote  of 
tax-payers.     To  raise  funds  by  taxation  for  building  purposes,  requires 


that  the  increased  rate  be  voted   by  two-thirds  of  the  qualified  voters 
voting  at  the  annual  or  special  meeting. 

Annual  School  Meeting — Meets  at  the  district  school  house  annu- 
ally, and  elects  a  director  for  a  full  term,  and  fills  vacancies  in  tha  board; 
determines  the  length  of  time  in  excess  of  four  months,  that  the  schools 
shall  be  kept  open,  and  orders  the  proper  levies  within  the  limitations  to 
be  made  therefor;  votes  a  sum  not  exceeding  $20  per  annum  for  pur- 
chase of  books  for  district  library;  decides  for  or  against  proposed  changes 
of  district  boundary  lines;  directs  the  sale  of  property  no  longer  required, 
and  determines  the  applications  of  proceeds;  designates  their  choice  for 
county  school  commissioner  every  second  year;  directs  the  loan  of 
money  to  aid  in  erecting  school  houses ;  directs  the  levy  of  tax  for  the 
erection  of  school  houses;  determines  the  location  of  the  school  house  or 
houses;  by  a  two-thirds  vote  changes  location  of  school  house;  receives 
the  reports  of  school  district  board  as  to  financial  condition,  and  itemized 
receipts  and  disbursements  for  the  year  ending. 

District  Boards  —  Consist  of  three  members  in  the  country  districts, 
and  six  members  in  the  city,  town  and  village  districts;  each  elected  for 
a  term  of  three  years ;  one,  annually,  in  the  country,  and  two  in  the  city, 
town  and  village  districts;  they  elect  one  of  their  number  president,  and 
appoint  a  clerk  who  may  not  be  a  member  of  the  board,  if  it  so  chooses; 
they  are  the  executive  officers  of  the  school  corporation,  which  each  dis- 
trict is,  being  created  by  law ;  they  serve  without  compensation ;  have 
custody  of  school  property;  execute  the  orders  of  the  annual  meeting; 
take  the  school  census;  make  and  file  the  estimates  for  tax  levies;  con- 
trol the  disbursements  of  all  school  money;  keep  the  district  records; 
visit  the  schools;  employ  teachers;  provide  for  a  four  months  term  of 
school  without  consulting  the  people;  make  rules  for  organization,  gra- 
ding and  government  of  the  schools,  suspend  or  expel  pupils ;  admit  and 
prescribe  fees  for  non-resident  pupils,  and  in  general  do  all  things  neces- 
sary to  carry  on  the  schools. 

In  city,  town  and  village  districts  the  board  has  power  to  establish 
higher  grades  of  schools,  but  are  subject  to  the  same  tax  restrictions. 

Some  cities  have  special  charters  giving  other  privileges  than  those 
enumerated,  but  subject  to  the  same  tax  restrictions,  they  being  constitu- 
tional provisions. 

Educational  Directory. —  University  of  Missouri,  located  at  Colum- 
bia; number  of  students,  577;  legislative  appropriation  for  1S79  and  1880, 
$39,000.  State  Agricultural  College  constitutes  a  department  of  the 
University.  Three  State  Normal  Schools,  located  respectively  at  Kirks- 
ville,  Warrensburg  and  Cape  Girardeau .*    The  appropriation  to  each  of 

*  St.  Louis  supports  its  own  normal  school,  for  the  preparation  and  training  of  its 
teachers,  the  greater  number  of  whom  are  graduates  of  this  normal  school. 


normal  schools  is  $7,500  per  annum.  Deaf  and  Dumb  Asylum,  located 
at  Fulton;  legislative  appropriation  for  1S79  and  1SS0,  $91,000.  Blind 
Asylum,  located  at  St.  Louis;  legislative  appropriation  for  1879  and  1880, 
$46,000.  Lincoln  Institute,*  located  at  Jefferson  City;  legislative  appro- 
priation, $10,000  for  1S79  and  18S0;  devoted  to  training  colored  teachers 
for  colored  public  schools  of  the  state.  School  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy, 
located  at  Rolla;  legislative  appropriation,  $15,000  for  1879  and  1880; 
constitutes  a  department  of  the  state  university.  State  teachers'  associ- 
ation, meets  annually  at  places  selected  at  each  session,  during  the  last 
week  in  June. 

Statistics  of  1S7S. —  School  population,  6SS,248;  school  enrollment, 
448,033;  No.  of  ungraded  school  districts,  8,142;  No.  of  graded  school 
districts,  279.  No.  of  school  houses,  8,092;  estimated  value  of  school 
houses  and  sites,  $8,321,399;  average  school  year  in  months,  5;  average 
school  year  in  months,  in  graded  school  districts,  9;  total  number  of 
teachers  employed,  11,26S;  total  wages  of  teachers,  $2,320,430.20;  aver- 
age wages  of  teachers  per  month,  males,  $36.36,  females,  $28.09;  aver- 
age wages  of  teachers  per  month,  in  grades  schools,  estimated,  males, 
$87.81,  females,  $40.73. 

Revenue. — From  interest  on  state  permanent  fund,  $174,030.15; 
from  one-fourth  state  revenue  collections,  $363,276.32;  from  county  and 
township  permanent  funds,  $440,191.37;  from  district  taxes,  $2,446,- 
910.71.     Total,  $3,424,408.55. 

Permanent  Funds.— State  fund,  $2,909,457.11;  county  fund,  $2,388,- 
368.29;  township  or  sixteenth  section  fund,  $1,980,678.51.  Total  $7,278,- 

The  state  auditor's  report  for  1879  and  1880  furnishes  the  following 
school  items;  and  they  make  a  very  favorable  showing  for  the  public 
school  interests  of  Missouri: 

1879.  1880. 

Amount  distributed  to  the  counties $502,795.18  $515,286.09 

Maintenance  of  State  University 19,500.00  19,500.00 

Support  of  Lincoln  Institute 5,000.00  5,000.00 

Support  School  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy 7,500.00  7,500.00 

IN  ormal  School,  1st  district 7,500.00  7,500  00 

"        2d        "      7,500.00  7,500.00 

"          "        South  Missouri  district 7,500,00  7,500.00 

Distribution  of  school  laws 308.58  436.50 

♦Lincoln  Institute  was  first  projected  by  the  62d  Regiment  U.  S.  Colored  Infantry, 
while  on  duty  in  Texas,  in  1865,  and  was  designed  for  the  higher  education  of  colored 
people.  In  January,  1866,  the  state  attached  a  state  normal  department  to  it,  to  provide 
suitable  teachers  for  the  public  schools  for  colored  children.  The  school  was  opened 
Sept.  17,  1876,  but  was  not  finally  provided  for  by  law  as  a  state  normal  school  until  Feb. 
14,  1870,  since  which  time  it  has  gone  steadily  forward  and  done  a  good  work  for  the 
negro  population. 



Massachusetts  is  taken  almost  universally  as  the  standard  of  measure- 
ment for  other  states.  The  state  reports  of  Massachusetts  and  Missouri, 
for  1879,  show  that  in  the  former  there  was  applied  to  the  educa- 
tion of  every  child  of  school  age  the  sum  of  $13.71 — in  the  latter, 
$4.37.  But  it  must  be  remembered  that  school  age  in  Massachusetts  is 
between  five  and  fifteen  years;  in  Missouri  between  six  and  twenty;  a 
difference  of  four  years  in  school. 

The  report  of  the  secretary  of  the  Massachusetts  board  of  education, 
for  1879,  states  the  "per  centage  of  valuation  appropriated  for  public 
schools,"  as  two  and  seventy-two  one  hundredths  mills.  In  Missouri  it 
was  over  five  mills.  That  is,  every  tax-paying  Missourian  paid  nearly 
twice  as  much  for  the  maintenance  of  public  schools  on  the  same  amount 
(of  value)  of  property  as  the  tax-payer  of  Massachusetts. 




1 S71     Central  College Fayette M.  E.  Church  South. 

1856  Christian   College Canton Christian. 

1859  College  Christian  Brothers .  St.  Louis Roman  Catholic. 

1873  Drurv  College Springfield Congregational. 

1868  Hannibal  College Hannibal M.  E.  Church  South. 

1865  Lewis  College Glasgow Methodist  Episcopal. 

1870  Lincoln  College Greenwood United  Presbyterian. 

1853  McGee  College College  Mound. . .  Cumb.  Presbyterian. 

1867  St.  Joseph  College St.  Joe Roman  Catholic. 

1832  St.  Louis  University St.  Louis Roman  Catholic. 

1844  St.  Paul  College Palmyra Protestant  Episcopal. 

1844  St.  Vincent  College Cape  Girardeau.  .Roman  Catholic. 

1857  Washington  University. .  .St.  Louis Non-Sectarian. 

1852  Westminster  College Fulton Presbyterian. 

1853  Wm.  Jewell  College Liberty Baptist. 

1869  Woodland  College Independence  ....  Christian. 

1835     St.  Charles  College St.  Charles M.  E.  Church  South. 

1852     Central  College Fayette "  "  " 

1843  Arcadia  College Arcadia "  "  " 


1839     Concordia  College St.  Louis Evangelical  Luth'ran 

1844  St.  Vincent  College Cape  Girardeau. .  Roman  Catholic. 

Theological  School  of  West- 
minster College Fulton Presbyterian. 

1869     Vanderman  School  of  The- 
ology   Liberty Baptist. 

In  addition  to  the  above,  the  Baptists  have:  Stephens  College,  Columbia* 


Mt.  Pleasant  College,  Hunts  ville;  Baptist  Female  College,  Lexington;  La 
Grange  College,  La  Grange;  Baptist  College,  Louisiana;  Liberty  Female 
College,  Liberty;  St.  Louis  Seminary  for  Young  Ladies,  Jennings  Sta- 
tion; Fairvievv  Female  Seminary,  Jackson;  Boorjeville  Seminary  for 
Young  Ladies,  Booneville;  North  Grand  River  College,  Edinburg; 
Ingleside  Academy,  Palmyra. 

The  Christian  connection  has  Christian  University,  at  Canton,  in  Lewis 

The  Congregationalists  have  Thayer  College,  at  Kidder,  in  Caldwell 

The  German  Evangelicals  have  Missouri  College,  in  Warren  county. 

The  Methodist  Episcopals  (North)  have  Johnson  College  at  Macon 

The  Presbyterians  have  Lindenwood  Female  College,  at  St.  Charles. 

A  good  feeling  prevails  amongst  these  different  schools.  Each  attends 
to  its  own  work  in  its  own  way,  caring  for  the  patronage  of  its  own  peo- 
ple and  the  community  at  large,  as  a  good  neighbor  of  every  other 
worker.  A  most  liberal  and  impartial  legislative  policy  is  pursued,  by 
dealing  with  all  alike  before  the  law,  whether  in  the  maintenance  of 
vested  rights  or  in  the  matter  of  taxation.  By  constitutional  provision 
all  property  actually  used  for  school  and  religious  purposes  may  be 
exempted  from  taxes,  and  the  same  constitution  most  explicitly  interdicts 
all  discrimination,  and  also  all  favor  or  partiality. 



1872  Law  College  of  State  University Columbia. 

1867         Law  Department  of  Washington  University St.  Louis. 



1869  Kansas  City  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons.  .Kansas  City. 

1873  Medical  College  of  State  University Columbia. 

1840  Missouri  Medical  College St.  Louis. 

1841  St.  Louis  Medical  College " 

1858  Homeopathic  Medical  College  of  Missouri " 

1865  Missouri  Dental  College " 

1864  St.- Louis  College  of  Pharmacy " 


1870  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College  (State  L'm- 

versity") Columbia. 

1871  Missouri  School  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy  (State 

University) Rolla. 

1857        Polytechnic  Department  of  Washington  University. St.  Louis. 


m  a    .  g^ ^ 

RELIGIOUS  DENOMINATIONS-1879-80.  °t  <~2  g|| 

*«  f  sM 

Catholic 216  264  200,000 

Protestant  Episcopal 65  50  25,000 

Lutheran  Independent  Evangelical 25  20  1,000 

English  Evangelical 6  6  1,000 

German        "              76  68  3,633 

Presbyterian,  O.  S.  North 210  151  11,143 

"      South 135  73  7,662 

Cumberland 361  169  15,823 

United 10  12  700 

"                Reformed 3  4  165 

Congregational 71  47  3,747 

Baptist 1.385  823  86,999 

Christian,  about ' 500  500  70,000 

Methodist  Episcopal,  South 559  648  53,382 

North 359  420  42,888 

African 58  59  4,954 

African  Methodist  Episcopal,  Zion ) 

Colored        "                 "            V  about  116  118  9,908 

Methodist,  Protestant  and  Free  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  ) 

Unitarian 5  5 

Total 4,160  3,437  539,004 

Note.— Church  members  of  the  Catholic  and  Protestant  Episcopal  Churches  include  all  persona  bap- 
tized into  the  church.    The  others  count  only  communicants  in  good  standing. 


Our  state  legislature  has  made  ample  and  discreet  provision  for  the 
protection  of  a  home-place  from  sale  on  execution.  The  home  and  property 
rights  of  married  women,  widows  and  orphans,  are  guaranteed  by 
statute  as  far  as  is  practicable.  A  limit  has  also  been  fixed  to  the  amount 
of  indebtedness  which  may  be  incurred  by  the  people  in  voting  bonds  to 
railroads,  or  other  enterprises  in  which  they  may  feel  a  friendly  interest, 
but  in  aiding  which,  too  generally,  so  many  western -communities  have 
burdened  themselves  and  their  posterity  with  debts  and  taxation  that  are 
grevious  to  be  borne. 


The  laws  of  Missouri  reserve  from  execution,  in  the  hands  of  every 
head  of  a  family  living  in  the  country,  a  homestead,  consisting  of  one 
hundred  and  sixty  (160)  acres  of  land,  not  exceeding  $1,500  in  value;  to 
every  head  of  a  family,  in  cities  of  over  40,000  inhabitants,  a  homestead 
consisting  of  not  more  than  eighteen  square  rods  of  ground,  and  of  a 
valuation  not  exceeding  $3,000;  and  in  cities  and  towns  of  less  than  40,- 
000  inhabitants,  a  homestead,  consisting  of  not  more  than  thirty  square 
rods  of  ground,,  and  of  the  value  of  not  more  than  $1,500.     Thus  it  is 


seen  that  a  farmer's  homestead  in  Missouri  consists  of  one  hundred  ajid 
sixty  acres  of  land  and  the  improvements  thereon,  not  exceeding  in  value 
$1,500;  the  homestead  of  the  residents  of  the  smaller  towns  is  of  the 
same  value;  while  that  allowed  to  the  inhabitants  of  St.  Louis,  St. 
Joseph  and  Kansas  City,  where  land  is  more  valuable,  and  the  cost  of 
living  greater,  is  fixed  at  $3,000. 

The  homestead  is  in  the  nature  of  a  lien  or  charge,  in  favor  of  the 
wife  and  children,  upon  certain  property  of  the  husband,  defined  in 
extent,  and  limited  in  value.  A  declaration  of  what  this  property  is  may 
be  recorded  in  the  office  of  the  recorder  of  deeds,  and  notice  is  thus 
imparted  to  all  persons  having  dealings  with  the  owner,  that  this  particu- 
lar property  is  not  subject  to  execution,  and  that  they  ought  not  to  give 
credit  on  the  faith  of  it.  The  state,  under  this  head,  provides  that:  "Any 
married  woman  may  file  her  claim  to  the  tract  or  lot  of  land  occupied  or 
claimed  by  her  and  her  husband,  or  by  her,  if  abandoned  by  her  husband, 
as  a  homestead.  Said  claim  shall  set  forth  the  tract  or  lot  claimed,  that 
she  is  the  wife  of  the  person  in  whose  name  the  said  tract  or  lot  appears 
of  record,  and  said  claim  shall  be  acknowledged  by  her  before  some 
officer  authorized  to  take  proof  or  acknowledgment  of  instruments  of 
writing  affecting  real  estate,  and  be  filed  in  the  recorder's  office,  and  it 
shall  be  the  duty  of  the  recorder  to  receive  and  record  the  same.  After 
the  filing  of  such  claims,  duly  acknowledged,  the  husband  shall  be  de- 
barred from,  and  incapable  of  selling,  mortgaging  and  alienating  the 
homestead  in  any  manner  whatever,  and  such  sale,  mortgage  or  alienation 
is  hereby  declared  null  and  void;  and  the  filing  of  any  such  claims  as 
aforesaid  with  the  recorder  shall  impart  notice  to  all  persons  of  the  con- 
tents thereof,  and  all  subsequent  purchasers  and  mortagors  shall  be 
deemed,  in  law  and  equity,  to  purchase  with  notice;  provided,  however, 
that  nothing  herein  contained  shall  be  so  construed  as  to  prevent  the  hus- 
band and  wife  from  jointly  conveying,  mortgaging,  alienating,  and,  in 
any  other  manner,  disposing  of  such  homestead,  or  any  part  thereof." 

Such  a  law,  while  securing  the  benefits  of  a  homestead  to  the  debtor, 
works  no  injustice  to  the  creditor.  He  sees  that  the  debtor  has  certain 
property  recorded  as  his  homestead.  He  never  gives  credit  on  the  faith  that 
this  property  will  be  subject  to  his  execution;  but  he  looks  simply  to  the 
other  property  of  the  debtor,  or  to  the  state  of  his  business  and  his  char- 
acter for  honesty. 

It  may  be  added  that  the  supreme  court  of  this  state  has  construed  the 
homestead  laws  liberally,  with  the  view  of  carrying  out  the  benevolent 
purposes  of  the  legislature.  If  the  debtor  is  ignorant  or  timid,  when  the 
sheriff  comes  with  an  execution  to  levy,  and  fails  to  claim  his  right  of 
homestead,  his  family  are  not,  therefore,  to  be  turned  out  of  doors.     The 


sheriff  must  summon  appraisers  and  set  the  homestead  apart,  whether  the 
debtor  claims  it  or  not;  and  if  he  does  not  do  this,  his  sale  will  pass  no  title 
to  the  purchaser  so  far  as  the  debtor's  homestead  is  concerned.  If  the 
debtor  makes  a  conveyance  of  property  embracing  his  family  homestead, 
for  the  purpose  of  hindering  or  defrauding  his  creditors,  this  does  not 
work  a  forfeiture  of  his  homestead  right;  his  wrongful  act  is  not  thus  to 
be  appealed  to  in  prejudice  of  his  wife  and  children.  If  the  cruelty  of 
the  husband  drives  the  wife  from  the  homestead,  this  does  not  put  an  end 
to  her  interest  in  the  homestead.  She  may  return  and  claim  it  after  his 
death,  and  his  administrator  must  set  it  apart  for  her. 


Pursuing  the  same  wise  and  benevolent  policy,  the  statutes  provide 
that  the  following  personal  property  shall  be  exempt  from  attachment  and 
execution  when  owned  by  the  head  of  a  family:  "1.  Ten  head  of  choice 
hogs,  ten  head  of  choice  sheep,  and  the  product  thereof  in  wool,  yarn  or 
cloth;  two  cows  and  calves,  two  plows,  one  axe,  one  hoe,  and  one  set  of 
plow  gears,  and  all  the  necessary  farm  implements  for  the  use  of  one  man. 
2.  Two  work  animals  of  the  value  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars.  3. 
The  spinning-wheel  and  cards,  one  loom  and  apparatus,  necessary  for 
manufacturing  cloth  in  a  private  family.  4.  All  the  spun  yarn,  thread 
and  cloth  manufactured  for  family  use.  5.  Any  quantity  of  hemp,  flax 
and  wool,  not  exceeding  twenty-five  pounds  each.  6.  All  wearing  apparel 
of  the  family,  four  beds,  with  usual  bedding,  and  such  other  household  and 
kitchen  furniture,  not  exceeding  the  value  of  one  hundred  dollars,  as  may 
be  necessary  for  the  family,  agreeably  to  an  inventory  thereof,  to  be  re- 
turned, on  oath,  with  the  execution,  by  the  officer  whose  duty  it  may  be 
to  levy  the  same.  7.  The  necessary  tools  and  implements  of  trade  of 
any  mechanic  while  carrying  on  his  trade.  8.  Any  and  all  arms  and 
military  equipments  required  by  law  to  be  kept.  9.  All  such  provisions 
as  may  be  on  hand  for  family  use,  not  exceeding  one  hundred  dollars  in 
value.  10.  The  bibles  and  other  books  used  in  a  family,  lettered  grave- 
stones, and  one  pew  in  a  house  of  worship.  11.  All  lawyers,  physicians, 
ministers  of  the  gospel  and  teachers,  in  the  actual  prosecution  of  their 
calling,  shall  have  the  privilege  of  selecting  such  books  as  shall  be  neces- 
sary to  their  profession,  in  the  place  of  other  property  herein  allowed,  at 
their  option;  and  doctors  of  medicine,  in  lieu  of  other  property  exempt 
from  execution,  may  be  allowed  to  select  their  medicines."  In  lieu  of  this 
property,  each  head  of  a  family  may,  at  his  election,  select  and  hold 
exempt  from  execution  any  other  property,  real,  personal,  or  mixed,  or 
debts  or  wages  not  exceeding  in  value  the  amount  of  three  hundred  dol- 

The  legislature  of  the  state  has  wisely  considered  that  the  debtor  ought 


not  to  be  permitted  to  plead  poverty  as  against  the  claims  of  creditors 
equally  necessitous.  It  is  accordingly  provided  that  the  foregoing 
exemption  cannot  be  claimed  when  the  debt  is  for  wages  due  to  a  house 
servant  or  common  laborer  to  the  extent  of  $90,  and  when  the  action  to 
recover  the  same  is  brought  witoin  six  months  after  the  last  services  were 
rendered.  Nor  can  the  purchaser  of  goods  make  this  law  an  instrument 
of  fraud  by  claiming  goods  which  he  has  purchased  on  credit  against  an 
execution  for  the  purchase  money. 


State  legislation  is  extremely  careful  of  the  rights  of  married  women. 
If  a  wife  is  unjustly  abandoned  by  her  husband,  the  circuit  court  will 
sequester  his  property  for  the  purpose  of  maintaining  her  and  the  children 
of  the  marriage.  If  he  abandons  her,  or  from  worthlessness  or  drunken- 
ness fails  to  support  her,  the  court  will  not  only  allow  her  to  sell  her  own 
real  estate  without  his  joining  in  the  deed,  but  will  require  any  person 
holding  money  or  property  to  which  he  may  be  entitled  in  her  right,  to 
pay  the  money  over  to  her.  1.  Under  such  circumstances  she  is  entitled 
to  the  proceeds  of  her  own  earnings  and  those  of  her  minor  children.'  2. 
If  her  real  estate  is  damaged  for  railroads,  or  other  public  works,  the 
damages  accrue  exclusively  to  her.  3.  If  her  husband  gets  into  the  peni- 
tentiary, she  becomes  to  all  intents  and  purposes  a  femme  sole .  4.  And  if  he, 
by  ill  usage,  compels  her  to  live  separate  and  apart  from  him,  she  may 
claim  the  sole  and  exclusive  enjoyment  of  her  property  as  if  she  were  un- 
married. Rents,  issues  and  profits  of  her  real  estate  cannot  be  taken  in 
execution  for  his  debts,  except  when  contracted  for  familv  necessaries. 
Moreover,  by  a  very  broad  statute  lately  enacted,  a  wife  may  hold  all  her 
personal  property  free  from  her  husband's  control  and  exempt  from  liabil- 
ity for  his  debts.  If  he  becomes  incompetent  to  lead  in  the  marital  part- 
nership, she  may  take  the  reins  in  her  hands,  engage  in  trade,  accumulate 
property,  and  no  act  of  his  will  create  a  charge  upon  it.  Finally,  at  his 
death,  the  family  homestead  descends  to  her  and  the  children,  if  any  there 
be,  to  be  held  by  her  for  life;  if  there  be  any  children,  in  common  with 
them;  if  not,  by  herself  alone.  She  also  takes  dower  in  one-third  of  all 
the  real  estate  of  which  her  husband  may  have  been  seized  at  any  time 
during  marriage,  in  which  she  has  not  conveyed  her  right  of  dower, 
diminished,  however,  by  the  homestead  which  is  set  apart  to  her.  She 
takes  also  a  child's  share  of  his  personal  estate;  and,  in  addition  to  all 
this,  she  is  allowed  to  retain  as  her  absolute  property  a  large  amount  of 


The  constitution  places  it  beyond  the  power  of  reckless  or  dishonest 


public  agents  to  burden  the  people  with  excessive  taxation.  Taxes  for 
state  purposes,  exclusive  of  the  taxes  necessary  to  pay  the  bonded  debt 
of  the  state,  cannot  exceed  twenty  cents  on  the  hundred  dollars  valuation; 
and  whenever  the  taxable  property  of  the  state  shall  amount  to  $900,000,- 
000  the  rate  shall  not  exceed  fifteen  cents.  The  rate  of  taxation  for 
county,  city,  town  and  school  purposes,  is  likewise  strictly  limited. 
Counties,  cities,  towns,  townships  and  school  districts  cannot  become 
indebted  beyond  the  revenue  provided  for  each  year  without  a  two-thirds 
vote  of  all  voters  therein,  nor,  in  any  event,  to  an  amount  exceeding  five 
per  cent  on  the  value  of  the  taxable  property. 

The  statutes  of  limitation  in  Missouri  provide  that  an  open  account  can- 
not be  collected  after  it  has  run  five  years;  a  note  is  uncollectible  if  held  for 
ten  years  after  due;  and  a  judgment  expires  by  limitation  in  ten  years. 

The  standard  legal  rate  of  interest  in  this  state  is  six  per  cent;  but  a 
higher  rate  not  exceeding  ten  per  cent  may  be  contracted  for. 


The  state  debt,  according  to  the  State  Auditor's  last  report,  [1878],  is 
$16,"758,000.  This  mostly  grew  out  of  the  various  issues  of  bonds  given 
in  aid  of  railroads,  and  bears  interest  at  the  rate  of  six  per  cent  per  annum. 
To  liquidate  this  debt  the  constitution  provides  for  the  annual  levy  of 
taxes,  now  fixed  by  law  at  twenty  cents  on  the  $100  of  the  valuation. 
With  the  sum  thus  raised  the  interest  of  the  debt  is  first  to  be  paid,  and  of 
the  remainder  not  less  than  $250,000  is  to  be  set  apart  as  a  sinking  fund 
for  the  purchase  and  retirement  of  the  bonds  themselves.  "Hence,  in  a 
few  years,  with  the  vast  increase  in  the  taxable  wealth,  which  is  sure  to 
come,  the  whole  of  the  debt  will  be  extinguished.  There  is  an  additional 
state  tax  of  twenty  cents  on  the  $100  for  current  expenditures,  a  large 
share  of  which  is  devoted  to  the  support  of  the  common  schools.  This 
tax  is  ample  for  the  purposes  for  which  it  is  intended,  and  there  is  a  con- 
stitutional provision  that  it  shall  be  reduced  to  fifteen  cents  on  the  $100  as 
soon  as  the  taxable  property  of  the  state  shall  aggregate  a  total  valuation 
of  $900,000,000. 

The  state,  and  all  its  municipal  subdivisions,  whether  counties,  cities  or 
towns,  are  forbidden  by  the  constitution  to  loan  their  credit  to  any  corpora- 
tion, so  that  there  is  no  method  by  which  the  public  indebtedness  can  be 
increased  in  the  usual  way.  Owing  to  the  great  zeal  of  the  people  to  for- 
ward public  improvements  of  all  kinds,  a  municipal  indebtedness,  aggre- 
gating, according  to  the  auditor's  last  report,  $35,727,566.49,  has  been 
contracted.  Of  this  amount  the  debt  of  the  city  of  St.  Louis  is  shown  to 
constitute  $22,712,000,  leaving  for  the  agricultural  portion  of  the  state  and 
the  other  cities,  towns,  townships  and  school  districts  only  a  little  over 


The  present  organic  law  prevents  any  municipality  from  contracting 
liabilities,  in  any  one  fiscal  year,  beyond  the  amount  of  the  levy  made  for 
that  year,  and  in  no  county  can  the  rate  of  taxation  for  local  purposes, 
aside  from  the  school  tax,  exceed  fifty  cents  on  the  $100  valuation,  unless 
two-thirds  of  the  voters  shall  assent  to  the  levy  of  a  larger  sum.  Neither 
can  the  school  tax  in  country  districts  exceed  forty  cents  on  the  $100 
without  the  consent  of  the  tax-payers,  to  be  obtained  by  a  vote  of  the  ma- 
jority of  the  residents. 


It  will  be  interesting  to  note  how  the  tax  rate  of  our  own  state  com- 
pares with  that  of  adjoining  states. 

The  average  tax  levy  for  all  purposes  in  Missouri  is  about  $1.30  on  the 
$100;  adding  to  this  70  cents  on  the  $100  for  the  payment  of  bonded 
indebtedness  where  it  exists,  there  is  an  average  of  $2  on  the  $100  as 
the  rate,  and  a  certainty  of  its  steady  decrease.  This  is  given  as  an  average, 
and  while  in  a  few  counties  the  tax  rate  is  higher,  in  the  majority  it  is 
much  lower. 

By  the  report  of  the  state  auditor  of  Kansas,  for  the  year  ending  June 
30,  1878,  the  tax  levy  for  state  purposes  is  shown  to  be  55  cents  on  the 
$100,  and  the  average  levy  for  local  debts  and  expenses  $3.82  on  the  $100r 
making  a  total  average  tax  of  $4.37  on  the  $100.  The  taxable  property 
of  Kansas  in  1878  aggregated  the  sum  of  $138,698,810.98,  and  the  local 
indebtedness  was  reported  by  the  state  auditor  at  $13,473,197.51.  In 
Nebraska  the  tax  levy  for  state  purposes  alone  is  62-£  cents  on  the  $100, 
exclusive  of  taxes  to  pay  local  debts  and  expenses. 

In  Iowa,  the  average  rate  of  taxation  for  the  year  1878  was  $2.67  on  the 
$100.  In  Illinois  the  tax  levy  for  1877,  the  last  given  in  the  auditor's 
report,  was  $3.24  on  the  $100,  and  the  local  indebtedness  of  that  state 
was  then  the  sum  of  $51,811,691. 

Thus,  it  is  clear  that  Missouri  has  a  lower  rate  of  taxation  than  any  of 
the  neighboring  states  above  mentioned ;  and,  in  addition  to  this,  under 
her  wise  constitutional  provision,  the  rate  of  taxation  must  continually 
decrease  every  year,  until  only  a  sufficient  amount  of  taxes  to  liquidate 
current  expenses  will  be  collected. 

There  are  twenty  counties  that  have  no  indebtedness  whatever,  and 
forty  more  the  debt  of  which  is  merely  nominal;  so  that  their  burden  of 
taxation  will  be  lighter  than  in  any  other  portion  of  the  United  States. 




The  United  States  is  divided  into  nine  supreme  court  circuits,  to  each  of 
which  one  of  the  supreme  court  judges  is  assigned.  Missouri  is  now  in 
the  eighth  circuit,  which  includes  Arkansas,  Iowa,  Kansas,  Minnesota, 
Missouri,  Nebraska  and  Colorado;  and  George  W.  McCrary,  of  Iowa, 
who  was  secretary  of  war,  in  President  Hayes'  cabinet,  is  now  the 
judge  of  this  circuit.  Missouri  is  divided  into  an  east  and  west  United 
States  judicial  district;  and  Samuel  Treat,  of  St.  Louis,  is  United  States 
judge  of  the  east  district,  while  Arnold  Krekel,  of  Jefferson  City,  presides 
over  the  west  district. 


Missouri  paid  the  following  amounts  of  internal  revenue  to  the  United 
States  during  the  year  ending  June  30,  1880:  On  distilled  spirits,  $2,151,- 
643.98;  on  tobacco,  $2,391,989.93;  on  fermented  liquors,  $711,654.53;  on 
banking,  $182,929.25;  on  other  items,  $1,360.27.  Total,  $5,448,344.83. 
Illinois,  Kentucky,  New  York  and  Ohio  were  the  only  states  which  paid 
a  larger  sum  of  revenue  on  spirits;  Illinois,  New  Jersey,  New  York, 
Ohio,  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia  paid  larger  on  tobacco;  Illinois,  New 
York,  Ohio,  Pennsylvania  and  Wisconsin  paid  larger  on  fermented 
liquors  (chiefly  lager  beer);  California,  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  are 
the  only  states  which  paid  larger  on  banking  transactions. 

In  1878,  Missouri  paid  $115,729.64  as  penalties  for  violation  of  U. 
S.  internal  revenue  laws,  which  was  the  highest  amount  on  this  item  paid 
by  any  state — the  next  highest  being  Pennsylvania,  which  was  "  caught 
at  it"  to  the  amount  of  $27,867.20. 


There  are  now  three  U.  S.  land  offices  in  Missouri,  to-wit:  at  Boon- 
ville,  Ironton  and  Springfield.  The  report  of  the  general  land  office  for 
1879  showed  41,836,931  acres  of  government  land  still  open  to  home- 
stead entry  in  Missouri. 


Gold  coins  of  the  United  States  (un mutilated),  and  the  "  greenback" 
paper  currency  are  legal  tender  for  the  payment  of  any  possible  amount 
of  indebtedness.  Silver  coins  are  legal  tender  for  any  amount  not  exceed- 
ing $10  at  one  payment — but  the  standard  silver  dollar  is  legal  tender  for 


any  amount,  unless  the  contract  specially  provides  otherwise.  The  baser 
coins  of  nickel,  copper  and  alloy  (3  cent  pieces),  are  legal  tender  for  any 
sum  not  exceeding  25  cents.  The  "trade  dollar,"  and  national  bank 
notes  are  not  legal  tender;  neither  is  any  foreign  coin,  either  of  gold  or 
silver,  nor  the  "  stamped  bullion  "  gold  pieces  of  California. 


St.  Louis  is  a  port  of  entry  for  foreign  goods;  and  the  imports  received 
here  during  the  year  1880,  amounted  to  (foreign  value),  $1,401,180;  on 
which  the  import  duties  paid  was  $537,257.83.  A  fine  custom  house 
building  is  in  process  of  erection,  and  will  be  completed  in  1881. 


In  the  south  part  of  St.  Louis,  on  the  river;  there  is  a  United  States 
arsenal,  and  six  miles  below  the  city,  Jefferson  Barracks  are  situated,  a  sta- 
tion for  a  small  part  of  the  regular  army.  A  few  squares  from  the 
arsenal  there  is  a  United  States  marine  hospital. 


Within  our  allotted  space  we  can  only  give  a  brief  sketch  of  those  citi- 
zens of  Missouri  who  have  so  pre-eminently  distinguished  themselves  as 
to  have  achieved  a  solid  national,  and  in  some  cases  a  world-wide  fame. 
First  amongf  these  is — 

Daniel  Boone.  The  adventures  of  this  famous  hunter  and  Indian 
fighter  have  become  a  staple  part  of  the  world's  perennial  stock  of  daring 
exploits  and  hair-breadth  escapes.  He  was  born  in  Bucks  county,  Penn- 
sylvania, February  11,  1735;  emigrated  to  North  Carolina  and  there  mar- 
ried. In  1773  he  emigrated  with  his  own  and  five  other  families  to  Ken- 
tucky, and  founded  the  present  town  of  Boonesborough.  In  1795  he 
removed  to  the  Missouri  river  country,  and  settled  in  St.  Charles  county, 
about  forty-five  miles  west  of  St.  Louis,  where  he  died  in  1S20,  aged  85. 
His  remains,  together  with  those  of  his  wife,  were  many  years  after- 
ward removed  to  Boonesborough,  Kentucky,  and  a  monument  reared 
over  them. 

Thomas  H.  Benton.  Col.  Benton  was,  in  his  lifetime,  recognized  as 
one  of  the  foremost  statesmen  of  the  nation,  and  the  hearts  of  all  good 
Missourians  kindle  with  pride  at  the  mention  of  his  name.  He  was  a 
specimen  type  of  the  best  sort  of  Democrat;  he  always  stood  with  Gen. 


Jackson  and  opposed  the  state-rights  doctrines  of  John  C.  Calhoun;  in 
congress  he  opposed  the  repeal  of  the  "Missouri  Compromise;"  and  during 
Gen.  Jackson's  presidency  Col.  Benton  was  so  vigorous  a  champion  of 
hard  money,  as  against  the  old  U.  S.  bank  swindle,  that  he  came  to  be 
familiarly  known  all  over  the  United  States  as  "Old  Bullion."  Col.  Benton 
was  born  near  Hillsborough,  North  Carolina,  March  14, 1782;  studied  law 
at  Nashville,  Tennessee,  in  1810.  In  the  war  of  1812  he  served  as  a  Colonel 
under  Gen.  Jackson ;  settled  at  St.  Louis  in  1815.  In  1820  he  was  elected  as 
the  first  U.  S.  Senator  from  Missouri,  and  continued  to  be  re-elected  every 
term  for  thirty  years;  the  longest  period  that  any  man  in  the  nation  has 
filled  a  senatorial  seat.  In  1852-3  he  served  one  term  as  member  of  con- 
gress from  the  first  district.  In  1856  he  was  defeated  in  his  candidacy  for 
governor  by  the  state-rights  party,  to  whose  doctrines  he  was  strongly 
opposed,  from  the  time  of  the  nullification  acts  of  South  Carolina  in  1832, 
up  to  the  day  of  his  death.  In  1854  he  published  his  great  work,  "Thirty 
Years  in  the  United  States  Senate,"  in  two  large  volumes,  and  these  are 
held  in  high  esteem  as  standard  authority  by  politicians  and  statesmen  of 
every  class.  Col.  Benton  died  April  10,  1858,  mourned  by  the  whole 
nation  as  one  of  her  worthiest  sons. 

James  B.  Eads,  a  citizen  of  St.  Louis.  His  marvelous  achievements  as 
a  civil  engineer  have  made  his  name  familiar  in  all  civilized  countries  on 
the  face  of  the  earth;  and  his  last  great  work,  the  jetties  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Mississippi  river,  has  revolutionized  the  commerce  of  three  continents. 
Mr.  Eads  was  born  at  Lawrenceburg,  Indiana,  May  28,  1820;  emigrated 
with  his  parents  to  Louisville,  Kentucky,  in  1829;  and  in  1833  settled  at 
St.  Louis.  In  July,  1861,  the  government  advertised  for  seven  gun-boats 
of  about  600  tons  burden,  drawing  not  over  six  feet  of  water,  plated  with 
iron  2£  inches  thick,  to  steam  nine  miles  an  hour,  and  carry  thirteen  guns.* 
Mr.  Eads  contracted  to  build  those  seven  vessels  in  sixty-five  days.  At 
this  time  the  timber  for  them  stood  uncut  in  the  forest;  the  iron  for  their 
plating  was  still  in  the  mines,  and  no  machine  yet  in  existence  of  capacity 
to  roll  such  enormous  plates;  and  not  a  pound  of  iron  or  steel  yet  wrought 
or  cast  for  the  construction  of  the  twenty-one  steam  engines  and  thirty- 
five  boilers  required  to  propel  the  fleet.  But  within  twenty-four  hours 
from  the  signing  of  the  contract  at  Washington,  he  had  all  the  iron  works, 
foundries  and  machine  shops  of  St.  Louis,  started  on  the  work ;  and  inside 
of  two  weeks  he  had  more  than  4,000  men  working  in  alternate  gangs  by 
night  and  day,  Sundays  included,  so  that  not  an  hour  should  be  lost.  The 
boats  were  built  at  St.  Louis,  but  the  states  of  Kentucky,  Tennessee,  Illinois, 
Indiana,  Ohio,  Minnesota  and  Missouri  were  all  drawn  upon  for  material, 
while  large  works  in  Cincinnati  and  Pittsburg  were  also  whirling  every 

*See  Major  Boynton's  "History  of  the  United  States  Navy." 


wheel  to  hasten  forward  the  great  undertaking,  all  being  under  the  direc- 
tion and  control  by  telegraph  or  in  person  of  this  one  man;  and  he  filled 
the  contract.  The  world's  history  shows  no  parallel  to  the  wonderful 
mastery  of  resources  and  the  tremendous  vigor  of  executive  and  super- 
visory talent  which  this  achievement  involved.  He  projected,  planned 
and  built  the  magnificent  railroad  bridge  across  the  Mississippi  river  at 
St  Louis,  which  ranks  among  the  greatest  works  of  its  kind  on  this  round 
globe.  He  projected  and  built  the  jetties  at  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi, 
which  enable  the  largest  sea-going  vessels  to  pass  in  and  out  freely,  thus 
making  possible  the  barge  system  of  shipping  grain  and  other  products 
from  St.  Louis  and  Kansas  City  direct  to  foreign  countries,  and  which 
has  within  two  years  revolutionized  the  entire  international  commerce  of 
the  Mississippi  and  Missouri  valley  states.  He  is  now  engaged  in  devel- 
oping a  ship  railway  across  the  Isthmus  of  Panama,  which  will  take  the 
heaviest  loaded  ships  into  a  dry-dock  on  wheels  and  trundle  them  from 
ocean  to  ocean  as  easily  and  safely  as  they  are  now  towed  through  the 
ship  canal  at  Suez. 

Carl  Schurz.  Born  near  Cologne,  Prussia,  March  2, 1829;  educated 
at  the  University  of  Bonn ;  took  part  in  the  revolutionary  agitations  of 
Europe  in  1848  and  following  years,  involving  Germany,  Austria,  Italy, 
Hungary,  etc.;  and  in  which  Kossuth  in  Hungary,  and  Garibaldi  in  Italy 
were  prominent  leaders,  whose  names  are  familiar  to  and  honored  by  all 
Americans.  Mr.  Schurz  came  to  the  United  States  in  1852;  settled  as  a 
lawyer  at  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin,  in  1859;  in  1861  was  appointed  minister 
to  Spain;  resigned  and  came  home,  and  in  1862-3-4,  was  a  major-gen- 
eral of  volunteers  in  the  Union  army.  In  1S67  he  settled  at  St.  Louis  as 
editor  of  the  Westliche  Post;  was  United  States  senator  from  Mis- 
souri from  1869  to  1875,  and  was  secretary  of  the  interior  in  President 
Hayes'  cabinet.  Mr.  Schurz  has  thus  won  the  highest  positions  ever  held 
in  the  United  States  by  any  foreign-born  citizen,  and  has  reflected  honor 
upon  Missouri,  his  adopted  state,  by  his  masterful  ability  as  a  public 
speaker,  and  his  strong,  earnest,  humanitarian  efforts  as  an  executive  offi- 

Prof.  Charles  V.  Riley,  was  born  in  London,  England,  September 
12,  1843;  came  to  the  United  States  in  1860.  In  1868  established  in  St. 
Louis,  in  company  with  Benjamin  D.  Walsh,  a  scientific  journal  called  the 
American  Entomologist,  and  was  the  same  year  appointed  state  entomol- 
ogist of  Missouri ;  this  position  he  filled  to  the  great  benefit  and  honor  of 
the  state  for  eight  years;  then  he  was  called  to  come  up  higher,  and  took 
position  as  entomologist  of  the  national  department  of  agriculture  at 
Washington.  Prof.  Riley's  valuable  investigations  and  discoveries  with 
regard  to  the  Colorado  beetle  (potato  bug),  the  Rocky  Mountain  locust 


(grasshoppers),  the  cotton  worm,  and  the  phylloxera,  or  grape  insect, 
placed  his  name  in  the  foremost  ranks  in  the  world  of  science,  and  among 
the  greatest  of  benefactors  to  the  agricultural  and  horticultural  industries 
of  the  world.  This  he  achieved  while  serving  Missouri  as  state  entomol- 
ogist,  and  through  the  publication  by  the  state  of  his  annual  reports. 
Hence,  the  name  and  good  repute  of  our  noble  commonwealth  is  insepar- 
ably associated  with  his  honor  and  fame,  which  has  reached  the  farthest 
confines  of  every  land  where  potatoes,  cotton  or  grapes  are  cultivated. 


Missouri  was  powerfully  agitated  by  the  controversy  on  the  slavery 
question  in  1818-19-20,  which  resulted  in  the  "Missouri  Compromise." 
This  was  a  compact,  mainly  carried  through  congress  by  the  eloquence 
and  influence  of  the  great  senator,  Henry  Clay,  of  Kentucky,  by  which 
it  was  agreed  that  Missouri  should  be  admitted  to  the  Union  as  a  slave- 
holding  state ;  but  that  slavery  should  be  forever  excluded  from  any  states 
which  might  thereafter  be  formed  out  of  new  territory  west  of  the  western 
boundary  of  Missouri,  and  north  of  the  parallel  of  3G  degrees,  30  minutes 
of  north  latitude.  This  line  practically  corresponds  with  the  southern 
boundary  of  Virginia,  Kentucky,  Missouri,  Kansas,  Colorado  and  Utah, 
as  they  now  stand. 

In  May,  1854,  congress  passed  a  bill  organizing  the  territories  of 
Kansas  and  Nebraska,  in  which  it  was  declared  that  the  Missouri  Com- 
promise of  1820  did  not  apply  to  them.  This  was  an  indirect  way  of 
repealing  or  rendering  nugatory  the  bargain  made  between  the  northern 
and  the  southern  states  in  that  compromise ;  and  the  floodgates  of  angry 
debate,  contention  and  strife  were  at  once  opened.  This  became  the  issue 
upon  which  all  elections  turned.  Instead  of  slavery  being  prohibited,  as  the 
compromise  of  1820  had  declared  it  should  be,  it  was  thrown  open  for  the 
territorial  legislature  to  decide  whether  it  should  be  free  or  slave  territory. 
In  view  of  this,  there  was  a  rush  and  race  of  settlers  from  the  free  states 
and  the  slave  states  into  Kansas,  to  see  which  party  should  get  control  of 
the  first  territorial  legislature;  and  in  this  movement  Missouri,  as  a  slave 
state,  took  a  prominent  part.  It  was  a  border  country  conflict,  and  there 
was  illegality  and  violence  on  both  sides,  making  a  chapter  in  our  state 
history  the  details  of  which  might  profitably  be  dropped  out  and  forgotten. 
Suffice  to  say,  the  free  state  party  carried  the  election;  and  this  conflict 
was  a  precursor  of  the  great  civil  war. 


In  1860  C.  F.  Jackson  was  elected  governor  of  Missouri.  Abraham 
Lincoln  had  been  elected  President  of  the  United  States  at  the  same  time. 
Governor  Jackson  took  his  seat  January  4,  1S61;  the  question  of  secession 
was  then  already  in  warm  discussion  in  some  of  the  southern  states,  and 
Governor  Jackson  in  his  inaugural  address  maintained  that  "  Missouri 
must  stand  by  the  other  slave-holding  states,  whatever  course  they  may 
pursue."  The  general  assembly  ordered  an  election  to  be  held  February 
18th,  for  members  of  a  state  convention;  the  proposed  object  of  this  con- 
vention was  "  to  consider  the  then  existing  relations  between  the  United 
States,  the  people  and  government  of  the  different  states,  and  the  govern- 
ment and  people  of  the  state  of  Missouri;  and  to  adopt  such  measures  for 
vindicating  the  sovereignty  of  the  state  and  the  protection  of  its  institutions 
as  shall  appear  to  them  to  be  demanded."  This  convention  met,  first  at 
Jefferson  City,  and  afterward  at  St.  Louis,  and  had  a  decided  majority  of 
Unionists — that  is,  of  men  opposed  to  secession;  some  because  they 
believed  in  the  doctrine  of  "  Federal  Nationality,"  as  against  the  doctrine 
called  "State  Rights;"  others  because,  like  A.  H.  Stevens,  of  Georgia, 
they  saw  with  a  clear  eye  that  secession  must  inevitably  result  in  the 
overthrow  of  slavery.  And  thus  the  Union  men  themselves  were  strongly 
divided  into  northern  and  southern  sympathizers.  The  convention  sat  at 
St.  Louis,  without  any  important  results,  from  March  9th  to  22d,  when  it 
adjourned,  subject  to  the  call  of  its  committee  on  federal  relations. 

National  events  rushed  on  rapidly  to  a  crisis  which  would  admit  of  no 
temporizing.  In  April,  Fort  Sumter  was  fired  upon;  President  Lincoln 
called  for  75,000  troops;  and  men  must  now  take  sides  for  or  against  the 
national  sovereignty  of  the  lawfully  constituted  Federal  authorities.  Our 
legislature  was  in  session;  its  measures  and  discussions  were  almost 
entirely  of  the  "State  Rights"  type;  and  in  a  message  to  the  legislature 
on  May  3,  1861,  Governor  Jackson  said  the  President's  call  for  troops  "is 
unconstitutional  and  illegal,  tending  toward  a  consolidated  despotism.  *  * 
Our  interest  and  sympathies  are  identical  with  those  of  the  slave-holding 
states,  and  necessarily  unite  our  destiny  with  theirs."  While  these 
influences  were  working  in  the  central  and  western  parts  of  the  state,  and 
organizations  of  "state  guards"  were  being  rapidly  formed  to  resist  the 
federal  authority,  Gen.  Nathaniel  Lyon  and  Col.  F.  P.  Blair  were  actively 
enlisting  men  and  organizing  regiments  in  St.  Louis  and  vicinity,  to  main- 
tain the  federal  authority.  The  most  intense  alarm  and  consternation 
prevailed  throughout  the  state.  Several  minor  conflicts  occurred  between 
state  militia  or  "guards"  and  Union  troops,  all  hinging  upon  the  question 
of  which  power  had  the  right  of  paramount  sovereignty.  The  state 
troops  were  mostly  under  command  of  General  Sterling  Price,  subordinate 
only  to  the  governor  of  the  state;    while  the  federal  troops  were  under 


command  of  General  Lyon,  by  authority  of  the  President  of  the  United 

Governor  Jackson  finally  tried  to  make  terms  with  Gen.  Lyon,  that  no 
federal  troops  should  be  stationed  in  or  allowed  to  pass  through  the 
state.  This  was  refused;  and  the  governor  then  immediately  issued  a 
formal  call,  June  12,  for  50,000  state  militia.  About  April  20th,  nearly 
two  months  before  this,  the  "  state  guards  "  had  seized  the  United  States 
arsenal  at  Liberty,  in  Clay  county,  and  taken  its  stores  and  arms  for 
their  own  use.  This  was  several  weeks  before  the  celebrated  "Camp 
Jackson"  affair.  The  wager  of  battle  was  now  fairly  joined  in  Missouri 
between  different  parties  of  her  own  citizens,  although  volunteers  from 
other  states  soon  began  to  pour  in.  The  following  is  a  chronological  list 
of  the  more  important  actions  and  events: 

April  12,  1861. — Confederates  opened  fire  on  Fort  Sumter,  which  was 
yielded  up  and  evacuated  on  the  14th. 

April  15. — President  Lincoln's  proclamation,  calling  for  75,000  volun- 
teers to  sustain  the  government,  and  calling  a  special  session  of  congress. 


April  ip. — Gov.  Jackson  wrote  to  David  Walker,  President  of  the 
Arkansas  Convention,  thus:  "I  have  been  from  the  beginning  in  favor  of 
decided  and  prompt  action  on  the  part  of  the  southern  states,  but  the 
majority  of  the  people  of  Missouri,  up  to  the  present  time,  have  differed 
with  me. " 

April  20. — The  U.  S.  arsenal,  at  Liberty,  in  Clay  county,  was  seized 
and  garrisoned  by  about  a  hundred  "  state  guards, "  and  the  arms  and 
cannon  were  distributed  to  their  friends  throughout  the  county,  with  the 
concurrence  of  the  governor. :{; 

April  22. — Governor  Jackson  officially  resented  the  president's  call  for 
troops,  and  called  an  extra  session  of  the  legislature,  to  arm  and  equip 
state  troops.  State  militia  ordered  to  go  into  encampment  on  May  3,  for 
one  week. 

*  It  is  not  tlie  purpose  of  this  history  to  give  a  detailed  narrative  of  events  of  the  war 
time;  neither  to  discuss  the  right  or  the  wrong  of  the  views  of  either  party  in  the  conflict. 
We  only  give  a  brief  mention  of  some  of  the  most  important  incidents  and  leading  actors, 
to  show  how  and  wherein  the  people  of  Missouri  were  themselves  divided  in  opinion, 
what  motives  moved  them,  and  what  events  stand  out  as  of  chief  historic  celebrity. 
Indeed,  we  would  gladly  skip  this  period  of  our  state  history  entirely,  if  it  were  permissible 
in  such  a  work. 

fThe  events  here  given,  in  their  chronological  order,  have  been  collated  from  more 
than  thirty  different  volumes  containing  different  items  or  parts  of  Missouri's  war  history. 
The  narratives,  dates  and  statistics  were  found  often  conflicting ;  and  we  have  endeavored 
to  use  those  only  which  seemed  to  be  the  best  authenticated,  or  the  most  probable  under 
the  circumstances — and  to  localize  events  as  closely  as  possible  by  naming  the  towns, 
streams,  counties,  etc.,  where  they  occurred. 

JThe  governor  had  already  (April  20th)  seized  the  United  States  arsenal  at  Liberty,  and 
had  distributed  among  his  friends  the  arms  it  contained.  " — Draper's  History  of  the  Civil 
War,  Vol.  II,  p.  228. 


April  25,  Night. — Capt.  Lyon  secretly  removed  the  war  stores  in  U. 
S.  arsenal  at  St.  Louis,  by  steamboat,  over  to  Alton,  Illinois. 

April  28. — Gov.  Jackson  wrote  secretly  to  J.  W.  Tucker,  Esq.,  of  St. 
Louis:  "  I  want  a  little  time  to  arm  the  state,  and  I  am  assuming  every 
responsibility  to  do  it  with  all  possible  dispatch.  *  *  *  We  should 
keep  our  own  counsels.  *  *  *  Nothing  should  be  said  about  the  time 
or  the  manner  in  which  Missouri  should  go  out.  That  she  ought  to  go, 
and  will  go  at  the  proper  time,  I  have  no  doubt.  She  ought  to  ha  re 
gone  last  winter,  when  she  could  have  seized  the  public  arms  and  public 
property  and  defended  herself.  "  * 

May  j. — Legislature  met.  Governor  Jackson  denounced  the  presi- 
dent's call  for  troops  as  "  imcomtitutional  and  illegal.  "  Mean  while  Col. 
F.  P.  Blair,  Jr.,  member  of  congress  from  the  1st  district,  of  St.  Louis, 
had  enlisted  one  full  regiment,  and  had  four  others  in  course  of  organiza- 
tion, within  ten  days  from  the  issue  of  the  president's  call. 

May  10. — A  body  of  " state  guards,"  under  command  of  Gen.  D.  M. 
Frost,  acting  under  Governor  Jackson's  authority,  had  established  a  camp 
near  St.  Louis,  called  "Camp  Jackson."  Capt.  Lyon,  who  had  been 
since  February  in  charge  of  the  U.  S.  arsenal  at  St.  Louis,  with  a  few 
soldiers  of  the  regular  army  (less  than  500),  discovered  that  the  Camp 
Jackson  men  were  receiving  arms  and  ammunition  by  steamboats  from 
the  south,  in  boxes  marked  "  marble.  "  Accordingly,  on  the  morning  of 
May  10th,  he  with  his  regulars,  and  Col.  Blair  with  his  Missouri  volun- 
teers, surrounded,  surprised  and  captured  the  camp,  taking  as  prisoners 
of  war  639  privates  and  50  officers.  The  arms  captured  consisted  of  20 
cannon,  1200  new  rifles,  several  chests  of  muskets,  and  large  quantities  of 
shot,  shell,  cartridges,  etc. 

May  12. — Gen.  Wm.  S.  Harney  took  command  of  the  Union  forces  in 
Missouri.  Meanwhile  the  legislature  had  passed  an  act  making  every 
able-bodied  man  subject  to  military  duty.  All  public  revenues  for  1860-61 
(about  $3,000,000)  were  authorized  to  be  used  by  the  governor  for  military 

May  2i. — Gen.  Harney  made  a  truce  or  compromise  of  peace  with 
Gen.  Price,  commander  of  the  state  troops. 

June  i. — The  president  repudiated  Gen.  Harney's  truce  with  Price; 
also  removed  him  from  his  command  and  gave  it  to  Gen.  Lyon,  who  had 
on  May  17th  been  appointed  a  brigadier-general  of  volunteers. 

June  4.. — Governor  Jackson  issued  a  circular  claiming  the  Harney- 
Price  compact  to  be  still  in  force. 

June  ii. — Gen.  Price  and  Gov.  Jackson  sought  a  "peace  conference" 
with  Gen.  Lyon  and  Col.  Blair.     The  governor  stipulated  as  a  vital  con- 

*8ee  official  address  of  the  state  convention,  issued  to  the  people  July  31,  1861. 


dition  of  peace,  that  no  Federal  troops  should  be  stationed  in  or  pass 
through  Missouri.     The  proposition  was  rejected. 

June  12. — Gasconade  railroad  bridge  burnt;  also,  Osage  river  bridge; 
and  telegraph  lines  cut  that  connected  with  St.  Louis. 

June  ij. — Governor  Jackson  issued  a  call  for  50,000  state  militia,  to  repel 
federal  invasion;  referred  to  the  president  as  "  the  military  despotism  which 
has  introduced  itself  at  Washington;"  and  said  to  the  people,  "your  first 
allegiance  is  due  to  your  own  state."  He  appointed  ex-Governor  Ster- 
ling Price  as  major  general;  and  M.  L.  Clark,  John  B.  Clark,  Parsons, 
Slack,  Harris,  Rains,  McBride,  Stein  and  Jeff.  Thomson,  as  brigadier- 
generals.  The  state  militia  were  called  to  rendezvous  at  Boonville  and 
Lexington.  The  governor  and  other  officers  left  Jefferson  City  for  Boon- 
ville this  day,*  while  at  the  same  time  General  Lyon  was  embarking  with 
1,500  men  at  St.  Louis,  to  take  and  hold  the  state  capital. 

June  15. — General  Lyon  arrived  at  Jefferson  City. 

June  16. — Re-embarked  his  troops  for  Boonville. 

June  17. — Battle  of  Boonville.  Colonel  Marmaduke  defeated.  State 
troops  retreated  to  Warsaw,  with  loss  of  fifty  killed.  Federal  loss,  two 

June  18-19.— Colonel  O'Kane,  with  350  state  militia,  surprised  in  the 
night,  a  half-formed  Union  regiment  at  Cole  Camp,  in  Benton  county,  under 
Capt.  Cook.  Pollard's  "  Southern  History  "  says,  in  this  affair  the  Union- 
ists lost  206  killed,  a  large  number  wounded,  and  over  100  taken  prison- 
ers, beside  362  muskets  captured;  O'Kane  lost  15  killed  and  20  wounded. 

July  j. — Governor  Jackson  and  General  Price  were  at  Montevallo,  in 
Vernon  county,  with  (Pollard  says)  3,600  state  troops. 

July  5-6.— Battle  of  Carthage  (or  Dry  Fork),  in  Jasper  county;  union 
loss,  13  killed  and  31  wounded ;  state  troops,  under  Price  and  Jackson, 
lost  about  300  killed  and  wounded.  Gen.  Seigel,  the  union  commander, 
fell  back  sixty  miles,  to  Springfield  and  joined  Gen.  Lyon. 

July  8.—  A  small  fight  occurred  at  Bird's  Point,  in  Mississippi  county. 
Confederates  lost  3  killed  and  8  wounded.  Federal  loss,  if  any,  not  reported. 

July  22. — The  state  convention,  which  had  adjourned  subject  to  the 
call  of  its  committee  on  federal  relations,  re-convened  at  Jefferson   City. 

July  25. — Maj.  Gen.  Fremont  arrived  at  St.  Louis,  as  commander  of 
the  western  department,  which  comprised  Illinois,  Kentucky,  Missouri, 
Kansas,  and  the  territories  westward. 

July  jo.— State  convention,  by  a  vote  of  56  to  25,  declared  the  state 
offices  and  seats  in  legislature  vacant,  by  reason  of  their  occupants  being 
engaged  in  treasonable  and  armed  hostilities  against  the  lawfully  consti- 

"  *The  capture  of  Camp  Jackson  and  the  flight  of  the  chief  executive  from  the  capital, 
•was  the  occasion  of  a  partial  destruction  of  the  Osage  and  Gasconade  bridges  [railroad],  as 
well  as  those  over  Gray's  creek,  west  of  Jefferson  City." — Annual  report  of  state  commis- 
sioner of  statistics,  1866,  p.  255. 


tuted  federal  authorities,  and  that  all  legislative  and  executive  acts  in  pur 
suance  of  such  treason  or  armed  hostility,  pretended  to  be  done  in  the 
name  and  by  authority  of  the  state  of  Missouri,  were  null  and  void. 
They  elected  to  fill  the  state  office  vacancies,  H.  R.  Gamble,  governor; 
W.  P.  Hall,  lieutenant  governor;  Mordecai  Oliver,  secretary  of  state; 
and  appointed  the  first  Monday  of  November  as  a  day  of  general  election. 

July  j i. — Lieut.  Governor  Reynolds,  whose  office  had  been  declared 
vacant  by  the  state  convention,  issued  a  proclamation,  dated  at  New  Mad- 
rid, July  31,  in  which  he  said:  "I  return  to  the  state,  to  accompany  in 
my  official  capacity,  one  of  the  armies  which  the  warrior  statesman  [Jef- 
ferson Davis],  whose  genius  now  presides  over  the  affairs  of  our  half  of 
the  Union,  has  prepared  to  advance  against  the  common  foe.  *  *  * 
You  behold  the  most  warlike  population  on  the  globe,  the  people  of  the 
lower  Mississippi  valley,  about  to  rush  with  their  gleaming  bowie-knives 
and  unerring  rifles,  to  aid  us  in  driving  out  the  abolitionists  and  their  Hes- 
sion  allies.         *  The  road  to  peace  and  internal  security  is  only 

through  union  with  the  south.  Rally  to  the  stars  and  bars, 

in  union  with  the  glorious  ensign  of  the  grizzly  bear."* 

August  2. — Battle  of  Dug  Springs,  in  Lawrence  countv.  General 
McCulloch,  of  Arkansas,  in  command  of  Confederates,  marching  to 
attack  Springfield,  was  checked,  and  fell  back  to  Sarcoxie;  loss,  40  killed, 
44  wounded.  General  Lyon  fell  back  to  Springfield;  loss,  8  killed,  30 

August  j. — Confederate  troops  under  Col.  Martin  E.  Green,  attacked 
Missouri  state  militia,  under  Col.  Moore,  at  Athens,  in  Clark  county,  and 
were  defeated  with  a  loss  of  43  killed. 

August  6. — Governor  Jackson,  being  now  at  Carthage,  and  just  hear- 
ing of  the  action  of  the  state  convention,  also  issued  a  proclamation,  de- 
claring the  union  between  Missouri  and  the  other  states  totally  dissolved, 
and  proclaiming  the  state  of  Missouri  to  be  "  a  sovereign,  free  and  inde- 
pendent republic.'''' 

August  io  —  Battle  of  Wilson's  Creek.  Gen.  Lyon,  Federal,  had 
5,500  infantry,  400  cavalry,  and  18  cannon.  Gen.  McCulloch,  Confeder- 
ate, says  that  his  "effective  force  was  5,300  infantry,  15  pieces  of  artillery, 
and  6,000  horsemen."  (The  Union  officers  imagined  and  reported  more 
than  double  this  number  against  them;  one  said  23,000,  and  another 
24,000.)  The  Confederates  lost  421  killed,  1,317  wounded  and  30  mis- 
sing. The  Federals  reported  223  killed,  721  wounded  and  292  missing, 
and  5  cannon  lost.     Gen.  Lyon  was  killed  in  this  engagement. 

August  14. — Federals  evacuated  Springfield  and  retreated  to  Rolla,but 

*Early  in  March  the  confederate  congress  had  adopted  the  "  stars  and  bars"  as  the  flag 
of  their  confederacy.    The  state  seal  of  Missouri  has  two  grizzly  bears  among  its  emblems. 


were  not  pursued.  Earthwork  fortifications  were  this  day  commenced 
around  St.  Louis. 

August  j i. — Gen.  Fremont  issued  a  general  order  proclaiming  martial 
law  in  Missouri;  the  property  of  all  persons  who  had  taken  up  arms 
against  the  United  States  was  declared  to  be  confiscated,  and  "their 
slaves  to  be  free  men"  (President  Lincoln  at  once  annulled  this  last 

September  ij. — Siege  of  Lexington  commenced  by  Gen.  Price.  His 
force  has  been  variously  estimated  from  22,000  to  28,000,  with  13  cannon. 
Col.  Mulligan,  Federal,  had  2,TS0  troops,  with  six  brass  cannon, 
two  howitzers,  and  forty  rounds  of  ammunition.  The  same  day,  at 
Boonville,  the  Confederates,  led  by  Col.  Brown,  attacked  the  Federal  gar- 
rison in  command  of  Col.  Eppstein,  and  were  repulsed  with  a  loss  of  12 
killed  and  30  wounded;  Federal  loss,  1  killed  and  1  wounded. 

September  ij. — Battle  of  Blue  Mills  Lancing,  or  Missouri  Bottom,  in 
Clay  county.  A  body  of  Confederates,  variously  estimated  at  600  to  1,000 
men,  were  on  their  way  to  join  Gen.  Price,  at  Lexington;  and  being  pur- 
sued by  a  body  of  700  Iowa  and  Missouri  Unionist  volunteers,  they  laid 
in  ambush,  and  were  attacked.  The  Federals  lost  16  killed  and  80 
wounded;  the  Confederates  lost  10  killed  and  60  wounded,  repulsed  their 
assailants,  and  then  crossed  over  to  Blue  Mills,  in  Jackson  county,  on  the 
south  side  of  the  Missouri,  and  marched  on  to  Lexington. 

September  iS-ip. — Main  battle  of  Lexington. 

September  20. — Col.  Mulligan  surrendered.  Gen.  Price  honorably  rec- 
ognized the  pluck  and  splendid  heroism  of  his  opponents,  who  were  out 
of  both  provisions  and  ammunition,  and  for  two  days  had  had  no  water 
except  the  night  dews  which  settled  in  their  blankets  and  was  wrung  out 
into  camp  dishes  in  the  morning.  He  released  the  privates  on  parole,  but 
retained  the  officers  as  prisoners.  Of  the  Federals  there  were  42  killed 
and  108  wounded.  Gen.  Price  reported  25  killed  and  72  wounded,  from 
his  regular  muster  rolls.  But  nearly  half  the  men  there  with  him  were 
not  formally  enrolled  as  soldiers,  and  the  losses  among  them  could  never 
be  ascertained  with  any  certainty,  though  known  to  be  pretty  large. 

September  21. — A  fight  occurred  at  Papinsville,  in  Bates  county,  in 
which,  as  reported,  17  Unionists  were  killed,  and  40  Confederates  killed 
and  100  captured. 

September  27. — Gen.  Fremont  left  St.  Louis  for  Jefferson  City,  in  pur- 
suit of  Price,  with  an  army  of  15,000  infantry,  5,000  cavalry,  and  86 
pieces  of  artillery;  his  chief  officers  were  Generals  Hunter,  Pope,  Siegel, 
McKinstry  and  Asboth.  But  Price  was  too  good  a  general  to  be  caught 
at  a  disadvantage;  he  however  skillfully  managed  to  lead  the  Federals  on 
wild  goose  chases  after  him  all  over  southern  Missouri. 


October  ij. — Secretary  of  War  Cameron,  and  Adj't.    Gen.   Thomas, 

visited  Fremont  at  Tipton. 

On  the  same  day  the  Federal  garrison  at  Lebanon,  in  LaClede  county, 

was  attacked  unsuccessfully  by  Confederates,    who   lost   27  killed,  12 

wounded,  and  36  taken  prisoners.     Federal  loss,  1  killed   and   several 


October  14.. — On  this  day  Fremont's  army  reported  thus: 

1st  division,    Gen.  Hunter,  at  Tipton 9,750  men 

2d  "  Gen  Pope,  at  Georgetown 9,220  men 

3d  "  Gen.  Siegel,  at  Sedalia 7,980  men 

4th        "  Gen.  Asboth,  at  Tipton 6,451  men 

5th        "  Gen.  McKinstry,  at  Syracuse 5,388  men 

Total 38,789  men 

They  were  all  hunting  for  Gen.  Price,  to  give  him  battle;  he  was  not 
yet  ready  for  a  pitched  battle,  but  he  worried  the  Federals  a  great  deal  by 
decoying  them  into  many  a  long  and  fruitless  march. 

About  this  time  several  small  fights  occurred  in  different  parts  of  the 
state,  but  of  which  few  particulars  can  be  obtained.  The  "  American 
Annual  Cyclopedia,"  for  1861,  gives  the  following  statistics:  Oct.  15, 
Big  River  bridge,  Federal  loss,  1  killed,  7  wounded,  52  missing;  Confed- 
erate loss,  20  killed,  4  wounded.  October  16,  Bolivar  Heights  [in  Polk 
county],  Federal  loss,  7  killed;  Confederate  loss,  150  killed.  Oct.  17, 
Pilot  Knob,  Federal  loss,  1  killed,  10  wounded;  Confederate  loss,  36 
killed.  Oct.  19,  Big  Harrison  Creek,  Federal  loss,  2  killed,  14  wounded; 
Confederate  loss,  14  killed,  8  missing.  Oct.  23,  West  Liberty  [in  Putnam 
county],  Federal  loss,  2  wounded;  Confederate  loss,  15  killed,  30  wounded.* 

October  16. — Recapture  of  Lexington  by  Major  White,  releasing  Union 
prisoners,  including  two  colonels  of  Mulligan's  brigade. 

October  21. — Battle  of  Fredericktown,  in  Madison  countv.  Confeder- 
ate Col.  Jeff  Thompson  was  defeated  with  loss  of  200  killed,  and  made  a 
hasty  retreat,  leaving  60  of  his  dead  behind  him.     Federal  loss,  30  killed. 

October  24. — Battle  of  Springfield.  Major  Zagonyi,  with  300  cavalry, 
known  as  "  Fremont's  Bodv  Guard,  "  attacked  an  irregular  force  estima- 
ted at  1,200  foot  and  400  horsemen,  and  defeated  them,  losing  84  of  his 
men  killed  or  wounded;  100  of  his  troops  were  Kentnckians.  The  Con- 
federate loss  was  known  to  be  considerable,  but  could  never  be  fully  ascer- 
tained; their  dead  were  buried  the  next  day,  under  a  flag  of  truce. 

October  27. — Gen.  Siegel  reached  Springfield  with  his  division.  Fre- 
mont was  concentrating  his  army  at  Springfield,  to  fortify  and  hold  it  as 

*In  the  greater  number  of  battles  in  this  state  the  Federals  had  the  advantage  of  more 
artillery  than  the  Confederates,  and  men  better  skilled  in  its  use;  and  this  is  why  the 
losses  on  the  Confederate  side  so  often  seem  out  of  proportion. 


the  key  to  southwestern    Missouri  and  northern    Arkansas,  where  Price 
and  MeCulloch  were  operating. 

November  2. — Fremont  was  removed  from  command  and  Gen.  Hunter 
placed  in  his  stead. 

November  2. — A  sharp  tight  occurred  on  Bee  Creek,  between  Weston 
and  Platte  City,  in  Platte  county:  the  Confederate  loss  is  given  as  13  killed 
and  30  missing;  Federal  loss  not  known. 

November  7. — Gen.  Hunter  evacuated  Springfield  and  fell  back  to  Rolla. 
This  same  day  the  battle  of  Belmont  occurred;  Federal  loss,  84  killed, 
388  wounded,  and  285  taken  prisoners.  Pollard's  "Southern  History" 
says  the  Confederate  loss  in  this  battle  was  632.  But  the  National  Hand- 
Book  reports  the  Confederate  losses  as  261  killed,  427  wounded,  and  278 

November  18. — Gen.  H.  W.  Halieck  arrived  at  St.  Louis  and  took  com- 
mand, in  place  of  Gen.  Hunter. 

November  21. — Gen. Halieck  issued  an  order  that  no  fugitive  slaves  should 
be  permitted  to  enter  the  lines  of  any  camp,  nor  of  any  forces  on  the  march- 
(^President  Lincoln  had  some  time  before  this  annulled  Gen.  Fremont's 
order  declaring  certain  slaves  free.) 

November  27. —  Gen.  J.  M.  Schofield  placed  in  command  of  Missouri 
Federal  troops. 

November  and  December. — During  these  months  there  occurred  several 
irregular  conflicts  of  no  great  importance,  but  still  deemed  worthy  of  cas- 
ual mention  in  Horace  Greely's  History  of  the  War,  because  they  served 
to  show  how  the  Missouri  people  were  divided  among  themselves,  and 
therebv  suffered  the  more.  The  village  of  Warsaw  was  burned  Nov.  19,. 
and  Platte  City,  Dec.  16,  by  guerillas;  a  small  fight  occurred  at  Salem 
Dec.  3,  at  Rogers'  mill  Dec.  7,  and  at  or  near  Glasgow,  Potosi,  Lexing- 
ton, Mount  Zion,  and  Sturgeon,  on  Dec.  2Sth. 

December  j. — Col.  Freeman  with  a  regiment  of  Confederate  cavalry, 
made  a  night  attack  on  Federal  troops  under  Col.  Bowen,  near  Salem,  in 
Dent  county,  and  was  defeated,  with  a  loss  of  16  killed,  20  wounded  and 
10  prisoners.  Federal  loss,  3  killed,  8  wounded,  2  missing.  Col.  Free- 
man had  suffered  a  sore  defeat  near  Springer's  mill,  in  the  east  part  of 
the  county,  in  August;  but  no  further  particulars  could  be  obtained. 

December  75. — Gen.  Pope  captured  300  recruits  and  70  wagons  loaded 
with  supplies,  going  from  Lexington  to  join  Gen.  Price,  who  was  then  at 
Osceola  with  8,000  men. 

December  18. — Col.  J.  C.  Davis,  of  Pope's  army,  surprised  a  Confeder- 
ate camp  at  Milford,  and  captured  3  colonels,  17  captains,  1,300  soldiers,. 
1,000  stand  of  arms,  1,000  horses,  besides  all  their  tents,  baggage  and 
supplies.     Federal  loss,  2  killed,  17  wounded. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    MISSOURI.  .o!> 

December  90. — By  a  concerted  night  attack,  the  Hannibal  &  St.  Joe 
railroad  was  broken,  and  bridges  destroyed  tor  about  a  hundred  miles* 

OPERATIONS    IN    lVl .' _ 

March  j. — Price  and  McCulloch,  at  Boston  Mountain,  Arkansas,  were 
joined  by  Maj.  Gen.  \  an  Dorn.  Confederate  commander  of  the  Trans- 
Mississippi  department,  and  by  Gen.  Pike,  with  a  brigade  of  Indians  from 
the  Indian  Territory.  This  army  now  numbered  about  20,000,  all  under 
Gen.  Van  Dorn.  , 

March  y-8. — Battle  of  Pea  Ridge.  Although  Pea  Ridge  is  really  in 
Arkansas  (just  over  the  line  i,  the  battle  was  fought  bv  the  Confederates 
to  regain  a  foothold  in  Missouri,  and  it  properly  belongs  to  the  historv  of 
Missouri  military  operations.  The  Federal  forces  under  Gen.  Curtis 
engaged  in  this  battle  were  10,500  men  and  49  cannon.  Gen.  Van  Dorn's 
army  is  variously  given  by  different  southern  authorities,  all  :he  way 
from  16,000  to  30,000.  The  Federal  loss  was  303  killed,  972  wounded,  176 
missing.  Count  Paris"  history  states  that  the  Confederates  "left  more 
than  one  thousand  men  in  killed  and  wounded  upon  that  long-contested 
battle-field/'  The  Confederate  Generals  McCulloch  and  Mcintosh  were 
mortally  wounded  in  this  battle,  and  Gen.  Buckner  was  captured.  The 
Confederates  lost  1,100  killed,  2,500  wounded,  and  1,600  taken  prisoners. 

August  6. — Battle  of  Kirksville.  Col.  Porter,  with  2,000  or  3,000  Con- 
federates, mostly  raw  recruits  who  had  been  destroying  bridges,  was 
attacked  bv  Col.  McNeil  with  1,000  cavalry  and  6  cannon.  Battle  lasted 
four  hours.  Confederates  retreated,  with  loss  of  ISO  killed  and 
wounded,  and  some  wagon  loads  of  arms  and  other  supplies.  Federal 
loss,  88  killed  and  60  wounded. 

August  io. — Federals  attacked  1,200  Confederates  under  Col.  Poindex- 
ter  while  crossing  the  Chariton  river.  After  a  running  right  of  three  or 
four  days,  Col.  Poindexters  troops  were  all  killed,  captured  or  dispersed, 
and  himself  taken  prisoner. 

August  ii. — Col.  Hughes  captured  the  Federal  garrison  of  312  men  of 
the  7th  Missouri  cavalry,  stationed  at  Independence. 

August  ij. — Battle  of  Lone  Jack,  in  Jackson  county.  Col.  Coffey  and 
Col.  Hughes,  with  4*500  men,  attacked  the  Federals  under  Major  Foster, 
wounding  him,  capturing  his  two  cannon,  and  compelling  him  to  retreat 
to   Lexington.     The  victorious  Confederates  were  in  turn  pursued  by 

"♦Jly  order  of  Gen.  Sterling  Price,  it  [the  North  Missouri  Railroad]  was  partially- 
destroyed  in  June  and  Jul  v.  1861;  and  on  the  20th  of  December.  1661.  for  a  hundred  miles, 
everv  bridge  and  culvert  was  broken  down,  and  a  perfect  wreck  made  of  everything  that 
could  be  destroyed.  In  September  and  October,  1664.  two  trains  of  cars  and  seven  depots 
were  burned,  and  several  encines  iDJured." — Annual  Report  State  Ccmnnitaioner  of  Stati$- 
t»«,  1866 ;  p.  258. 


stronger  bodies  of  the  National  troops,  and  rapidly  retreated  toward 

September  24.. — Gen.  Curtis  placed  in  command  of  all  Union  troops  in 

October  1. — Battle  of  Newtonia,  in  Newton  county.  Gen.  Salomon,  of 
Wisconsin,  was  defeated  by  Confederate  cavalry.  Losses  not  known. 
Gen.  Hindman  was  advancing  from  Arkansas  with  13,000  to  20,000  Con- 
federates, poorly  armed.  Gen.  Schofield  came  up  with  10,000  troops  to 
attack  him  at  Newtonia,  but  he  retreated  back  into  Arkansas,  closely 
pursued  by  the  Federals. 

December  7. — Battle  of  Prairie  Grove,  Ark.  This,  being  just  over  the 
line,  was  practically  a  Missouri  battle;  it  was  fought  between  the  same 
armies  which  had  been  so  long  contending  for  the  mastery  in  this  state. 
Our  own  state  Generals,  Marmaduke,  Parsons  and  Frost,  were  in  com- 
mand, under  Gen.  Hindman.  The  Federal  commanders  were  Generals 
Blunt  and  Herron.  Federal  loss,  495  killed,  600  wounded;  the  Confeder- 
ates lost  1,500  in  killed  and  wounded,  and  suffered  a  defeat. 

events  in  1863. 

January  8. — Battle  of  Springfield.  General  Brown  with  1,200  Mis- 
souri State  militia,  was  attacked  by  Gen.  Marmaduke  with  1,870  Confed- 
erate troops.  The  battle  lasted  eight  hours.  Federal  loss,  14  killed,  145 
wounded,  5  missing.  Confederates  lost,  41  killed  and  160  wounded,  80 
of  the  latter  being  left  as  prisoners. 

January  11. — Battle  of  Hartsville.  Firing  commenced  at  11  A.  M.,  and 
continued  until  4:30  p.  m.  Confederates  under  Generals  Marmaduke  and 
Porter  lost  300  killed  and  wounded,  and  29  taken  prisoners.  Among  the 
killed  were  Gen.  McDonald  and  Col.  Porter,  besides  six  other  officers.  The 
Federals  were  under  Col.  Samuel  Merrill,  (afterward  Governor  of  Iowa), 
and  lost  7  killed,  64  wounded  and  7. missing.  The  Confederates  retreated 
back  into  Arkansas. 

March  28. — Steamboat  "  Sam.  Gaty  "  captured  by  Confederates  at 
Sibley's  landing,  near  Independence. 

April  26. — The  Federal  garrison  at  Cape  Girardeau  under  Gen.  Mc- 
Neil was  attacked  by  Gen.  Marmaduke  with  10,000  men,  and  a  battle  of 
five  hours  ensued,  in  which  the  assailants  lost  60  killed  and  over  300 
wounded.  They  retreated  back  into  Arkansas,  being  pursued  to  the  state 
line  by  Missouri  militia,  and  a  few  more  were  killed  or  captured. 

May  1  j. — Gen.  Schofield  was  placed  in  command  in  Missouri,  succeed- 
ing Gen.  Curtis. 

August  ij. — Col.  Coffey,  Confederate,  attacked  the  6th  Missouri  cav- 
alry under  Col.  Catherwood,  at  Pineville,  in  McDonald  county,  and  was 


repulsed,  with    loss   of  200   killed,    wounded    and  prisoners,  besides  his 
wagons,  munitions  and  cattle. 

October  /j.— Battle  near  Arrow  Rock,  Saline  county.  Confederates 
reported  2,500  in  number,  under  Cols.  Shelby  and  Coffey,  were  attacked 
by  Missouri  state  militia  under  Gen.  E.  B.  Brown,  and  defeated  with  a 
loss  of  300  in  killed,  wounded  and  prisoners,  besides  all  their  artillery  and 
baggage.  Fight  lasted  five  hours.  Federal  loss  not  known,  though 
reported  as  "  also  large." 

events  in  1864. 

January  28. — Gen.  Rosecrans  arrived  at  St.  Louis  and  took  command 
of«the  Department  of  Missouri. 

June  — .The  Belgian  Consul,  who  was  state  commander  of  the  secret 
order  of  "  American  Knights, "  or  "  Sons  of  Liberty,  "  was  arrested,  with 
forty  of  the  most  prominent  members,  and  held  as  hostages,  because  proof 
had  been  discovered  that  they  were  plotting  against  the  Federal  authori- 

September  26.— Gen.  Price,  with  10,000  men,  attacked  the  Federal  gar- 
rison at  Ironton  (near  Pilot  Knob\  in  command  of  Gen.  Thomas  Ewing, 
jr.,  with  1,200  men.  After  a  day's  hard  fighting  the  Federals  spiked  their 
fort  guns  and  retreated  in  the  night  to  Rolla,  having  lost  200  killed  and 
wounded.     The  Confederates  lost  1,500. 

October  7. — Battle  or  skirmish  of  Moreau  creek,  in  Cole  county,  which 
Gen.  Price  crossed,  and  formed  his  army  in  line  of  battle  about  four  miles 
long  around  Jefferson  City.  But  finding  the  Federal  garrison  intrenched, 
he  marched  on  west  without  attacking  them.  (The  Federals  had  6,700 
men  there). 

October  22.— Gen.  Pleasanton's  Federal  cavalry  defeated  Col.  Fagan  at 
Independence,  capturing  two  cannon. 

October  23. — Battle  on  the  Big  Blue  creek,  in  Jackson  county,  lasting 
from  7  a.  m.,  till  1  p.  m.     Confederates  retreated  southward. 

October  25. — Battle  on  little  Osage  Creek  in  Vernon  countv.  Gen. 
Price  was  defeated,  the  Federals  under  Gen.  Pleasonton  capturing  eight 
cannon,  and  Generals  Marmaduke  and  Cabell,  besides  five  colonels  and 
1,000  men,  with  all  equipments,  supplies,  etc.  The  fighting  had  been 
almost  continuous  by  some  part  of  the  troops,  all  along  the  march  from 
Independence  to  the  Little  Osage;  and  reports  at  this  point  give  the  Fed- 
eral loss  at  1,000  killed  and  wounded,  and  about  2,000  taken  prisoners; 
Confederate  loss,  900  killed,  3,800  wounded  and  prisoners,  and  ten  cannon 
captured  from  them. 

October  28. — Gen.  Price  again  made  a  stand  at  Newtonia,  in  Newton 
county,  and  had  a  sharp  fight  with  the  Federals  under  Gens.  Blunt  and  San- 
born, but  was  defeated  and  escaped  into  Arkansas.     And  this  was  the 


last  encounter  that  can  be  called  a  "battle"  within  the  bounds  of  our  state. 
The  numbers  engaged  on  either  side,  and  their  losses  in  this  last  fight  are 
not  reported. 


Under  President  Lincoln's  first  call,  April  15,  1861,  for  75,000  volun- 
teers, Missouri  furnished  10,501  men;  and  she  furnished  a  total  of  108,773 
Federal  or  Union  soldiers  during  the  war.  The  total  number  of  citizens 
of  Missouri  who  took  up  arms  on  the  Confederate  side  cannot  be  ascer- 

During  the  war  the  state  issued  its  indebtedness  called  "Defense  War- 
rants" and  "Union  Military  Bonds,"  for  equipping  and  maintaining  the 
militia  organizations  of  the  state;  the  total  amount  was  $7,870,575.  All 
■of  the  defense  warrants  and  one-half  of  the  Union  military  bonds  were 
made  receivable  for  state  taxes;  and  a  special  fund  was  created  for  the 
redemption  of  the  balance.  The  United  States  paid  to  the  state  of  Mis- 
souri a  total  of  $6,440,323.95,  to  reimburse  her  for  military  expenses 


Notwithstanding  the  strenuous  competition  of  other  cities,  the  superior 
advantages  of  St.  Louis  for  distribution,  and  a  due  regard  for  its  own 
interests,  compelled  the  government  to  make  St.  Louis  the  western  base 
of  supplies  and  transportation.  During  the  war  the  transactions  of  the 
government  at  this  point  were  very  large.  Gen.  Parsons,  chief  of  trans- 
portation in  the  Mississippi  Valley,  submits  the  following  as  an  approxi- 
mate summary  of  the  operations  in  his  department  from  1S60  to  1S65: 


Cannons  and  caissons 800 

Wagons 13,000 

Cattle 80,000 

Horses  and  mules 250,000 

Troops 1,000,000 

Pounds   of  military  stores 1,950,000,000 

Gen.  Parsons  thinks  that  full  one-half  of  all  the  transportation  employed 
by  the  government  on  the  Mississippi  and  its  tributaries  was  furnished  by 
St.  Louis.  From  September,  1881,  to  December  31, 1865,  Gen.  Haines, 
chief  commissary  of  this  department,  expended  at  St.  Louis  for  the  pur- 
chase of  subsistence  stores,  $50,700,000.  And  Gen.  Myers,  chief  quar- 
termaster of  the  department,  disbursed  for  supplies,  transportation,  and 
incidental  expenses,  $180,000,000. 



As  a  part  of  the  war  history  of  Missouri,  the  /military  hospitals  of  St. 
Louis  claim  at  least  a  brief  mention.  After  the  battle  of  Wilson's  Creek 
it  became  apparent  that  the  government  provision  for  hospitals  was 
entirely  inadequate  to  the  emergency.  A  voluntary  organization,  called 
the  Western  Sanitary  Commission,  was  formed,  consisting  of  James  E. 
Yeatman  (now  of  the  Merchant's  National  Bank),  Rev.  Wm.  G.  Eliot,  D. 
D.,  (now  Chancellor  of  Washington  University),  George  Partridge, 
(recently  Vice  President  of  Trustees  of  State  Blind  Asylum),  Carlos  S. 
Greeley  and  John  B.  Johnson.  Their  purpose  was  to  receive  and  distrib- 
ute hospital  supplies  furnished  by  the  people,  and  in  every  practicable  way 
aid  and  co-operate  with  the  military  authorities  in  the  care  of  the  sick  and 
wounded.  The  first  woman  regularly  mustered  into  the  United  States 
service  as  a  hospital  nurse,  in  Missouri,  was  Mrs.  F.  R.  H.  Reid,  M.  D., 
from  Wisconsin,  (now  resides  at  Des  Moines,  Iowa).  She  was  the 
woman  coadjutor  of  U.  S.  Surgeon,  Dr.  Mills,  in  opening  and  starting  the 
first  large  volunteer  hospital,  which  was  known  as  the  Chestnut  street 
hospital;  and  afterward  she  took  the  same  part  in  the  Fourth  street  hos- 
pital; and  also  with  Dr.  Melchior  in  the  Marine  hospital;  also  in  a  tem- 
porary post  hospital  at  Su'phur  Springs. 

To  give  an  idea  of  the  largeness  of  the  hospital  work,  we  quote  from  a 
circular  printed  at  St.  Louis,  Nov.  22,  1861,*  which  says:  "There  are 
ten  military  hospitals  in  St.  Louis  alone,  with  a  maximum  capacity  for 
3,500  patients.  The  number  of  patients  varies  every  day,  but  on  Wednes- 
day, November  20th,  they  reported  patients  under  treatment  as  follows: 

House  of  Refuge  hospital,  [Sisters  of  Charity  nurses] 475 

Fifth  and  Chestnut  streets  hospital,, 464 

Good  Samaritan  hospital,  [for  measles,] 173 

Fourth  street  hospital, 328 

Jefferson  barracks  hospital 72 

Arsenal  hospital, 16 

Camp  Benton  hospital, 106 

Pacific  hospital,  [depot  for  the  hospital  cars] 30 

~\incan's  Island  hospital,  [for  small-pox:  cases  all  convalescent,] ....        4 
Convalescent  barracks,  [known  as  Camp  Benton,] 800 

Total, 2,468 

"(This  does  not  include  the  company,  regiment  and  brigade  hospitals, 
of  which  there  are  several.)  The  average  mortality  has  been  about  four 
per  cent.  A  hospital  car,  properly  fitted  up  and  manned,  passes  daily 
over  the  railroad  to  the  interior,  to  bring  in  the  sick  and  wounded.  The 
arrangements  for  decent  burial,  registration  of  deaths,  identification,  etc., 

♦Prepared  and  published  by  H.  A.  Reid,  Associate  Member  for  Wisconsin  of  the  U.  S. 
Sanitary  Commission. 


are  very  complete.  The  body  of  any  soldier  who  may  die  in  any  of  the 
hospitals  may  be  identified,  and  removed  for  other  obsequies  or  burial  by 
relatives  or  friends.  There  are  no  hospital  chaplains;  but  nurses  are  in- 
structed by  the  sanitary  commission,  that  every  patient  who  asks  for  it, 
will  be  visited  by  a  clergyman  of  his  own  choice,  at  any  hour." 

There  were  hospitals  also  at  Jefferson  City,  Rolla  and  Ironton  at  this 
time.  This  circular  contained  a  classified  list,  prepared  by  Mrs.  Reid,  of 
over  a  hundred  different  articles  needed  for  the  care,  comfort  and  welfare 
of  the  soldiers  in  hospital,  beyond  what  the  general  government  could 
furnish;  the  whole  document  was  reprinted  by  state  authority  at  Madison, 
Wisconsin,  and  widely  circulated.  In  a  letter  dated  St.  Louis,  Jan.  14, 
1862,  Mr.  Yeatman  said:  "Wisconsin  has  contributed  most  largely  to- 
wards supplying  comforts  for  the  sick  in  camps  and  hospitals  in  this 
department,  second  to  but  one  other  state — Massachusetts. " 

There  was  a  prison  hospital  for  sick  Confederate  prisoners,  to  whom 
supplies  were  furnished  from  the  stores  of  the  sanitary  commission,  the 
same  as  to  the  Union  soldiers;  and  wounded  Confederates  were  cared  for 
in  the  general  hospitals  the  same  as  those  of  the  Federal  troops.  The 
writer  hereof  was  an  eye-witness  to  this  fact;  and  is  glad  to  record  it  as  a 
testimony  of  the  true  Christian  spirit  of  the  sanitary  commission  and  the 
magnanimity  of  the  Federal  authorities. 


The  civil  authority  of  the  state  remained  vested  in  the  state  conven- 
tion from  July,  1861,  until  July,  1863.  This  provisional  body  held  the 
following  sessions: 

1861— Jefferson  City,  February  28  to  March  4. 
St.  Louis,  March  6  to  March  22. 
Jefferson  City,  July  22  to  July  81. 
St.  Louis,  October  10  to  October  18. 

1862— Jefferson  City,  June  2  to  June  14. 

1863— Jefferson  City,  June  15  to  July  1,  when  it  adjourned  sine  die. 

The  course  of  affairs  had  now  become  so  far  settled  and  pacified  that 
civil  proceedings  were  again  possible,  and  the  regular  fall  elections  were 
held  this  year,  1863.  On  the  13th  of  February,  1864,  the  general  assem- 
bly convened,  and  passed  an  act  to  authorize,  the  election  of  sixty-six 
members  to  a  state  convention,  "to  consider  such  amendments  to  the  con- 
stitution of  the  state  as  might  by  it  be  deemed  necessary  for  the  emanci- 
pation of  slaves;*  to  preserve  in  purity  the  elective  franchise  to  loyal 
citizens,  and  for  the  promotion  of  the  public  good." 

This  convention  met  in  St.  Louis,  January  6,  1865;  and  on  the  11th  of 

*  President  Lincoln's  emancipation  proclamation,  January  1,  1863,  only  applied  to  slaves 
within  such  states  or  parts  of  states  as  were  then  controlled  by  the  Confederate  power. 



the  same  month  it  passed,  by  a  vote  of  sixty  ayes  to  four  noes,  an  ordi- 
nance emancipating  all  slaves  within  the  state,  and  providing  that  it 
should  take  effect  immediately.  The  convention  also  framed  a  new  con- 
stitution, in  many  respects  quite  different  from  the  old  one.  The  final 
vote  in  convention  on  the  new  instrument  stood  thirty-eight  for,  to  thirteen 
against  it.  The  convention  adjourned  April  10,  sine  die.  In  June  the 
people  voted  on  the  new  constitution,  and  the  vote  stood  43,670  for,  to 
41,808  against  it. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  most  notable  new  features  embodied  in 
the  organic  law  of  the  state,  and  will  readily  explain  why  there  was  such 
a  large  vote  against  its  adoption:  It  established  an  oath  of  loyalty  to  the 
United  States;  and  those  who  would  not  take  the  oath  it  excluded  from 
the  right  to  vote  or  hold  any  civil  office  whatever,  or  act  as  a  teacher  in 
any  public  school,  or  to  solemnize  marriage  as  a  clergyman,  or  to  practice 
law  in  any  of  the  courts.  It  limited  the  amount  of  land  which  any  church 
or  religious  society  might  hold  to  five  acres  of  land  in  the  country,  or  one 
acre  in  town  or  city;  provided  for  taxing  church  property;  and  declared 
void  any  will  bequeathing  property  to  any  clergyman,  religious  teacher 
or  religious  society  as  such.  There  was  a  section  designed  to  prevent 
the  state  from  giving  public  property,  lands  or  bonds,  to  railroad  compa- 
nies. It  provided  that  after  January  1,  1S76,  no  one  could  become  a  law- 
ful voter  who  was  not  sufficiently  educated  to  be  able  to  read  and  write. 

July  1,  1865,  the  governor,  Thomas  C.  Fletcher,  made  proclamation 
that  the  new  constitution  had  been  duly  ratified  by  a  lawful  majority  of 
the  people,  and  was  thenceforth  the  organic  law  of  the  state.  A  few 
amendments  have  been  since  adopted;  but  in  all  important  points  it 
remains  the  same  to  this  day. 




The  geological  history  of  Missouri  commences  at  the  very  bottom  of 
the  scale,  or,  in  what  may  be  termed  the  fire-crust  period  of  geologic 
time.  (See  chart  on  page  67).  Dana's  "Manual  of  Geology"  is  the 
great  standard  work  all  over  the  United  States  on  this  subject.  In  his 
chapter  on  Archaean  Time  he  gives  a  map  and  brief  sketch  of  our  North 
American  continent  as  it  existed  at  that  remote  period,  which  was, 
according  to  a  calculation  made  for  the  Royal  Society  of  London  in  1879,* 
about  600,000,000  years  ago.  And  as  this  is  where  Missouri  first  comes 
to  light,  we  quote  Prof.  Dana's  account  of  the  very  meagre  areas  and 
points  of  our  continent  which  stood  alone  above  the  primeval  ocean  that 
then  enveloped  the  entire  globe  with  its  bubbling,  seething,  sputtering 
wavelets — an  enormous  caldron  of  boiling,  steaming  silicious  lye,  rather 
than  water.     Dana  says: 

"  The  principal  of  the  areas  is  The  Great  JYorthern,  nucleal  to  the  con- 
tinent, lying  mostly  in  British  America,  and  having  the  shape  of  the  letter 
V,  one  "arm  reaching  northeastward  to  Labrador,  and  the  other  north- 
westward from  Lake  Superior  to  the  Arctic.  The  region  appears  to 
have  been  for  the  most  part  out  of  water  ever  since  the  Archaean  era.f 
To  this  area  properly  belong  the  Adirondack  area,  covering  the  larger 
part  of  northern  New  York,  and  a  Michigan  area  south  of  Lake  Supe- 
rior, each  of  which  was  probably  an  island  in  the  continental  sea  before 
the  Silurian  age  began. 

"  Beside  this  nucleal  area,  there  are  border-mountain  lines  of  Archaean 
rocks:  a  long  Appalachian  line,  including  the  Highland  Ridge  of  Dutch- 
ess county,  New  York,  and  New  Jersey,  and  the  Blue  Ridge  of  Penn- 
sylvania "and  Virginia;  a  long  Rocky  Mountain  series,  embracing  the 
Wind  River  mountains,  the  Laramie  range  and  other  summit  ridges  of 
the  Rocky  Mountains.  In  addition,  in  the  eastern  border  region,  there  is 
an  Atlantic  coast  range,  consisting  of  areas  in  New  Foundland,  Nova 
Scotia  and  eastern  New  England.  In  the  western  border  region,  a 
Pacific  coast  range  in  Mexico;  and  several  more  or  less  isolated  areas  in 
the  Mississippi  basin,  west  of  the  Mississippi,  as  in  Missouri,  Arkansas, 
Texas,  and  the  Black  Hills  of  Dakota." — Dana's  Manual,  p.  150. 

*See  Popular  Science  Monthly,  May,  1879,  p.  137. 

■f-The  "Archaean  era,"  as  used  by  Prof.  Dana,  in  1874,  (the  date  of  his  latest  revision) 
included  both  the  "Azoic  Age,"  and  "Age  of  Zooliths,"  as  shown  on  the  chart,  p.  67.  When 
Prof.  Dana  wrote,  it  was  still  an  open  question  whether  the  "eozoon"  was  of  animal  or 
mineral  origin ;  but  the  highest  authorities  are  now  agreed  that  it  was  animal ;  and  Prof. 
Reid  has,  therefore,  very  properly  given  it  a  distinct  place  in  his  "  Zoic  Calendar." 




Including  the  Rock  Scale  of  Geological  Periods  and  the  "  Zoic  Calendar  of  Creation."  Compiled 
from  the  works  of  Agassiz,  Lyell,  Huxley,  Hackel,  Dana,  LeConte,  and  other  first  rank  authorities  in 
Science  at  the  present  time.  By  Hibajc  A.  Reid,  Secretary  State  Academy  of  Sciences  at  Dcs  Moines , 
Iowa.    [Published  by  permission  of  the  Author.] 

Explanation.  — The  side  line 
at  the  left  shows  what  portions  of 
geological  time  are  comprehended 
in  the  terms  ••eozoic,"  "  paleo- 
zoic," etc  .  The  first  column 
shows  the  periods  or  '•Ages"  of 
geological  time  during  which  the 
different  successive  types  of  ani- 
mal life  predominated,  or  were  the 
highest  types  then  in  existence. 
And  these  two  divisions  form  the 
"Zoic  Calendar  of  Creation." 

The  second  column  shows  the 
great  general  groupings  of  rock  which  are  found  the  fossil 
remains  of  the  corresponding  ani- 
mal types  named  in  th>;  first  col- 
umn. But,  at  the  "Age  of  Rep- 
tiles" occurs  a  grand  divergement, 
for  it  was  during  this  age  that  an- 
imal life  pushed  out  into  its  most 
wonderful  developments ;  and 
there  came  into  existence  strange 
and  marvelous  forms  of  swimming 
reptile*,  four-footed  and  two-foot- 
ed walking  reptiles,  and  two-foot- 
ed and  four-footed  flying  reptiles. 
Here  also  the  true  bird*  began  to 
appear,  though  with  reptilian  pe- 
culiarities; and  likewise  the  mar- 
supial anima'.s,  which  are  a  tran- 
sitional type,  between  reptiles 
that  produce  their  young  by  laving 
esas  and  the  true  mammals,  that 
bring  forth  their  young  well  ma- 
tured and  then  suckle  them. 

The  third  column  shows  the  les- 
ser groupings  of  rock  beds  as  clas- 
sified by  our  American  geologists; 
but  many  minor  subdivisions  and 
local  groups  are  omitted  lor  want 
of  space.  At  the  top  of  this  col- 
nmn  are  shown  the  geological  pe- 
riods of  first  appearance  ol  races 
of  man.  so  far  as  now  authentica- 
ted by  competent  scientific  au- 

The  fourth  column  shows  the 
number  of  feet  in  thickness  of  the 
different  groups  of  rock  layers  as 
indicated  by  the  braces. 

This  Chart  is  the  most  compre- 
hensive and  thorough  in  its  de- 
tails, and  yet  the  most  systemati- 
cally and  graphically  presented  to 
the  ejc,  of  anything  in  its  line 
that  has  ever  yet  been  published. 
Here  is  the  whole  story  of  geol- 
ogy and  the  ascent  of  life  con- 
densed into  the  space  of  a  few 
inches,  yet  so  plainly  set  forth  as 
to  readily  fix  itself  in  the  memory 
like  an  "outline  map.  Scientific 
terms  in  newspapers  and  maga- 
zines often  catch  the  reader  at  a 
disadvantage;  but  a  reference  to 
this  chart  will  at  once  show  the 
relative  place  or  period  in  crea- 
tional  progress  to  which  the  best 
authorized  geological  terms  apply. 
It  reaches,  like  a  Jacob's  ladder, 
from  the  lowest  inklings  to  the 
highest  ideals  of  life  on  the  earth, 
as  taught  by  modern  science  and 
the  Christian  Bible. 



ee  Psalms  8:5  LukeM:3S 
Mark  li:-:5  1  Cor.l5:« 
Heb.2:2to9  ReT.22:S,9 

-A.gre  of 


Age  of 

Age  of 


Age  of 

Age  of 







PERIOD.     x  s       Tribe« 


Rude  Agricul 

Terrace  Epoch.     *^    s 


iplain  Epoch,  p* 




Feet  in 

o  f  t  h  e 
group*  of 
rock  form- 




Cretaceous.  [  9,000 

___ J 

1  800  to 

\  1.000 



J.3,000  to 
I       5,000 



Upper  Silurian. 

Lower  Silurian, 


"This  Age  alone  was 
probably  longer  in  dura- 
tion than  all  subsequent 
jeolozical  time." — Pbop. 

w  Primordial  Vegetation 

Eozoon  RocKs. 

Graphite  Beds. 



1 6,000  to 

Measures.  !    14-s™ 

Sub-Carboniferous,    i 




!  9,050  to 


!  6,000  to 


i  la.oonto 

-  J      15,000 


\     tJO.OOO 



Metamorphic  Granites 


-    Un.*rati- 
'  tied. 

Ciprright  1<TJ:  H. A. Reid 

f     180.000,00(1  mi  in  exiling  I 
Qt         down  to  200*  F.  at  the  sor-  '.     Depth 
I  face  [Prof.  Hklstholtz],  a  j  an  known. 
I  temperature  at  which  very 
low  forms  of  vegetation  can 
( exist.  J 

*"  The  existence  of  Pliocene  man  in  Tuscany  ii,  then,  in  nr  opinion,  an 
Beries,  Vol.  XXVII,  p.  151.       "The  Miocene  man  of  La  Beau  ■-  already  knew  the  use  of  fire,  and  worked  flint."  —  lb.  p.  ■:'■»->.      See  also.  Prof. 
Winchell's  "Pre-Adamites."  pp.  42$-"-$ .        "  The  hsman  race  in  America  is  ihown  to  be  at  lesut  of  as  ancient  a  date  as  that  of  the  European 
Pliocene."— Prof.  J,  D.Whitney,    Similar  views  ar»  held  by  Profs.  Leily,  Marsh,  Cope,  Morse,  Wyman,  and  other  scientist!  of  highest  repute. 

•r-aitidc  fact."  —  See  Appletons'  International  Scientific 
-  the  use  of  fire,  and  worked  flint." 


Thus,  then,  with  the  very  first  emergence  of  dry  land  out  of  the  heav- 
ily saturated  and  steaming  mineral  waters  of  the  primeval  ocean,  we  have 
Pilot  Knob,  Shepherd  Mountain,  and  a  few  smaller  peaks  in  their  vicin- 
ity, forming  an  island  in  the  vast  expanse.  The  next  nearest  island  was 
a  similar  one  at  the  Black  Hills,  in  Dakota.  There  is  no  reason  as  yet 
known  6or  believing  that  any  form  of  life,  either  animal  or  vegetable,  had 
yet  appeared  in  our  Missouri  region.  The  ocean  water  was  still  too  hot, 
and  still  too  powerfully  surcharged  with  mineral  salts,  alkalis  and  acids 
to  admit  of  any  living  tissues  being  formed;  and  the  atmosphere  was  in 
like  manner  thickly  loaded  with  deadliest  acids  in  the  form  of  vapors, 
which  would  partially  condense  as  they  arose,  and  fall  upon  the  iron- 
headed  islands  to  form  a  mineral  crust,  and  then  be  broken  and  washed 
back  into  the  sea.  But  this  process  being  kept  up  and  incessantly 
repeated  for  millions  of  years  (see  Prof.  Helmholtz's  estimate  at  bottom 
of  the  chart),  both  sea  and  air  became  gradually  purified  of  its  excess  of 
minerals  and  acids;  and  the  water  sufficiently  Cooled  to  admit  of  living 
tissues  being  formed;  and  meanwhile  the  condensing  and  crust-forming- 
elements  precipitated  from  the  vapor-laden  air  or  deposited  directly  from 
the  bulk  waters  of  the  shoreless  sea,  were  busily  forming  the  solid  earth. 
The  different  incrustations  would  each  be  a  little  different  in  their  com- 
ponent elements;  and  then  being  broken  up  and  mixed  together  and 
recombined,  partly  in  the  form  of  rough  fragments,  partly  in  the  form  of 
dust  or  sand  ground  into  this  state  by  mechanical  attrition,  partly  in  the 
form  of  fluidized  or  vaporized  solutions,  and  partly  in  the  form  of  molten 
masses  produced  directly  by  the  earth's  internal  fires,  the  process  of  com- 
bining and  recombining,  with  continual  variation  in  the  proportions,  went 
on  through  the  long,  dreary,  sunless  and  lifeless  Azoic  Age. 

But  as  soon  as  the  great  ocean  caldron  got  cooled  down  to  about  200 
degrees  Fahrenheit,  it  was  then  possible  for  a  very  low  form  of  vegetation 
to  exist;  and  although  no  fossil  remains  of  the  first  existing  forms  of  such 
vegetation  have  yet  been  found,  or  at  least  not  conclusively  identified  as 
such,  yet  graphite  or  plumbago,  the  material  from  which  our  lead  pencils 
are  made,  is  found  in  connection  with  the  transition  rocks  between  the 
Azoic  and  the  Zoolithian  ages.  Graphite  is  not  a  mineral  at  all,  but  is 
pure  vegetable  carbon,  and  is  supposed  to  be  the  remnant  carbon  of  these 
first  and  lowest  forms  of  tough,  leathery,  flowerless  sea-weeds.  Some 
small  deposits  of  graphite  are  reported  to  have  been  found  in  connection 
with  the  iron  and  metamorphic  granites  of  our  Pilot  Knob  island;  and 
that  would  indicate  the  first  organic  forms  that  came  into  existence  within 
the  boundaries  of  what  now  we  call  the  state  of  Missouri.  Just  think  of 
it!  All  North  America,  except  a  dozen  widely  scattered  spots  or  islands, 
was  covered  with  an  ocean  that  spread  its  seamy  expanse  all  around 
the  globe;  no  sunlight  could  penetrate  the  thick,  dense  cloud  of  vapors 


that  filled  the  enveloping  atmosphere ;  according  to  our  English  author- 
before  cited,  this  was  600,000,000  years  ago,  a  period  which  the  human 
mind  cannot  grasp;  but  the  Almighty  Maker  of  worlds  had  even  then 
commenced  to  make  the  state  of  Missouri  and  its  living  occupants. 

The  earliest  known  forms  of  animal  life,  a  kind  of  coral-making  rhizo- 
pod  (root-footed)  called  Eozoon  Canadcnse,  are  not  found  in  Missouri,  but 
are  found  abundantly  in  what  are  called  the  Laurentian  rocks,  in  Canada 
and  elsewhere.  (See  chart).  It  is  not  to  be  supposed,  however,  that  the 
enormous  period  called  the  "  Age  of  Zooliths  "  passed,  with  forms  of  ani- 
mal life  existing  in  Canada,  but  none  in  our  iron  island  region,  unless  we 
assume  that  the  mineral  acidity  of  the  waters  coming  in  contact  with  this 
island  was  so  intense  as  to  require  all  that  vast  period  for  its  purification 
sufficiently  to  permit  the  existence  of  the  lowest  and  most  structureless 
forms  of  protoplasmic  matter  known  to  science.  Prof.  Swallow  says,  in 
writing  on  the  Physical  Geography  of  Missouri,  "  below  the  magnesian 
limestone  series  we  have  a  series  of  metamorphosed  slates,  which  are 
doubtless  older  than  the  knozun  fossiliferoas  strata;  whether  they  belong  to 
the  Azoic,  the  Laurentian  or  Huronian,  I  am  unable  to  say." 

The  labors  of  our  different  state  geologists  have  not  discovered  any 
fossil  remains  in  Missouri  lower  down  in  the  rock  scale  than  what  is  called 
the  "  Lower  Silurian "  formations,  which  form  the  first  half  of  the 
"  Age  of  Invertebrates  "  in  the  zoic-calendar  portion  of  Prof.  Reid's  chart. 
The  term  "  Invertebrates  "  includes  all  forms  of  animal  life  that  do  not 
have  a  back-bone,  such  as  polyps,  mollusks,  worms,  insects,  crustaceans, 
infusoria,  etc.  By  the  time  this  age  (Silurian)  had  commenced,  our  lone 
island  had  been  joined  by  large  areas  northward,  southwestward,  eastward 
and  northwestward,  so  that  there  began  to  be  a  continent;  and  several 
hundred  species  of  animals  and  plants  have  been  found  fossil  in  the  rocks 
of  this  period,  but  they  are  all  marine  species — none  yet  inhabiting  the 
dry  land.  Our  chart  shows  the  Lower  Silurian  epoch  sub-divided  into 
Cambrian,  Canadian  and  Trenton  formations;  but  there  are  other  local 
sub-divisions  belonging  to  this  period,  the  same  as  to  all  the  other  general 
periods  named  on  the  chart.  The  animals  of  this  period  were  polvps  or 
coral- makers;  worms,  mollusks,  trilobites,asterias  (star-fishes),  all  of  strange 
forms  and  now  extinct.  The  trilobite,  some  species  of  which  are  found  in 
Missouri,  was  the  first  animal  on  the  earth  which  had  eyes,  although 
there  were  likewise  a  great  many  eyeless  species  of  them;  but  the  fact 
that  any  of  them  had  eyes  during  this  age  is  considered  by  some  scientists 
to  prove  that  the  atmosphere  had  by  this  time  become  sufficiently  rarefied 
to  let  the  sunlight  penetrate  clearly  through  it  and  strike  the  earth.  On 
the  other  hand,  others  hold  that  this  did  not  occur  until  after  the  atmos- 
phere had  laid  down  its  surcharge  of  carbonic  acid  and  other  gases,  in  the 
forms  of  limestone  from  animal  life  and  coalbeds  from  vegetable  life;  that 


is,  there  was  nothing  which  we  would  now  consider  as  clear  sunshine 
until  the  carboniferous  period.  At  any  rate,  Prof.  Dana  says  of  the 
Lower  Saurian,  "there  was  no  green  herbage  over  the  exposed  hills; 
and  no  sounds  were  in  the  air  save  those  of  lifeless  nature, — the  moving- 
waters,  the  tempest  and  the  earthquake."  Having  thus  given  the  reader 
some  idea  of  the  beginnings  of  land  and  the  beginnings  of  life  in  our  old, 
old  state,  space  will  not  permit  us  to  linger  with  details  upon  the  remain- 
ing geological  periods.  We  have  compiled  the  following  table  from  vari- 
ous writings  of  our  able  state  geologist,  Prof.  G.  C.  Swallow,  of  the  State 
University : 


Igneous  Rocks. — Granite,  porphyry,  syenite,  greenstone,  combined 
with  those  wonderful  beds  of  iron  and  copper  which  are  found  in  the 
Pilot  Knob  region. 

Azoic  Rocks. — Silicious  and  other  slates,  containing  no  remains  of 
organic  life,  though  apparently  of  sedimentary  and  not  of  igneous  origin. 

Lower  Silurian—  Feet  thick. 

Hudson  river  group  (3  local  subdivisions) 220 

Trenton  limestone 360 

Black-river  and  birds-  eye  limestone 75 

1st  magnesian  limestone 200 

Saccharoidal  (sugar-like)  sandstone 125 

2d  magnesian  limestone 230 

2d  sandstone 115 

3d  magnesian  limestone 350 

3d  sandstone 60 

4th  magnesian  limestone 300 

Total  thickness  of  Silurian  rocks 2035 

When  the  reader  remembers  that  these  were  -all  formed  successively 
by  the  slow  process  of  the  settling  of  sediment  in  water,  he  will  get  some 
idea  of  how  it  is  that  geology  gives  such  astounding  measurements  of 

Upper  Silurian —  Feet  thick. 

Lower  Helderberg  formation 350 

Niagara  group 200 

Cape  Girardeau  limestone 60 

Total  thickness 610 

history  of  the  state  of  missouri.  71 

Devonian — 

(  Chouteau  limestone 85 

Chemung  group  1  Vermicular  sandstone  and  shales 75 

(  Lithographic    limestone 125 

Hamilton  group 40 

Onondaga  limestone  (extremely  variable). 
Oriskany  sandstone  (doubtful'. 
Carboniferous — 

Coal  measures,  consisting  of  strata  of  sandstones,  limestones, 
shales,  clays,  marls,  brown  iron  ores  and  coal 2,000 

In  this  formation  there  are  from  eight  to  ten  good  workable  veins  of 
coal;  and  the  Missouri  basin  coal-bearing  area  is  the  largest  in  the  world. 
It  comprises  the  following: 

Square  miles. 

In  Missouri 27,000 

Nebraska 10,000 

Kansas 12,000 

Iowa 20,000 

Illinois 30,000 

Total 99,000 

The  Sub-Carboniferous  in  Missouri  is  subdivided  into: 


Upper  Archimedes  limestone 200 

Ferruginous  (irony)  sandstone '. 195 

Middle  Archimedes  limestone 50 

St.  Louis  limestone 250 

Oolitic  limestone 25 

Lower  Archimedes  limestone 350 

Encrinital  limestone 500 

Total  sub-carboniferous 1570 

Cretaceous. — The  Triassic  and  Jurassic  formations  have  not  been  found 
in  this  state;  but  Prof.  Swallow  has  classed  as  probably  belonging  to  the 
Cretaceous  epoch,  six  different  formations  which  comprise  a  total  thick- 
ness of  158  feet.  He  says  no  fossils  have  been  found  to  certainly  identify 
these  beds,  but  their  geological  horizon  and  lithological  characters  deter- 
mine their  place  in  the  scale. 

Tertiary. — The  beautiful  variegated  sands  and  clays  and  shales   and 
iron  ores,  which  skirt  the  swamps  of  southeast  Missouri  along  the  bluffs 
from  Commerce  to  the  Chalk  Bluffs  in  Arkansas,  belong  to  this  system. 
Quaternary. — In  this  Prof.  Swallow  includes  what  is  separated  under 


the  name  of  "Recent"  by  Prof.  Dana  and  others,  as  shown  in  the  chart. 

The  Quaternary  of  Missouri  is  subdivided  by  Prof.  Swallow  into — 

Alluvium 30  feet 

Bottom  Prairie 35     " 

Bluff  {Loess  of  other  authors) 200     " 

Drift  (altered  drift,  boulder  beds,   boulder  clay) 155     " 

Total  Quaternary  formations.  420     " 

That  brings  the  succession  of  geological  formations  consecutively  from 
their  beginning  up  to  the  present  time;  and  now  our  own  eyes  behold 
every  day  the  processes  of  nature  going  on  very  much  the  same  as  they 
have  gone  along  through  all  the  unthinkable  lapse  of  time  that  has  passed 
since  Pilot  Knob  first  pushed  its  brazen  brow  up  above  the  strange  deso- 
lation of  waters  when  "darkness  was  upon  the  face  of  the  deep."  And 
now  our  next  consideration  must  be,  the  present  aspects  of  the  land  sur- 
face of  our  state,  together  with  its  streams,  its  woodlands  and  its  wonder- 
ful mineral  wealth  and  resources. 


In  the  extent,  variety,  and  practical  value  of  her  stores  of  mineral 
wealth,  Missouri  is  not  excelled  by  any  other  state  in  the  Union.  In  the 
fall  of  1880  the  New  York  Economist  published  an  article  on  Missouri, 
in  which  it  said: 

"The  state  of  Missouri  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  pieces  of  this  earth's 
surface.  Surface  indeed !  Missouri  goes  far  enough  under  the  surface 
to  furnish  mankind  with  one  hundred  million  tons  of  coal  a  year  for  thir- 
teen hundred  years.  Think  of  26*887  square  miles  of  coal  beds — nearly 
half  the  state — and  some  of  the  beds  nearly  fifteen  feet  thick.  With 
regard  to  iron,  it  is  not  necessary  to  penetrate  the  surface  for  that.  They 
have  iron  in  Missouri  by  the  mountain.  Pilot  Knob,  581  feet  high,  and 
containing  360  acres,  is  a  mass  of  iron;  and  Iron  Mountain,  about  six 
miles  distant  from  it,  is  228  feet  high,  covers  500  acres,  and  is  estimated 
in  the  last  surveys,  to  contain  230,000,000  tons  of  ore,  without  counting 
the  inexhaustible  supply  that  may  reasonably  be  supposed  to  exist  below 
the  level.  There  is  enough  iron  lying  about  loose  in  Missouri  for  a 
double  track  of  railroad  across  the  continent. 

"  The  lead  districts  of  Missouri  include  more  than  6,000  square  miles, 
and  at  least  five  hundred  points  where  it  can  be  profitably  worked.  In 
fifteen  counties  there  is  copper  in  rich  abundance.  There  are  large  depos- 
its of  zinc  in  the  state.  There  is  gold,  also,  which  does  not  yet  attract 
much  attention,  because  of  the  dazzling  stores  of  this  precious  metal  farther 
west.  In  short,  within  one  hundred  miles  of  St.  Louis  the  following  met- 
als and  minerals  are  found  in  quantities  that  will  repay  working:  gold, 
iron,  lead,  zinc,  copper,  tin,  silver,  platina,  nickel,  emery,  coal,  limestone, 
granite,  marble,  pipe-clay,  fire-clay,  metallic  paints,  and  salt." 

It  can  hardly  be  said  that  gold,  silver,  tin,  platina  or  emery  have  been 


found  in  faying  quantity  as  yet,  although  they  are  known  to  exist  in  some 
of  our  mining  districts,  in  combinations  with  other  minerals.  Our  state 
board  of  immigration  has  published  many  well  prepared  and  judicious 
papers  on  the  various  advantages  and  resources  of  our  state,  which  care- 
fully avoid  making  any  extravagant  or  overdrawn  statements.  They 
give  the  real  facts  as  accurately  as  they  could  be  ascertained  up  to  1879- 
SO,  and  form  the  most  reliable  body  of  knowledge  on  many  matters  of 
state  interest,  that  is  now  accessible;  and  from  this  source  we  gather  the 
more  essential  points. 

Coal. — The  Missouri  coal  fields  underlie  an  area  of  about  26,000 
square  miles.  The  southern  outcrop  of  the  coal  measures  has  been  traced 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Des  Moines  through  the  counties  of  Clark,  Lewis, 
Shelby ,t  Monroe,  Audrain,  Boone,  Cooper,  Pettis,  Henry,  St.  Clair,  Bates, 
Vernon  and  Barton,  into  the  Indian  Territory,  and  every  county  north- 
west of  this  line  is  known  to  contain  more  or  less  coal.  Outside  of  the 
coal  fields  given  above,  coal  rocks  also  exist  in  Ralls,  Montgomery,  War- 
ren, St.  Charles,  Callaway  and  St.  Louis  counties,  and  local  or  outlying 
deposits  of  bituminous  and  cannel  coal  are  found  in  Moniteau,  Cole,  Mor- 
gan, Crawford,  Lincoln  and  Callaway  counties. 

The  exposed  coal  in  Missouri  includes  upper,  middle  and  lower  coal 
measures.  The  upper  coal  measures  contain  about  four  feet  of  coal,  in 
two  seams  of  about  one  foot  each  and  other  thin  seams  and  streaks.  The 
area  of  their  exposure  is  about  8,400  square  miles. 

The  middle  coal  measures  contain  about  seven  feet  of  coal,  including 
two  workable  seams,  twenty-one  and  twenty-four  inches  thick,  respect- 
ively, and  one  of  one  foot,  which  is  worked  under  favorable  circumstan- 
ces, and  six  thin  seams.  The  exposure  of  the  middle  measures  covers  an 
area  of  over  2,000  square  miles. 

The  lower  measures  cover  an  ar,ea  of  about  15,000  square  miles,  and 
have  five  workable  seams,  varying  in  thickness  from  eighteen  inches  to 
four  and  a  half  feet,  and  thin  seams  of  six  to  eleven  inches. 

Iron. — It  has  been  said  by  experts  that  Missouri  has  iron  enough  ':  to 
run  a  hundred  furnaces  for  a  thousand  years;"  and  the  ores  are  of  every 
variety  known  to  metallurgical  science.  Iron  Mountain  is  the  largest 
body  of  specular  iron  and  the  purest  mass  of  ore  in  the  world.  It  was 
forced  up  through  the  crust  of  the  earth  in  a  molten  state  during  the 
Azoic  Age  of  geology.  The  different  ores  of  the  state  are  classed  as  red 
hematite,  red  oxide,  specular  or  glittering  ore,  brown  hematite  or  limo- 
nite,  hvdrous  oxide,  magnetic  ore,  and  spathic  or  spar-like  ore  (carbonate 
of  iron).  Many  other  names  are  used  to  indicate  different  combinations 
of  iron  with  other  minerals.  Some  of  the  iron  deposits,  instead  of  coming 
up  in  a  fused  mass  from  the  bowels  of  the  earth,  as  Pilot  Knob,  Shep- 


herd  Mountain  and  Iron  Mountain  evidently  did,  were  formed  by  the 
steam  that  attended  those  fiery  upheavals,  carrying  its  load  of  gaseous 
matter  until  it  condensed  and  settled  down  at  different  points,  and  gradu- 
ally cooled  or  crystalized.  This  would  occur  sometimes  in  water  and 
sometimes  in  the  air,  thus  producing  the  great  variety  of  ferruginous  or 
irony  compositions  which  we  now  find  and  utilize.  And  this  mineral 
sieam  method  of  depositing  iron  and  other  products  from  subterranean 
gases  must  have  occurred  in  Missouri  at  different  periods  of  geologic 
time,  and  not  all  during  the  Azoic.  The  red  ores  are  found  in  21  coun- 
ties ;  the  brown  hematite  or  limonite  iron  ores  extend  over  94  counties, 
and  in  31  of  them  it  occurs  in  vast  quantity. 

Shepherd  Mountain  is  660  feet  high.  The  ore,  which  is  magnetic  and 
specular,  contains  a  large  percentage  of  pure  iron.  The  hight  of  Pilot 
Knob  above  the  Mississippi  river  is  1,118  feet.  Its  base,  581  feet  from  the 
summit,  is  360  acres.  The  iron  is  known  to  extend  440  feet  below  the 
surface.  The  upper  section  of  141  feet  is  judged  to  contain  14,000,000 
tons  of  ore.  The  elevation  of  Iron  Mountain  is  228  feet,  and  the  area  of 
its  base  500  acres.  The  solid  contents  of  the  cone  are  230,000,000  tons. 
It  is  thought  that  every  foot  beneath  the  surface  will  yield  3,000,000  tons, 
of  ore.  At  the  depth  of  180  feet,  an  artesian  auger  is  still  penetrating 
solid  ore.  Dr.  Litton  thinks  that  these  mountains  contain  enough  iron 
above  the  surface  to  afford  for  two  hundred  years  an  annual  supply  of 
1,000,000  tons.  The  ore  is  almost  exclusively  specular.  It  yields  56  per 
cent,  of  pure  iron.     The  iron  is  strong,  tough  and  fibrous. 

Profs.  Schmidt  and  Pumpelly,  in  their  very  learned  work  on  the  iron 
ores  of  Michigan  and  Missouri,  have  classified  the  iron-bearing  region  of 
our  state  as  follows: 

Eastern  Ore-Region. — 1.  Ore-district  along  the  Mississippi  river.  2_ 
Iron  Mountain  district.  3.  Southeastern  limonite  district.  4.  Franklin 
county  district.     5.  Scotia  district. 

Central  Ore-Region. — 1.  Steel ville  district.  2.  Ore-district  on  the  up- 
per Meramec  and  its  tributaries.  3.  Salem  district.  4.  Iron  Ridge 
district.  5.  St.  James  district.  6.  Rolla  district.  7.  Middle  Gasconade 
district.     8.  Lower  Gasconade  district.     9.  Callaway  county  district. 

Western  Ore-Region. — 1.  Lower  Osage  district.  2.  Middle  Osage 
district.     3.  Upper  Osage  district. 

Southwestern  Ore-Region. — 1.  White  River  district.  2.  Ozark  county 

The  same  authorities  have  classified  the  various  kinds  of  iron  ores 
found  in  Missouri,  thus: 


Strata  of  red  hematite. 

Disturbed  or  drifted  deposits  of  red 

Deposits  of  limonite  on  limestone. 
Disturbed    or   drifted    deposits   o£ 


Deposits  of  specular  ore  in  por- 

Deposits  of  specular  ore  in  sand- 

Disturbed  deposits  of  specular  ore. 

Drifted  deposits  of  specular  ore. 

Lead. — The  annual  lead  product  of  Missouri  is  said  now  to  exceed 
that  of  any  other  state  or  country;  and  it  is  conceded  that  its  lead  deposits 
are  the  richest  in  the  world.  The  lead  region  all  lies  south  of  the  Mis- 
souri river;  the  mineral  is  found  chiefly  in  the  magnesian  limestone  rocks, 
which  are  the  great  lead-bearing  rocks  of  the  world;  but  it  is  also  found 
in  ferruginous  clays,  in  slates,  in  gravel  beds,  and  in  cherty  masses  in 
the  clays. 

Mr.  R.  O.  Thompson,  mining  engineer,  of  St.  Louis,  has  written  a 
sketch  of  the  mode  of  origin  of  our  lead  and  some  other  mineral  deposits,, 
which  is  plain,  concise,  and  a  clear  statement  of  the  teachings  of  science 
on  this  very  interesting  portion  of  Missouri's  geological  and  mineralogicai 
history.     We  quote: 

"The  Azoic  rocks  in  this  region,  when  the  great  Silurian  system  began 
to  be  formed,  were  so  many  islands,  their  heads  only  elevated  above  the 
vast  sedimentary  sea.  The  beds  upon  which  the  limestones  and  sand- 
stones were  deposited  consisted  of  the  weatherings  of  the  Azoic  rocks,, 
which  naturally  sought  the  valleys  and  became  a  base  for  the  sedimentary 
rock.  This  boundless  sea  held  in  solution  lime,  magnesia,  alumina,  man- 
ganese, lead,  copper,  cobalt,  nickel,  iron,  and  other  mineral  substances. 
In  this  chemical  condition  gases  were  evolved  and  the  work  of  formation 
commenced.  The  two  gases  forming  the  great  creative  power,  and  aiding 
solidification,  were  carbonic  acid  and  sulphuretted  hydrogen ;  the  former 
seeking  its  affinity  in  lime  and  forming  limestone;  the  sulphur  in  the  latter 
naturally  combining  with  the  other  metals,  forming  sulphates,  or  sulphur- 
ets.  The  work  of  deposition  and  solidification  being  in  harmony,  it  is 
easy  to  understand  how  those  minerals  exist  in  a  disseminated  condition 
in  these  rocks.  The  slates  that  we  find  so  rich  in  galena,  presenting  the 
myriad  forms  of  lingula,  must  also  have  been  formed  in  the  Silurian  Age. 
The  distribution  among  the  magnesian  limestones  of  these  decomposing 
slates  can  be  most  easily  accounted  for.  The  decomposed  feldspar  pro- 
duced by  the  weathering  of  the  porphyry  became  in  its  change  a  silicate 
of  alumina,  and  the  sulphur,  combining  with  the  lead,  disseminated  the 
same  in  the  slate  as  readily  as  in  the  limestone." 

The  Missouri  lead  region  has  been  divided  or  classified  into  five  sub- 
districts,  as  follows: 

I.  The  Southeastern  Lead  District,  embraces  all  or  parts  of  Jefferson, 
Washington,  Franklin,  Crawford,  Iron,  St.  Francois,  St.  Genevieve, 
Madison,  Wayne,  Reynolds,  and  Carter  counties,  with  some  mines  in  the 
western  portion  of  Cape  Girardeau  county.  Mining  has  been  longest 
carried  on  in  this  district,  and  the  aggregate  of  the  production  has  been 
very  great,  although  the  work  has  been  chiefly  surface  mining.     Mine- 


La-Motte,  in  this  district,  was  discovered  in  1720,  by  Francis  Renault  and 
M.  LaMotte,  and  has  been  worked  more  or  less  ever  since. 

II.  The  Central  Lead  District,  comprises,  as  far  as  known,  the  coun- 
ties of  Cole,  Cooper,  Moniteau,  Morgan,  Miller,  Benton,  Maries,  Camdem 
and  Osage.  Much  of  the  mining  done  here,  again,  has  been  near  the 
surface,  the  lead  first  being  found  in  clays,  in  caves,  and  in  masses  in  clay 
but  a  few  inches  below  the  surface.  Shafts,  however,  sunk  in  the  mag- 
nesian  limestone,  find  rich  deposits  in  lodes  and  pockets. 

III.  The  Southern  Lead  District,  comprises  the  counties  of  Pulaski, 
La  Clede,  Texas,  Wright,  Webster,  Douglas,  Ozark,  and  Christian. 

IV.  The  Western  Lead  District  embraces  Hickory,  Dallas,  Polk,  St. 
Clair,  Cedar,  and  Dade  counties.  Some  rich  deposits  have  been  found 
in  this  district,  especially  in  Hickory  county. 

V.  The  Southwestern  Lead  District  comprises  Jasper,  Newton,  Law- 
rence, Stone,  Barry,  and  McDonald.  Here  very  extensive  mining  has 
been  done,  more  especially  in  the  two  counties  first  named,  which  have, 
for  the  last  few  years,  produced  more  than  one-half  of  the  pig-lead  mined 
in  the  state. 

For  several  years  past  more  than  one-half  the  lead  production  of  the 
United  States  has  been  from  Missouri  mines.  Besides  the  numerous- 
smelting  works  supported  by  them,  the  manufacture  of  white  lead,  lead 
pipe,  sheet  lead,  etc.,  contributes  materially  to  the  industries  and  com- 
merce of  the  state. 

Copper. — Several  varieties  of  copper  ore  exist  in  Missouri  mines. 
Deposits  of  copper  have  been  discovered  in  Dent,  Crawford,  Benton, 
Maries,  Greene,  Lawrence,  Dade,  Taney,  Dallas,  Phelps,  Reynolds  and 
Wright  counties.  Some  of  the  mines  in  Shannon  county  are  now  profit- 
ably worked,  and  mines  in  Franklin  county  have  yielded  good  results. 

Zinc. — Sulphuret,  carbonate  and  silicate  of  zinc  are  found  in  nearly  all 
the  lead  mines  of  southwestern  Missouri;  and  zinc  ores  are  also  found  in 
most  of  the  counties  along  the  Ozark  range.  What  the  lead  miners  call 
"  black-jack, "  and  throw  away,  is  sulphuret  of  zinc.  Newton  and  Jasper 
counties  are  rich  in  zinc  ores ;  and  Taney  county  has  an  extensive  vein  of 
calamine,  or  carbonate  of  zinc. 

Cobalt. — Valuable  to  produce  the  rich  blue  colors  in  glass  and  porce- 
lain, and  for  other  purposes  in  the  arts,  is  found  in  considerable  quantities 
at  Mine-La-Motte. 

Manganese. — Used  in  glass  manufacture  and  the  arts;  it  is  found  in 
St.  Genevieve  and  other  counties. 

Nickel. — Found  in  workable  quantities  at  Mine-La-Motte. 



Missouri  abounds  in  solid,  durable  materials  for  buildings;  she  has 
quarries  of  red  and  gray  granites,  and  very  fine  limestones,  sandstones 
and  marbles.  In  Crawford,  Washington  and  Franklin  counties  there  are 
workable  beds  of  "  onyx  marble,"  a  stalagmite  formation  found  in  caves,, 
and  very  rich  and  valuable  for  mantles,  table-tops,  vases,  ornaments,  etc. 
This  marble  is  not  found  anywhere  else  in  the  United  States,  and  has 
been  imported  from  Algiers  and  Mexico,  at  great  cost.  As  an  illustration 
of  the  high  repute  abroad,  and  substantial  home  value  ot  Missouri 
products  in  the  stone  line,  we  give  a  case  in  point. 

The  new  state  capitol  at  Des  Moines,  Iowa,  which  will  cost  $3,000,000, 
and  is  said  to  be  the  largest  and  finest  public  edifice  in  the  United  States 
outside  of  Washington  city,  is  built  mostly  of  materials  from  Missouri, 
except  the  rough  masonry  and  brickwork.  The  Missouri  stones  and 
their  cost  is  as  follows: 

St.  Genevieve  buff  sandstone $  147,289.83 

Carroll  county  blue  limestone 139,238.54 

Fourteen  red  granite  columns,  18  feet,  4^  inches  long,  2 

ft.  3  in.  diameter,  turned  and  polished  at  St.  Louis... .  8,144.50 

Total  paid  b}*  Iowa  to  Missouri  on  thfs  one  building. . $  294,672.87 

Other  examples  of  Missouri  building  stone  will  be  of  interest.  The 
Archimedes  limestone  is  used  for  the  U.  S.  custom  house  in  St.  Louis. 
The  encrinital  limestone  is  used  for  the  State  University  building,  and 
court  house  at  Columbia.  The  Trenton  limestone  is  used  in  the  court 
house  at  St.  Louis.  A  stratum  called  " cotton  rock"  in  the  magnesian 
limestone  formation,  is  used  for  the  state  house  and  court  house  at  Jeffer- 
son City.  Encrinital  marble  is  found  in  Marion  county,  and  other  varie- 
ties occur  in  Cooper,  Cape  Girardeau,  St.  Louis,  Iron  and  Ozark  coun- 
ties. In  the  bluffs  on  the  Niangua,  a  marble  crops  out  twenty  feet  thick, 
which  is  a  fine-grained,  crystaline,  silico-magnesian  limestone,  of  a  light 
drab  color,  slightly  tinged  or  clouded  with  peach  blossom.  Some  of  the 
beautiful  Ozark  marbles  have  been  used  in  ornamenting  the  national 
capitol  at  Washington. 

Lithographic  limestone  is  found  in  Macon  county. 


Kaolin,  or  decomposed  feldspar,  is  a  clay  for  making  porcelain  ware, 
and  is  found  in  and  shipped  from  southeastern  Missouri.  Fine  pottery 
clays  are  found  in  all  the  coal  bearing  region.  North  of  the  Missouri 
river  many  beds  of  best  fire-clay  are  found,  which  is  extensively  manufac- 
tured at  St.  Louis  into  fire  brick,  gas  retorts,  metallurgists'  crucibles,  etc. 


Yellow  and  red  ochres,  ferruginous  clays,  and  sulphate  of  baryta,  all  val- 
uable in  the  mannfacture  of  mineral  and  fire-proof  paints,  are  found  in 
great  abundance  all  through  the  iron  districts.  Near  St.  Genevieve  there 
is  a  bank  of  saccharoidal  sand  which  is  twenty  feet  in  height,  and  miles 
in  extent.  The  mass  is  inexhaustible.  Two  analyses  give  the  following 

Silica 98.81     99.02 

Lime 0.92       0.98 

The  sand  is  very  friable,  and  nearly  as  white  as  snow.  It  is  not  oxy- 
dized  or  discolored  by  heat,  and  the  glass  made  from  it  is  clear  and 
unstained.  One  firm  in  St.  Louis  has  annually  exported  more  than  3,500 
tons  of  this  sand  to  the  glass  manufactories  of  Wheeling,  Steubenville 
and  Pittsburg. 



The  state  of  Missouri  (with  the  exception  of  the  Pan-Handle,  in  the 
southeast  corner,  which  extends  34  miles  further  south),  lies  between  the 
parallels  36  degrees  30  minutes  and  40  degrees  30  minutes  north  latitude, 
and  between  longitudes  12  degrees  2  minutes,  and  18  degrees  and  51  min- 
utes west  from  Washington.  Its  southern  boundary  line,  extended  east- 
ward, would  pass  along  the  southern  boundaries  of  Tennessee  and  Vir- 
ginia. The  line  of  the  northern  boundary,  extended  in  the  same  direction, 
wrould  pass  north  of  the  centers  of  Illinois,  Indiana  and  Ohio,  and  near  the 
centers  of  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jersey.  Extending  these  lines  west- 
ward, they  would  embrace  the  entire  state  of  Kansas,  and  a  considerable 
portion  of  Nebraska  on  the  north  and  of  the  Indian  Territory  south. 

The  length  of  the  state  north  and  south  is  282  miles;  its  extreme  width 
east  and  west,  is  348  miles,  and  the  average  width,  which  is  represented 
by  a  line  drawn  due  west  from  St.  Louis,  is  235  miles. 

The  area  of  the  state  is  65,350  square  miles,  or  41,824,000  acres.  In 
size  it  is  the  eighth  state  in  the  Union,  and  is  larger  than  any  state  east 
of  or  bordering  upon  the  Mississippi,  except  Minnesota.  It  occupies 
almost  the  exact  center  of  that  portion  of  the  United  States  lying  between 
the  Rocky  Mountains  and  the  Atlantic,  and  is  midway  between  the 
British  possessions  on  the  north  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  south. 

The  following  list  shows  what  other  large  cities  of  our  own  and 
foreign  countries  lie  on  the  same   latitude  with   the  largest   cities  in  our 


state:  The  latitude  of  38  to  39  degrees  north,  embraces  Annapolis, 
Maryland;  Washington  and  Georgetown,  D,  C;  Alexandria,  Va.;  Ports- 
mouth, Ohio;  Lexington,  Frankfort  and  Louisville,  Ky.;  Madison,  New 
Albany  and  Evansville,  Ind.;  St.  Louis  and  Jefferson  City,  Missouri; 
Sacramento  and  Vallejo,  California;  Yarkand,  China;  Tabreez,  Persia; 
Smyrna,  Turkey;  Messina  and  Palermo,  Sicily;  Lisbon,  Portugal. 

The  latitude  of  39  to  40  embraces  the  cities  of  Philadelphia,  Dover,  Wil- 
mington, Baltimore,  York,  Gettysburg,  Columbus,  Cincinnati,  Indiana- 
polis, Terre  Haute,  Springfield,  Quincy,  Hannibal,  Kansas  City,  St. 
Joseph,  Leavenworth,  Denver;  Virginia  City,  Nevada;  Marysville,  Cali- 
fornia; Tientsin,  Pekin  and  Kashgar,  in  China;  Bokhara  in  Turkestan; 
Erzroom  in  Turkey;  Valencia  in  Spain. 

The  meridian  of  90  to  91  degrees  west  longitude,  takes  in  Grand 
Portage,  Minnesota;  Mineral  Point,  Wisconsin;  also  Dubuque,  Davenport, 
Rock  Island,  Galesburg,  St.  Louis,  Memphis,  Vicksburg  and  New 

Missouri  is  half  as  large  again  as  New  York,  and  more  than  eight 
times  the  size  of  Massachusetts.  It  would  make  a  score  of  German  prin- 
cipalities. Larger  than  England  and  Wales,  or  Scotland  and  Ireland,  it 
is  equal  to  one-third  of  the  area  of  France. 


As  explained  in  the  chapter  on  geology,  there  occurred  away  back 
in  the  earliest  geological  ages,  some  subterranean  force  which  pushed  up 
through  the  crust  of  the  earth,  a  series  of  knobs  and  irregular  ridges  and 
hills  in  a  region  extending  from  St.  Genevieve,  in  a  southwest  direction, 
to  Shannon  and  Texas  counties,  taking  in  some  portions  of  Madison,  St. 
Francois,  Washington,  Iron  and  Reynolds  counties.  After  this,  these 
knobs  and  ridges  were  islands  in  the  ocean,  which  covered  the  rest  of 
Missouri  and  adjoining  states.  On  the  bottom  of  this  ocean  the  solid 
strata  of  limestone,  sandstone,  and  other  rocks,  were  formed.  In  course 
of  time  the  rest  of  the  country  was  raised  above  the  ocean,  and  the  sur- 
face presented  a  broad,  undulating  plateau,  from  which  projected  the  hills 
and  ridges  above  named.  The  rains  descended  upon  this  plateau,  and  the 
waters  collected  into  branches,  creeks  and  rivers,  and  flowed  away  to  the 
ocean,  as  now;  and  during  the  succeeding  cycles,  the  channels  and  valleys 
of  the  streams  were  worn  into  the  rocks  as  they  now  appear.  These 
facts  respecting  the  formation  of  our  state,  give  some  idea  of  its  surface 
features.  It  may  be  described  as  a  broad,  undulating  table-land  or 
plateau,  from  which  projects  a  series  of  hills  and  ridges  extending  from  St. 
Genevieve  to  the  southwest,  and  into  which  the  branches,  creeks  and 
rivers  have  worn  their  deep  broad  channels  and  valleys.  In  that  portion 
of  the  state  north  of  the  Missouri  river,  the  northwest  part  is  the  highest, 


and  there  is  a  general  descent  to  the  south  and  east,  as  shown  by  the 
course  of  the  Missouri  river  and  its  north  side  tributaries.  In  the  eastern 
part  of  this  region  there  is  a  high  dividing  ridge  which  separates  the 
small  east-flowing  tributaries  of  the  Mississippi  from  those  flowing  south- 
ward into  the  Missouri;  the  St.  Louis,  Kansas  City  and  Northern  railroad 
follows  this  highland  from  Warren  and  Montgomery  counties  to  Coats- 
ville  on  the  north  line  of  the  state,  in  Schuyler  county;  and  railroad  sur- 
veys show  that  in  a  straight  line  across  the  state,  the  Missouri  river  at  the 
city  of  Weston,  in  Platte  county,  is  320  feet  higher  than  the  Mississippi  at 

South  of  the  Missouri  the  highest  part  is  a  main  ridge  extending  from 
Jasper  county  through  Lawrence,  Webster,  Wright,  Texas,  Dent,  Iron, 
St.  Francois  and  Perry  counties,  striking  the  Mississippi  river  at  Grand 
Tower.  This  ridge  constitutes  what  is  called  the  Ozark  range,  which 
for  three-fourths  of  its  course  across  Missouri  is  not  mountainous,  or  com- 
posed of  peaks,  but  is  an  elevated  plateau  of  broad,  level,  arable  land,  and 
divides  the  northward  flowing  tributaries  of  the  Missouri  from  the  waters 
which  flow  southward  into  the  lower  Mississippi.  It  is  a  part  of  that 
great  chain  of  ridge  elevations  which  begins  with  Long's  Peak,  about  fifty 
miles  northwest  of  Denver,  in  Colorado;  crosses  the  state  of  Kansas 
between  the  Kansas  and  Arkansas  rivers;  crosses  Missouri  through  the 
counties  above  mentioned;  passes  into  Illinois  at  Grand  Tower  and  thence 
into  Kentucky  opposite  Golconda;  and  is  finally  merged  into  the  Cumber- 
land Mountains.  This  ridge  probably  formed  the  southern  shore  of  that 
vast  inland  sea  into  which  the  upper  Missouri  and  Platte  rivers  emptied 
their  muddy  waters  for  a  whole  geological  age,  and  deposited  over  the 
states  of  Iowa,  Missouri,  Kansas  and  Nebraska,  their  sediment  from  the 
Cretaceous  and  Tertiary  beds  of  the  mountain  regions  in  Dakota,  Montana, 
Wyoming,  etc.,  and  the  "Bad  Lands"  of  northwestern  Nebraska.  This 
great  sea  or  lake  had  its  chiefs  outlet  at  Grand  Tower,*  where  for 
thousands  of  years  its  waters  plunged  over  the  rocky  limestone  ledges 
and  flowed  off  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  which  then  extended  nearly  or  quite 
up  to  the  mouth  of  the  Ohio  river  at  Cairo.  But  as  it  gradually  wore 
down  the  rocks  of  this  southern  high  ridge  barrier,  of  course  the  channel 
through  this  narrow  pass  became  gradually  deeper  and  deeper,  and  as 
gradually  drained  off  the  mighty  lake,  leaving  four  great  states  covered 
chiefly  with  a  kind  of  sediment  which  Prof.  Swallow   has  termed  "  bluff 

*  Dr.  Sbumard  in  his  report  on  a  geological  section  from  St.  Louis  to  Commerce, — p.  151, 
says:  "The  Grand  Tower  rises  from  the  bed  of  the  Mississippi,  an  isolated  mass  of  rock, 
of  a  truncated-conical  shape,  crowned  at  the  top  with  stunted  cedars,  and  situated  about 
fifty  yards  from  the  Missouri  shore.  It  is  eighty-five  feet  high,  and  four  hundred  yards 
in  circumference  at  the  base.  During  high  water,  the  current  rushes  around  its  base  with 
great  velocity.  *  *  About  half  a  mile  below  the  Tower,  near  the  middle  of  the  river,  is 
a  huge  mass  of  chert.  *  In  the  next  two  miles  the  Missouri  shore  is  bounded  by  hills 
from  75  to  200  feet  in  altitude."  It  is  rocky  and  bluffy  for  six  miles  or  more  along  here, 
some  of  the  elevations  reaching  330  feet. 


deposit,"  though  called  by  other  writers  loess.  At  Grand  Tower,  where 
the  Mississippi  has  worn  for  itself  this  narrow  gorge  or  pass  through  the 
rocks,  the  current  rushes  and  roars  and  tumbles  along  at  such  a  mill-flume 
rate,  that  the  passage  by  boats  either  up  or  down  stream,  is  difficult  and 
dangerous .*  And  it  was  here  that  the  river  pirates  had  their  stronghold 
in  the  early  days  of  keel-boat  traffic  between  St.  Louis  and  New  Orleans. 
They  permitted  no  traders  to  pass  this  point  without  paying  such  tribute 
as  they  chose  to  levy;  and  upon  the  least  show  of  resistance,  they  would 
rob,  murder  and  plunder  without  remedy.  If  the  human  history  of  this 
place  could  be  written,  it  would  be  full  of  blood-curdling  incidents,  and 
deeds  of  violence  by  rude  and  murderous  men. 

The  following  table  of  elevations  above  tide  water  in  the  Gulf  of  Mex- 
ico will  give  a  general  idea  of  the  heights  reached  by  this  southern 
upland  region: 

Granby,  Newton  county,  (farthest   southwest) 1,030  feet. 

Marshfield,  in  Webster  county,  96  miles  from  the  west  line 

of  the  state 1,462  " 

Ohio  City,  opposite  mouth  of  the  Ohio  river 272  " 

New  Madrid,  30  miles  farther  south 247  " 

St.  Louis  directrix,  (or  register) 372  " 

Base  of  Pilot  Knob 909  " 

Top  of  Pilot  Knob 1,490  " 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  top  of  Pilot  Knob,  at  the  eastern  end  of 
our  south  border  highlands,  is  only  twenty-eight  feet  higher  than  Marsh- 
field,  near  the  western  end. 


The  Mississippi  river  bounds  the  state  on  the  east  for  a  distance  of  more 
than  500  miles.  The  Missouri  washes  the  western  boundary  of  the  state 
from  the  northwest  corner  southwardly,  some  250  miles,  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Kansas,  whence  it  takes  a  course  south  of  east,  through  the  heart  of 
the  state  to  its  junction  with  the  Mississippi,  a  distance  of  nearly  400 
miles,  presenting  a  river  front  from  these  two  majestic  streams  of  1,550 
miles.  Besides  these  mighty  streams,  are  many  smaller  rivers,  more  or 
less  navigable  for  steamboats  and  barges.      On  the  south,  or  the  right 

*A  small  work  published  at  Davenport,  Iowa,  in  1856,  describes  this  place  as  "  a  gorge 
where  the  river  has  in  some  remote  geological  age  burst  through  a  limestone  mountain 
ridge,  making  a  dangerous  rocky  pass,  and  washing  the  cliff  into  strange,  fantastic  forms." 
And  a  western  poet  nearly  30  years  ago,  thus  described  the  spot: 

"  Here  Nature  sports  with  Art  in  rocky  towers, 
Quarried  by  the  wave,  or  lifts  in  Doric  state 
Abraded  pillars  to  the  corniced  cliff; 
And  through  sharp  angles,  narrows,  flume  and  gorge, 
The  wildered  waters,  plunging,  roar  and  foam — 
o         Scylla  and  Oharybdis  of  no  mythic  tale." 


bank  of  the  Missouri,  the  Gasconade,  Osage  and  La  Mine  are  navigable; 
on  the  Osage,  steamboats  make  regular  trips  as  high  as  Warsaw,  and 
barges  and  keel-boats  may  pass  as  high  as  the  state  line.  On  the  left 
bank  of  the  Missouri,  the  Platte,  Chariton  and  Grand  rivers  are  naviga- 
ble for  keel-boats  and  barges;  and  small  steamers  have  made  a  few  trips 
on  their  waters.  The  other  important  streams  of  the  state  are  the  Des 
Moines,  Salt,  Meramec,  St.  Francis  and  White  rivers,  all  of  which  on 
rare  occasions  have  been  navigated  by  steamers.  There  are  large  num- 
bers of  smaller  streams  called  rivers  and  creeks. 

There  are  places  in  all  our  streams,  except  the  Mississippi  and  Missouri, 
where  they  might  be  dammed  and  made  to  drive  the  machinery  of  mills 
and  factories.  Rock  beds  to  support  dams  and  make  them  permanent 
are  to  be  found  in  many  localities  on  the  Osage,  Niangua,  Pomme  du 
Terre,  Sac,  Spring  river,  Big  river,  Castor,  Bourbeuse,  Gasconade,  St. 
Francis,  Current,  White,  Grand,  La  Mine,  Meramec,  etc.  No  country  is 
better  supplied  with  bold  springs  of  pure  water.  Many  of  them  are 
remarkable  for  their  size  and  volume. 

There  is,  on  the  whole,  no  state  in  the  Union  better  supplied  with  an 
abundance  of  wholesome,  living  water  for  stock  and  domestic  uses;  and 
it  abounds  in  springs,  splendidly  situated  for  dairy  business,  with  water  at 
a  uniform  temperature  below  60  degrees  Fahrenheit.  There  are  no 
lakes  in  the  state  except  a  few  small  ones  in  the  extreme  southeastern 


Mineral  Springs  occur  in  every  part  of  the  state.  There  are  excellent 
salt  springs  in  Cooper,  Saline,  Howard  and  adjoining  counties.  Sulphur 
springs  that  have  become  known  as  places  of  summer  resort,  are:  The 
Chouteau  springs  in  Cooper  county;  Monagan  springs  in  St.  Clair  county; 
Elk  springs  in  Pike  county ;  Cheltenham  springs  in  St.  Louis  county. 
And  Prof.  Swallow  says  there  are  sulphur  springs  in  half  the  counties  of 
the  state.  Sweet  springs,  on  Black  water  creek,  are  what  are  called  chaly- 
beate waters,  containing  some  of  the  salts  of  iron ;  and  there  are  a  few 
others  of  this  class.  Petroleum  or  tar  springs  occur  in  Carroll,  Ray, 
Randolph,  Cass,  Lafayette,  Bates,  Vernon,  and  other  counties,  and  fur- 
nish a  good  lubricating  oil  in  large  quantities.  In  the  south  part  of  the 
State  there  are  numerous  fresh  water  springs  of  such  great  flowage  as  to 
be  utilized  for  water  power.  One  called  Bryce's  spring,  on  the  Niangua 
river,  which  runs  through  Dallas,  Hickory  and  Camden  counties,  dischar- 
ges 10,927,872  cubic  feet  of  water  per  day,  drives  a  large  flouring  mill, 
and  flows  away  a  river  42  yards  wide.  This  is  the  largest  one,  of  these 
big  springs.  The  temperature  of  its  water  is  steadily  at  60  degrees  Fahr- 
enheit, and  the  flowage  uniform  throughout  the  year. 



As  late  as  1830  the  greater  part  of  Missouri  was  still  marked  on  com- 
mon school  geography  maps  as  part  of  the  great  American  desert;  and  in 
1820,  even  our  own  great  statesman,  Thomas  H.  Benton,  had  written: 
"After  you  get  40  or  50  miles  from  the  Mississippi,  arid  plains  set  in  and 
the  country  is  uninhabitable  except  upon  the  borders  of  the  rivers  and 
creeks."  But  our  present  knowledge  of  Missouri's  climate,  soils  and  prod- 
ucts show  how  widely  mistaken  our  wisest  people  were  on  this  subject 
in  those  early  days. 

Prof.  Swallow,  Dean  of  the  State  Agricultural  College  at  Columbia 
(State  University),  has  given  the  soils  of  the  state  a  classification  adapted 
to  the  popular  understanding,  by  using  names  that  everybody  can  read 
and  know  what  they  mean,  instead  of  technical  scientific  terms  known 
only  to  a  few  who  have  had  a  college  education.  And  as  this  history  is 
designed  for  the  masses  of  the  people,  and  to  a  large  extent  for  the  farm- 
ers, we  give  a  condensed  statement  of  Prof.  Swallow's  classification. 

Those  known  as  hackbcrry  lands  are  first  in  fertility  and  productiveness. 
Upon  these  lands  also  grow  elm,  wild  cherry,  honey  locust,  hickorv,  white, 
black,  burr  and  chestnut  oaks,  black  and  white  walnut,  mulberry,  linden, 
ash,  poplar,  catalpa,  sassafras  and  maple.  The  prairie  soils  of  about  the 
same  quality,  if  not  identical,  are  known  as  crow  foot  lands,  so  called  from 
a  species  of  weed  found  upon  them,  and  these  two  soils  generally  join  each 
other  where  the  timber  and  prairie  lands  meet.  Both  rest  upon  a  bed  of 
fine  silicious  marls.  They  cover  more  than  seven  million  acres  of  land. 
On  this  soil  white  oaks  have  been  found  twenty-nine  feet  in  circumference 
and  one  hundred  feet  high;  linden  twenty-three  feet  in  circumference  and 
quite  as  lofty;  the  burr  oak  and  sycamore  grow  still  larger.  Prairie 
grasses,  on  the  crowfoot  lands,  grow  very  rank  and  tall,  and  by  the  old 
settlers  were  said  to  entirely  conceal  herds  of  cattle  from  the  view. 

The  elm  lands,  are  scarcely  inferior  to  the  hackberry  lands,  and  pos- 
sess very  nearly  the  same  growth  of  other  timber.  The  soil  has  about  the 
same  properties,  except  that  the  sand  is  finer  and  the  clay  more  abundant 
The  same  quality  of  soil  appears  in  the  prairie  known  as  the  resin-weed 

Next  in  order  are  hickory  lands,  with  a  growth  of  white  and  shellbark 
hickory,  black,  scarlet  and  laurel  oaks,  sugar  maple,  persimmon  and  the 
haw,  red-bud  and  crab-apple  trees  of  smaller  growth.  In  some  portions 
of  the  state  the  tulip  tree,  beech  and  black  gum  grow  on  lands  of  the  same 
quality.  Large  areas  of  prairie  in  the  northeast  and  the  southwest  have 
soils  of  nearly  the  same  quality,  called  mulatto  soils.  There  is  also  a  soil 
lying  upon  the  red  clays  of  southern  Missouri  similar  to  the  above.  These 
hickory  lands  and  those  described  as  assimilating  to   them,  are    highly 


esteemed  by  the  farmers  for  the  culture  of  corn,  wheat  and  other  cereals. 
They  are  admirably  adapted  to  the  cultivation  of  fruits,  and  their  blue 
grass  pastures  are  equal  to  any  in  the  state.  Their  area  may  be  fairly 
estimated  at  six  millions  of  acres. 

The  magncsian  limestone  soils  extend  from  Callaway  county  south  to 
the  Arkansas  line,  and  from  Jefferson  west  to  Polk  county,  an  area  of 
about  ten  millions  of  acres.  These  soils  are  dark,  warm,  light  and  very 
productive.  They  produce  black  and  white  walnut,  black  gum,  white 
and  wahoo  elms,  sugar  maple,  honey  locust,  mulberry,  chestnut,  post,  lau- 
rel, black,  scarlet  and  Spanish  oaks,  persimmon,  blue  ash,  and  many  trees 
of  smaller  growth.  They  cover  all  the  country  underlaid  by  the  magne- 
sian  limestone  series,  but  are  inconvenient  for  ordinary  tillage  when  they 
occupy  the  hillsides  or  narrow  valleys.  Among  the  most  fertile  soils  in 
the  state,  they  produce  fine  crops  of  almost  all  the  staples ;  and  thrifty  and 
productive  fruit  trees  and  grape  vines  evince  their  extraordinary  adapta- 
tion and  fitness  to  the  culture  of  the  grape  and  other  fruits. 

On  the  ridges,  where  the  lighter  materials  of  the  soil  have  been  washed 
away,  or  were  originally  wanting,  white  oak  lands  are  to  be  found,  the 
oaks  accompanied  by  shellbark  and  black  hickory,  and  trees  and  shrubs 
of  smaller  growth.  While  the  surface  soil  is  not  so  rich  as  the  hickory 
lands,  the  sub-soil  is  quite  as  good,  and  the  land  may  be  greatly  improved 
by  turning  the  sub-soil  to  the  surface.  These  produce  superior  wheat, 
good  corn,  and  a  very  fine  quality  of  tobacco.  On  these  lands  fruits  are 
abundant  and  a  sure  crop.  They  embrace  about  ©ne  and  a  half  million 
of  acres. 

Post  oak  lands  have  about  the  same  growth  as  the  white  oak  lands, 
and  produce  good  crops  of  the  staples  of  the  country,  and  yield  the  best 
tobacco  in  the  "West.  Fruits  of  all  kinds  excel  on  this  soil.  These  lands 
require  deep  culture. 

The  blackjack  lands  occupy  the  high  flint  ridges  underlaid  with  horn- 
stone  and  sandstone,  and  under  these  conditions  are  considered  the  poor- 
est in  the  state,  except  for  pastures  and  vineyards.  The  presence,  how- 
ever, of  black  jack  on  other  lands  does  not  indicate  thin  or  poor  lands. 

Pine  lands  are  extensive,  embracing  about  two  millions  of  acres.  The 
pines  (pinis  mitis,  yellow  pine),  grow  to  great  size,  and  furnish  immense 
supplies  of  marketable  lumber.  They  are  accompanied  by  heavy  growths 
of  oak,  which  takes  the  country  as  successor  to  the  pine.  The  soil  is 
sandy  and  is  adapted  to  small  grains  and  grasses. 

Bisecting  the  state  by  a  line  drawn  from  the  city  of  Hannibal,  on  the 
Mississippi  river,  to  its  southwest  corner,  the  half  lying  to  the  north  and 
west  of  this  line  may  be  described  as  the  prairie  region  of  the  state,  with 
the  rare  advantage  that  every  county  is  bountifully  supplied  with  timber 
and  with  rivers  and  smaller  streams  of  water.     That  which  lies  east  and 


south  of  the  bisecting  line  is  the  timbered  or  forest  section,  in  which  are 
found  numerous  prairies  of  greater  or  less  extent. 

The  prairie  lands  are  again  divided  into  bottom  and  upland  prairies. 
The  bottom  prairies  closely  resemble  in  soil  the  river  bottoms.  In  a  cer- 
tain sense,  the  formation  is  identical;  each  came  from  accretions,  one  from 
the  rivers  and  the  other  from  the  higher  or  upland  prairies.  The  marl 
formation  is  the  foundation  of  both  and  in  both  it  is  deeplv  buried  under 
the  modern  alluvium. 

The  celebrated  and  eloquent  orator,  Henry  Ward  Beecher,  paid  the  fol- 
lowing brilliant  tribute  to  our  grand  state: 

"The  breadth  of  land  from  the  Red  River  country  of  the  far  North, 
stretching  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  including  Minnesota,  Wisconsin,  Illinois, 
Iowa,  Missouri,  Kansas  and  Texas  is  one  of  the  most  wonderful  agricultural 
spectacles  of  the  globe!  It  is  one  of  the  few  facts  that  are  unthinkable! 
In  this  ocean  of  land,  and  at  nearly  its  centre,  stands  the  imperial  state 
of  Missouri.  Even  a  Kansas  man  admits  that  in  natural  qualifications  it 
leads  all  the  rest,  and  is  the  crown  and  glory  of  the  Union!  It  has  bound- 
less treasures  of  coal,  iron,  lead  and  other  minerals;  lands  richer  there 
cannot  be,  nor  finer  streams;  its  forests  are  more  equally  distributed  all 
over  the  state  than  in  any  other;  its  climate,  wholesome  and  delightful, 
blends  the  temperature  of  the  northern  lakes  and  the  great  southern  gulf." 

Horace  Greely  said:  "Missouri  possesses  the  resources  and  capacities 
of  a  nation  within  the  boundaries  of  a  State." 


Animals. — Missouri  has  been  the  feeding  ground  for  vast  herds  of  the 
choicest  of  the  large  game  animals  up  to  the  present  generation.  Old 
hunters  and  trappers,  still  living,  tell  marvelous  stories  of  their  exploits 
with  the  gun.  As  civilization  and  population  advanced  westward  their 
numbers  decreased,  yet  Missouri  is  still  furnishing  a  very  large  proportion 
of  the  game  for  the  markets  of  all  the  large  cities  of  the  United  States. 
Even  London  receives  large  shipments,  every  winter,  from  St.  Louis. 
From  October  1st  to  February  1st,  of  every  year,  there  is  not  an  express 
car  arriving  in  St.  Louis  which  does  not  bring  large  consignments  of 
game.  The  quantity  is  enormous,  and  far  beyond  the  knowledge  of 
every  one  except  those  engaged  in  the  trade,  or  whose  duties  bring  them 
in  contact  with  the  facts. 

Elk,  buffalo,  antelope  and  bear  formerly  abounded  in  this  state,  but 
are  now  nearly  or  quite  driven  entirely  beyond  our  borders.  Red  deer 
are  still  plentiful  in  some  parts  of  the  state.  In  fact,  the  Ozark  Moun- 
tains and  the  swamp  lands  of  southeast  Missouri  constitute  a  great  deer 
park  and  game  preserve,  and  will  continue  to  do  so  until  immigration 
crowds  out  the  game.  It  is  a  notorious  fact,  that  venison  sells  as  cheaply 
as  good  beef  in  St.  Louis  markets,  during  the  winter  season. 


The  rabbit,  as  it  is  popularly  called  here,  is  a  species  of  hare,  and  is 
about  the  average  size  of  the  domestic  cat.  They  are  so  numerous  in 
Missouri  as  to  be  considered  a  pest;  are  found  in  every  field  and  forest 
in  the  state.  Squirrels  are  very  numerous,  especially  in  the  swampy  and 
hilly  regions.  The  two  principal  varieties  are  the  grey  squirrel  and  the 
red  fox-squirrel.  One  of  these  varieties  is  to  be  found  in  every  clump  of 
timbered  land  in  the  state. 

Birds. — Wild  turkeys,  the  finest  game  birds  in  the  world,  abound  in  the 
same  region.  Prairie  chickens,  or  pinnated  grouse,  are  abundant  in  all 
the  prairie  regions  ot"  the  state,  and  are  shipped  from  St.  Louis  to  eastern 
markets  by  hundreds  of  barrels  during  the  fall  months;  but  the  game 
laws  of  the  state  strictly  prohibit  their  being  killed  or  trapped  during  the 
breeding  season.  Quails,  or  Virginia  partridge,  or  "Bob-Whites,"  are 
found  everywhere,  so  common  that  partridge  pie,  or  "  quail  on  toast,"  is 
no  great  rarity  in  thrifty  farm  houses. 

Wild  ducks,  wild  geese,  snipe,  plover  and  several  species  of  the  rail 
frequent  Missouri  during  their  annual  migrations  north  and  south.  Dur- 
ing March,  April  and  May  the  migratory  birds  pass  through  Missouri, 
going  north  to  their  nesting  and  brooding  places,  probably  near  the 
Arctic  circle.  In  October,  November  and  December  they  return,  on 
their  journey  southward  to  spend  the  winter.  There  is  no  state  in  the 
great  Mississippi  basin  more  frequented  by  these  migratory  game  birds 
than  Missouri. 

Fishes. — The  early  settlers  found  the  rivers  and  lakes  teeming  with 
many  fine  varieties  of  game  and  food  fishes,  and  there  is  still  a  bountiful 
supply.  Black  bass,  perch,  catfish,  buffalo  fish,  suckers  and  pike  consti- 
tute the  leading  varieties  of  native  fishes.  Black  bass  of  several  varieties 
inhabit  every  stream  of  considerable  size  in  the  state,  and  every  lake  con- 
tains them.  It  is  the  best  game  fish  in  the  state.  The  perch  family  is 
represented  by  several  dozen  species;  and  perch  of  several  kinds  are 
found  in  every  body  of  water  jn  the  state,  which  does  not  actually  dry  up 
in  the  summer  time.  The  catfish  of  Missouri  are  not  only  numerous,  but 
famous  the  world  over.  There  are  at  least  a  dozen  species  in  the  waters 
of  this  state.  The  yellow  catfish  grows  to  great  size,  often  reaching  a 
weight  of  175  pounds;  the  black  catfish,  maximum  weight  about  45 
pounds;  blue  or  forked-tail  catfish,  reaching  150  pounds  and  upwards  in 
weight;  the  channel  catfish,  weighing  from  one  to  fifteen  pounds,  and  the 
yellow  mud  catfish,  often  weighing  as  high  as  100  pounds.  The  sucker 
family  includes  the  buffalo  fish,  chub,  sucker  and  red  horse.  The  first  of 
these  is  highly  prized,  abundant,  and  grows  to  a  maximum  weight  of  40 
pounds.  The  last  named  is  very  abundant  during  certain  seasons  of  the 
year,  and  valuable;  they  weigh  from  6  ounces  to  8  pounds.     Pike  of  sev- 


eral  species  are  found  throughout  Missouri,  and  rank  with  black  bass  as 
game  fish;  they  are  found  in  the  clearer  and  rapid  streams. 

The  above  lists  constitute  the  leading  fishes  of  the  state,  but  by  no  means 
all,  as  there  are  many  minor  species. 

The  state  board  of  fish  commissioners  receives  $3,000  annually  from 
the  state,  to  defray  expenses  of  propagating  desirable  kinds  of  food  fishes, 
that  are  not  found  native  in  the  state.  In  1S7S  Mr.  Reid  distributed  100,- 
000  fry  of  the  California  salmon,  in  the  state.  In  May  and  June,  1S79, 
the  commission  distributed  250,000  shad  fry  in  the  rivers  of  southeast, 
south  and  southwest  Missouri,  and  planted  5,000  young  trout  in  the 
springs  and  sources  of  the  same  rivers.  Later  they  have  planted  100,- 
000  fry  of  the  California  salmon  in  the  same  sections  of  the  state.  In  1880 
two  or  three  hundred  thousand  fry  of  German  carp  were  planted.  All 
the  waters  of  Missouri  are  adapted  to  this  fish,  more  especially  the  lakes 
and  sluggish  streams.  The  carp  can  be  as  easily  cultivated  as  pigs  or 
turkeys,  and  it  is  hoped  that  in  a  few  years  all  the  streams  of  the  state 
will  be  stocked  with  them. 


For  nearly  forty  years  Dr.  George  Engelmann,  of  St.  Louis,  kept  sys- 
tematic records  of  the  meteorology  of  St.  Louis  and  vicinity;  and  by 
compiling  similar  records  kept  during  long  or  short  periods,  by  other  per- 
sons in  different  parts  of  the  state,  he  has  been  able  to  report  pretty  cor- 
rectly the  dates  and  weather-facts  which  go  to  furnish  a  comprehensive 
estimate  of  the  general  nature  of  the  climate,  at  each  season  of  the  year, 
in  different  parts  of  the  state.  The  following  facts  of  great  practical 
interest  and  value  are  gathered  from  the  doctor's  work: 

Our  winters,  taken  in  the  usual  sense,  from  the  first  of  December  to 
the  last  of  February,  have  in  the  city  an  average  temperature  of  33.3 
degrees,  and  may  be  estimated  for  the  surrounding  country  at  32  degrees; 
but  they  vary  in  different  seasons  between  25  degrees  (winter  of  1855-6 
and  1872-3)  and  40  degrees  (winter  1S44-5).  Our  summers  (from  June 
1st  to  August  31st)  have  in  the  city  a  mean  temperature  of  76. S  degrees, 
and  are  calculated  to  reach  in  the  country  75  degrees,  ranging  between 
the  coolest  summer,  71.5  degrees  mean  temperature  (1S35,  1839  and 
1848),  and  the  warmest  of  80  degrees  mean  temperature,  (1838,  1850  and 
especially  1854). 

The  last  frosts  in  spring  occur  between  March  13th  and  May  2d,  on 
an  average  about  April  5th,  and  the  earliest  autumnal  frosts  between 
October  4th  and  November  26th,  on  an  average  about  October  27th;  the 


period  between  these  two  terms  extends  in  different  years  from  184  to 
252  days,  on  an  average  205  days.  In  the  southeast  part  of  the  state 
these  limits  of  the  freezing  point  will,  of  course,  be  much  wider  apart, 
and  in  the  northwest  they  are  narrowed  down  considerably.  Our  spring 
opens  in  March,  though  in  some  favored  seasons  vegetation  breaks 
through  its  wintry  bounds  already  in  the  latter  part  of  February,  while 
in  a  few  very  late  springs  it  cannot  be  said  to  have  fairly  commenced 
before  the  middle  of  April.  *  *  *  We  find  the  first  in  bloom  is  the 
alder  and  the  hazel;  next — not  rarely  retarded  by  intervening  cold  spells — 
the  soft  or  silver  leaf  maple;  our  common  white  elm  blooms  a  few  days 
after  this,  between  February  24th  and  April  15th,  on  an  average,  March 
19th.  During  the  next  following  days,  roses,  syringas,  gooseberries  and 
many  other  bushes,  and  the  weeping  willows,  show  their  young  leaves. 
About  two  weeks  after,  the  elm — between  March  18th  and  April  25th, 
on  an  average  about  April  3d — the  peach  trees  open  their  first  blossoms, 
and  are,  one  week  later,  in  full  bloom.  Plum  and  pear  trees  and  sweet 
cherries  blossom  about  the  same  time,  or  a  few  days  later,  and  then  sour 
cherries  and  the  glory  of  our  rich  woods,  the  red  buds,  get  in  bloom. 
Between  March  21st  and  May  1st,  (mean,  April  14th)  the  early  apple 
trees  begin  to  bloom,  and  between  March  28th  and  May  10th,  (mean, 
April  20th)  they  may  be  said  to  be  in  full  bloom. 

The  maturity  and  harvest  of  winter  wheat  immediately  succeeds  the 
catalpa  bloom,  between  June  10th  and  July  1st,  usually  about  June  20th. 
The  mean  summer  temperature  varies  but  little  throughout  the  state.  In 
the  summer  of  1873  the  mean  temperature  in  the  southeast  was  found 
only  one-half  degree  higher  than  that  of  the  northeast,  and  the  difference 
between  St.  Louis  and  the  west  was  even  less.  Winter  temperatures, 
however,  show  a  wide  range.  The  mean  temperature  of  the  southeast- 
ern part  of  the  state  is  2^-  to  3  degrees  higher  than  at  St.  Louis,  and 
5£  degrees  higher  than  in  the  northeastern  angle,  and  the  mean  tem- 
perature of  Leavenworth,  and  the  adjacent  parts  of  Missouri,  is  fully  2 
degrees  less  than  that  of  the  region  about  St.  Louis. 

In  connection  with  our  winter  temperature  it  must  be  mentioned  that 
the  Mississippi  at  St.  Louis  freezes  over  about  once  in  four  or  five 
years,  partly,  no  doubt,  in  consequence  of  the  heavy  ice  floating  down 
from  the  north ;  and  it  then  remains  closed  for  one  or  two,  or  even  four 
or  six  weeks,  sometimes  passable  for  the  heaviest  teams.  Our  river  has 
been  known  to  close  as  early  as  the  first  week  in  December,  and  in 
other  years,  to  be  open  as  late  as  the  last  week  in  February,while  the  run- 
ning ice  may  impede  or  interrupt  navigation  between  the  end  of  Novem- 
ber and  the  end  of  February,  sometimes  as  low  down  as  the  southeast 
corner  of  the  state ;  the  river  is  said,  however,  never  to  freeze  over  below 
Cape  Girardeau.      The    Missouri   river  is  sometimes  closed  in  the  latter 



part  of  November,  and  has   been  known  to  remain  firmly  bridged  over 
into  the  first  week  of  March. 

The  climate  of  Missouri  is,  on  the  whole,  a  dry  one,  with  strong  evap- 
oration, and  an  atmosphere  but  rarely  overloaded  with  moisture. 

Clear  or  nearly  clear  days 

Partially  clear  and  variable  days 

Days  when  the  sun  remains  obscured. 










Whole  Yr. 




Our  summer  rains  mostly  descend  with  great  abundance,  and  in  a  com- 
paratively short  time,  so  that  the  average  (13  inches)  of  summer  rain  falls 
in  70  hours,  distributed  over  twenty -four  days,  while  the  7  inches  of  win- 
ter rain  (and  snow)  descend  in  160  hours  and  on  22  days.  The  days  on 
which  it  rains  vary  between  68  and  115  in  the  year.  On  the  average  we 
have  92  days  in  the  year  on  which  it  rains.  Our  rains  last  from  a  frac- 
tion of  an  hour  to  a  few  hours,  and  very  rarely  extend  through  the  24 

Snow  is  rather  scarce  in  our  climate,  and  rarely  continually  covers  the 
ground  for  more  than  a  few  days  or  a  week.  In  some  years,  it  amounted, 
when  melted  to  5£  inches;  in  others  to  only  one-half,  inch ;  the  aver- 
age is  about  2-J-  inches. 

The  atmospherical  pressure  (indicated  by  the  stage  of  the  barometer)  is 
with  us,  in  summer,  more  uniform  and  regular  than  on  the  Atlantic  coast, 
while  in  winter  it  fluctuates  considerably,  and  often  very  rapidly.  The 
average  barometrical  pressure  is  highest  in  January,  falls  till  May,  and 
gradually  rises  again  until  January;  it  is  most  variable  from  November  to 
March,  and  least  so  from  June  to  August. 


Authentic  reports  to  the  Health  Board  of  St.  Louis  is  have  shown  that 
-the  annual  sickness  rate  of  the  city  of  St.  Louis  about  seventeen  and  a  half 
days  to  each  member  of  the  population.  Dr.  Boardman,  of  Boston,  has 
ascertained  the  sickness  rate  of  the  city  of  Boston  to  be  about  twenty- 
four  days  of  annual  sickness  to  each  individual.  The  general  correctness 
of  these  conclusions  are  further  substantiated  by  army  statistics.  Dr. 
Play  fair,  of  England,  after  careful  inquiry,  computed  the  ratio  of  one 
■death  to  twenty-eight  cases  of  sickness  in  a  mixed  population. 

The  state  of  Massachusetts  has  for  many  years  had  a  state  board  of 
Health,  by  whom  sanitary  improvements  have  been  diligently  and  scien 
tifically  prosecuted,  under  state  authority;  and  the  annual  death-rate  has 
thereby  been  somewhat  reduced.  In  1870  Massachusetts  had  a  popula- 
tion of  1,457,351  and  there  were  during  the  same  period  25,859  deaths 
from  all  causes.     A  mortality  equal  to  1.77  per  cent  of  the  population.     At 


the  same  time  Missouri  had  a  population  of  1,721,295,  and  there  were 
during  that  year  27,982  deaths  from  all  causes.  A  mortality  rate  equiva- 
lent to  1.63  per  cent,  of  the  population.  It  thus  appears,  if  the  calculation 
is  made  and  the  relative  proportion  between  the  populations  and  the  death 
rates  of  the  two  states  maintained,  that  vital  security  is  greater  in  Mis- 
souri, as  compared  with  Massachusetts,  to  an  extent  represented  by 
the  annual  saving  of  2,474  lives.  But  this  is  not  all.  The  authorities  on 
vital  statistics  estimate  that  two  persons  are  constantly  sick  for  every  one 
that  dies;  and  Dr.  Jarvis  shows,  from  the  experience  of  health-assurance 
companies  in  this  country,  that  on  an  average  each  person  loses  from  1& 
to  20  days  per  year  by  sickness.  Then  we  have  this  result:  Two 
persons  sick  to  one  death,  equal  4,94S,  multiplied  by  20,  gives  98,960  days 
per  year  less  of  sickness  in  Missouri  than  in  Massachusetts,  in  proportion 
to  population.  Then  reckon  the  amount  of  care  and  anxiety  and  suffering 
and  the  loss  of  time,  and  cost  for  nursing  and  medicines  and  doctor's  bills — 
and  you  will  begin  to  get  some  idea  of  what  these  figures  really  mean,  in 
favor  of  our  state,  with  its  dry,  salubrious  climate,  in  comparison  with 
Massachusetts,  the  only  other  state  for  which  the  figures  were  at  hand 
to  make  the  comparison. 


The  Missouri  state  board  of  agriculture  was  created  a  body  corporate 
by  statute,  in  1877,  and  it  was  provided  that  the  governor,  the  state  sup- 
erintendent of  schools,  the  president  of  the  state  university  and  the 
dean  of  the  state  agricultural  college,  should  be  ex-officio  members  of 
the  board.  The  officers  of  the  secretary  and  treasurer  are  required  to  be 
at  the  agricultural  college,  at  Columbia,  in  Boone  county;  and  the  annual 
meetings  are  to  be  held  there,  on  the  first  Wednesday  of  November  in 
each  year.  The  presidents  or  duly  authorized  delegates  of  county 
agricultural  societies,  are  rightful  members  of  the  state  board,  "for  delib- 
eration and  consultation  as  to  the  wants,  prospects  and  condition  of  the 
agricultural  interests  of  the  state,  to  receive  the  reports  of  district  and 
county  societies,  and  to  fill  by  elections  all  vacancies  in  the  board." 

The  law  further  provides  that,  "  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  all  agricultural 
and  horticultural  societies,  organized  ^nd  established  in  accordance  with 
the  laws  of  this  state,  to  make  a  full  report  of  their  transactions  to  the 
Missouri  state  board  of  agriculture,  at  each  annual  meeting  thereof." 

The  state  board  is  required  "  to  make  an  annual  report  to  the  general 
assembly  of  the  state,  embracing  the  proceedings  of  the  board  for  the 
past  year,  and  an  abstract  of  the  reports  and  proceedings  of  'the  several 
agricultural  and  horticultural  societies,  as  well  as  a  general  view  of  the 
condition  of  agriculture  and  horticulture  throughout  the  state,  accom- 
panied by  such  recommendations,  including  especially  such  a  system  of 


public  instruction  upon  those  subjects  as  may  be  deemed  interesting  and 
useful."  Provision  is  then  made  for  printing  fourteen  thousand  copies 
(two  thousand  in  the  German  language),  for  distribution  to  all  who  will  use 


First  of  all  the  crops  grown  in  the  state,  in  amount  and  value,  is  Indian 
corn.  There  is  not  a  county  in  the  state  in  which  it  is  not  successfully 
and  profitably  grown.  The  broad  alluvial  bottoms  along  our  great  rivers 
yield  immense  crops  of  this  valuable  cereal,  and  our  fertile  prairies  are 
but  little,  if  any,  behind  them  in  their  yield. 

Next  in  importance  among  the  cereals  is  wheat,  which  grows  and  yields 
well  in  every  part  of  the  state.  Except  in  a  few  northern  counties,  spring 
wheat  is  but  little  grown,  the  main  attention  being  bestowed  upon  the 
winter  varieties,  which  are  especially  a  favorite  crop  upon  the  loess  and 
clay  loams,  and  upon  the  oak  uplands  of  the  state.  The  well  known  fact 
that  the  best  flour  to  stand  transportation  and  exposure  in  hot  and  humid 
climates,  is  made  from  wheat  grown  toward  the  southern  border  of  the 
wheat  zone,  has  made  Missouri  flour  a  favorite  for  shipment  to  South 
American  markets.  Flour  made  in  Missouri,  from  Missouri  wheat,  won 
the  Medal  of  Merit  at  the  World's  Exposition,  at  Vienna,  in  1S73.  The 
average  yield  and  the  certainty  of  the  wheat  crop  in  Missouri,  give  the 
state  a  high  rank  among  the  states  producing  this  cereal. 

Oats  grow  and  yield  well  in  the  state,  producing  heavy  straw,  plump 
and  heavy  grains;  but  the  crop  does  not  figure  very  largely  in  our 
markets,  being  mainly  grown  for  home  consumption. 

Tobacco,  of  two  or  three  varieties,  grows  well,  and  Missouri  tobacco 
enjovs  a  fine  reputation  for  excellence.  The  state  embraces  some  of  the 
best  tobacco  lands  in  the  country.  It  is  a  staple  in  nearly  every  county  in 
the  state,  and  some  of  the  counties  make  it  a  leading  crop.  Missouri 
ranks  sixth  in  its  production. 

Cotton,  except  in  small  patches  for  home  use,  is  raised  only  in  the 
southern  counties  of  the  state.  Stoddard,  Scott,  New  Madrid,  Pemiscot, 
Dunklin,  Mississippi  and  Lawrence,  all  raise  more  or  less  for  shipment, 
and,  in  some  of  the  counties  named,  it  is  an  important  crop. 

Potatoes  grow  well,  and  on  most  of  our  soils  yield  large  crops.  They 
are  of  fine  quality  generally. 

Sweet  Potatoes  grow  upon  our  sandy  soils  to  great  size  and  excellence, 
and  our  farmers  raise  a  great  abundance  for  home  use,  and  the  city 
markets  are  always  well  supplied. 

Sorghum,  and  other  varieties  of  the  Chinese  sugar  cane,  are  exten- 
sively grown,  and  many  thousands  of  gallons  of  syrup  are  annually  made 
for  home  use.     Recent  improvements  in  manufacturing  sugar  from  these 


syrups  bid  fair  to  increase  the   value   and  importance  of  this  branch  of 

Broom  Corn  is  extensively  grown  in  Missouri,  and  the  brush  being 
longer  and  finer  than  that  grown  in  the  eastern  states,  commands  a  much 
better  price  in  market. 

Buckwheat,  Castor  Beans,  White  Beans,  Peas  and  Ho^ps,  are  all  success- 
fully grown  and  made  profitable  crops. 

Garden  Vegetables  are  produced  in  great  profusion  and  variety,  and 
the  more  arid  regions  of  western  Kansas  and  New  Mexico,  and  the 
mining  districts  of  Colorado,  afford  an  ever-increasing  market  for  these 
and  other  agricultural  products  from  our  state.  Watermelons,  musk- 
melons,  etc.,  grow  to  great  perfection,  and  are  shipped  in  large  quantities 
from  some  portions  of  the  state  to  cities  farther  north. 

The  U.  S.  forestry  statistics  of  1875,  give  Missouri  21,707,220  acres  of 
land  in  farms;  20,116,786  acres  not  in  farms;  of  wood  land  in  farms  there 
were  8,965,229  acres,  and  the  total  woodlands  in  the  state  was  reported 
as  19,623,619  acres. 

There  is  a  curious  bit  of  agricultural  history  which  illustrates  the  rapid 
development  of  the  western  country,  and  at  the  same  time  shows,  by 
the  inevitable  logic  of  events  already  transpired,  the  magnificent  position 
of  Missouri  as  the  greatest  wheat  center  on  the  globe.  In  1849  the  cen- 
ter of  the  wheat  product  of  the  United  States  was  the  meridian  of  81  ° 
west  of  Greenwich,  passing  north  and  south  through  the  eastern  border 
counties  of  Ohio.  In  1859  that  line  had  moved  westward  a  little  more  than 
two  degrees  of  longitude,  and  passed  through  the  eastern  border  counties 
of  Indiana,  the  city  of  Fort  Wayne  being  on  the  line.  In  1869  the  wheat 
center  had  moved  not  quite  two  degrees  further  west,  and  was  that  year 
a  few  miles  west  of  Chicago  and  Milwaukee;  and  the  center  of  our 
National  corn  crop  was  on  the  same  line  at  this  time.  In  1877  this  line 
had  moved  still  further  west,  and  was  now  represented  by  a  line  drawn 
on  a  map  of  the  United  States  from  Marquette,  on  Lake  Superior,  down 
through  Janesville,  Wisconsin,  and  through  Mendota,  LaSalle,  Vandalia 
and  Cairo,  in  Illinois.  The  corn  center  will  not  move  much  if  any  further 
west;  but  the  wheat  center,  by  reason  of  the  rapid  development  of  this 
crop  in  Minnesota,  Dakota,  Nebraska  and  Kansas,  is  now,  in  1881,  as  far 
west  as  St.  Louis;  and  it  will  not  be  likely  to  migrate  further  than  Jeffer- 
son City  at  any  time  in  the  future,  because  there  is  no  important  wheat- 
growing  territory  further  west  still  unoccupied.  The  new  settlements 
westward  must  be  chiefly  by  mining  and  manufacturing  peoples,  hence, 
consumers  rather  than  producers  of  the  great  cereal  crops. 

The  conclusion  of  the  whole  matter,  then,  is  that  St.  Louis  is  now,  and 
will  for  several  decades  continue  to  be,  practically  on  the  center  line  of 
the  aggregate  product  of  wheat  and  corn  in  the  United  States,  propor- 



tioned  from  east  to  west  limits  of  the  national  domain.  And  this  fact 
assures  Missouri  of  pre-eminent  commercial  rank  among  the  grand  sister- 
hood of  states. 

The  following  table  shows  the  number  of  pounds  weight  which  con- 
stitute a  lawful  bushel  in  Missouri,  of  the  different  articles  named,  as 
established  in  1879: 

No.  lbs. 
Articles.  per  bu. 

Wheat 60 

Corn,  shelled 56 

Corn  in  ear 70 

Corn  Meal 50 

Rye 56 

Oats 32 

Barley. 48 

Irish  Potatoes 60 

Sweet  Potatoes 56 

Beans,  White 60 

Castor  Beans 46 

Bran 20 

Clover  Seed 60 

Timothy  Seed .  .• 45 

Hungarian  Seed 4S 

Hemp  Seed 44 

Flaxseed 56 

Millet  Seed 50 

Red-top  Seed  or  Herd's  Grass  14 

Osage  Orange  Seed 36 

Sorghum  Seed 42 

Kentucky  Blue  Grass  Seed...  14 

No.  lbs. 
Articles.  per  bu. 

Orchard  Grass 14 

Buckwheat 52 

Onions 57 

Top  Onion  Sets 28 

Peas,  whole,  dry 60 

Split  Peas 60 

Dried  Apples 24 

Dried  Peaches 33 

Malt 38 

Salt 50 

Coal 80 

Peanuts,  dry  Southern 22 

Cotton  Seed 33 

Parsnips . 44 

Common  Turnips , 42 

Carrots 50 

Rutabagas 50 

Green  Peas,  unshelled 56 

Green  Beans,  unshelled 56 

Green  Apples 48 

Green  Peaches 48 

Green  Pears 48 

The  standard  bushel  for  coke  and  charcoal  is  to  contain  2,680  cubic 
inches;  apple  barrels,  length,  28-£  inches;  chines,  £  of  an  inch  at  ends; 
diameter  of  head,  17^-  inches;  inside  diameter  at  the  center  of  the  barrel, 
20-|  inches. 


The  state  horticultural  society  was  organized  in  January,  1859,  and 
has  kept  up  its  annual  meetings  in  spite  of  all  difficulties.  Each  congres- 
sional district  of  the  state  is  classed  as  a  separate  horticultural  district,  and 
is  represented  in  the  society  by  a  vice-president,  who  is  expected  to  keep 
himself  posted  on  the  interests  of  this  industry  in  his  district,  and  make 
report  (or  procure  some  one  to  do  it),  at  the  annual  meeting.  The  officers 
of  this  society  for  1880,  were:  President,  Hon.  Norman  J.  Colman,  St. 
Louis;  Vice  Presidents:  1st  congressional  district,  H.  Michel,  St.  Louis; 
2d,  Dr.  C.  W.  Spaulding,  Cliff  Cave;  3d,  J.  Rhodes,  Bridgeton;  4th, 
H.  D.  Wilson,  Cape  Girardeau;  5th,  W.  S.  Jewett,  Crystal  City;  6th,  M. 


S.  Roundtree,  Springfield;  7th,  E.  Brown,  Sedalia;  8th,  Z.  S.  Ragan, 
Independence;  9th,  J.  Madinger,  St.  Joseph;  10th,  W.  H.  Miller,  Chili- 
cothe;  11th,  G.  Husmann,  Columbia;  12th,  J.  Hawkins,  Hannibal;  13th, 
W.  Stark,  Louisiana. 

Apples. — All  the  standard  varieties  of  the  temperate  zone  are  raised 
in  their  highest  perfection  in  the  state  of  Missouri;  but  in  such  a  large 
area  of  country  as  our  state  comprises,  and  with  such  a  great  variety  of 
soils,  and  other  conditions,  each  different  kind  has  its  locality  of  best  suc- 
cess. It  is  therefore  not  possible  to  indicate  what  varieties  are  best  for 
the  state ;  each  district  will  have  its  favorites.  At  the  national  exhibit,  in 
1878,  Missouri  showed  one  hundred  and  forty  plates  of  apples.  Distin- 
guished pomologists  assert  that  ten  counties  in  north  Missouri  can  show 
apples  in  as  great  variety  and  perfection  as  any  ten  other  states  in  the 

Perhaps  no  better  proof  can  be  given  of  the  general  excellence  of 
Missouri  fruits  than  the  fact  that  at  the  meeting  of  the  American  pomo- 
logical  society,  in  September,  1878,  medals  were  awarded  to  Missouri  for 
the  best  displays  of  apples,  pears  and  wines,  and  also  one  for  the  best 
general  display  of  fruits.  These  honors  were  gained  in  competition  with 
every  state  in  the  union,  represented  by  their  choicest  fruits,  and  at  an 
exhibition  held  at  Rochester,  New  York,  which  had  long  been  regarded 
as  the  very  center  of  the  fruit  growing  interests  of  the  country.  The 
fruits  exhibited  on  that  occasion  were  from  different  parts  of  the  state. 
St.  Joseph,  Independence,  Morrison,  Columbia,  Hermann,  St.  Louis  county, 
Boone  county,  and  other  districts  were  represented,  and  shared  the  hon- 
ors of  our  great  victory. 

The  varieties  that  appear  to  have  received  most  favor  at  the  meeting 
of  our  state  agricultural  society,  in  1880,  were  Ben  Davis,  Winesap, 
Jonathan,  Dominie,  Rawle's  Janet,  Milam,  Northern  Spy,  Carthouse, 
Newtown  Pippin,  Summer  Pippin,  Red  June,  Early  Harvest,  Red 
Astrachan,  Late  Summer,  Dutchess  of  Oldenburg,  Early  Ptnnock,  St. 
Lawrence,  Maiden  Blush,  Rambo,  Grimes'  Golden,  Limber  Twig,  Little 

Peaches. — The  southeastern  portion  of  the  state,  along  the  line  of  the 
Iron  Mountain  railroad,  and  the  western  portion,  where  the  marly  deposits 
are  so  rich  and  extensive,  are  pre-eminently  the  peach  districts,  and  in 
these  regions  the  peach  seems  almost  indigenous,  never  failing  to  produce 
abundant  crops;  and  yet  fruit-growers  in  these  districts  say  that  they  are 
never  able  to  supply  the  demand,  Nebraska,  Kansas  and  Colorado  taking 
all  from  the  western  region,  and  St.  Louis  having  to  draw  upon  other  states 
for  her  supplies.  Peaches  may  be  relied  upon  as  a  profitable  crop  in  all 
that  part  of  the  state  south  of  the  Missouri  river,  and,  indeed,  are  largely 
grown  much  further  north,  St.  Joseph  exporting  large  amounts. 


In  some  localities  the  trees  have  occasionally  been  winter-killed,  when  not 
in  suitable  soil  or  not  sheltered ;  but,  on  the  whole,  Missouri  may  fairly  be  set 
down  as  a  peach-growing  state.  Mr.  R.  Lynn,  of  Rockport,  in  the 
northrwest  part  of  the  state,  says  he  has  raised  three  good  paying  crops 
of  peaches  in  seven  years,  the  first  crop  being  the  third  year  from  plant- 
ing; his  best  crop  was  in  1S78. 

Pears. — Pears  do  well  throughout  the  state,  especially  in  the  region 
of  Clay,  Jackson  and  Cass  counties.  The  trees  attain  a  great  size  and 
age — a  diameter  of  from  twelve  to  fifteen  inches  is  common;  and  there 
are  trees  a  short  distance  south  of  St.  Louis  over  two  hundred  years  old, 
and  still  bearing  full  crops.  The  pear,  although  the  most  luscious  fruit 
grown  in  northern  latitudes,  is  also  one  of  the  most  difficult  to  raise  suc- 
cessfully— hence  it  is  a  matter  of  reasonable  pride  and  gratification  that 
this  fruit  has  done  so  well  in  our  state.  At  the  national  pomological 
exhibition,  of  1S78,  there  were  from  this  state:  From  the  Missouri  Val- 
ley horticultural  society,  Kansas  City,  twenty  varieties  of  pears ;  from 
Jacob  Rhodes,  Bridgeton,  nine  varieties;  from  J.  Madinger,  St.  Joseph, 
six  varieties;  from  W.  Stark,  Louisiana,  two  varieties.  Some  of  the 
finest  specimens  at  the  exhibition  were  grown  near  St.  Louis,  on  stocks  of 
the  white  thorn. 

Grapes. — For  several  years  the  chief  fruit-growing  interest  of  our  state 
seemed  to  center  on  the  grape — at  least,  it  was  more  discussed  and  advo- 
cated in  fashionable  circles,  than  ail  the  other  fruits  put  together.  The 
anti-prohibition  sentiment  rallied  around  the  grape-growing  industry  for 
the  manufacture  of  native  wines,  as  the  great  panacea  for  all  the  ills  and 
horrors  of  intemperance.  But  aside  from  any  matter  of  sentiment  in  the 
case,  it  does  seem  as  though  we  excel  all  other  states  of  the  Union  in  the 
variety  and  richness  of  our  grapes,  both  of  native  and  cultivated  varieties. 

From  Prof.  Swallow's  report  on  the  country  along  the  lines  of  the 
southwestern  branch  of  the  Missouri  Pacific  railroad,  published  in  1859, 
we  learn  that  seven  different  native  grapes  have  been  found  in  Missouri. 
1.  Vitis  Labrusca,  commonly  called  "fox  grape."  The  Isabella,  Catawba, 
Schuylkill  and  Bland's  seedling,  are  cultivated  and  popular  varieties  derived 
from  this  wild  grape.  2.  Vitis  Aestivalis,  or  "summer  grape."  This 
is  found  in  all  parts  of  the  state.  3.  Vitis  Cordifolia;  winter  grape,  or 
"  frost  grape  "  as  it  is  more  commonly  called.  4.  Vitis  Rifiaria,  or  "river 
grape," grows  along  streams  and  is  quite  large.  5.  Vitis  Vid-pina ; called 
also  Muscadine.  It  grows  mostly  in  the  south  part  of  the  state,  and  is  a 
large  fine  fruit.  The  cultivated  grape  called  Scuppernong  is  derived  from 
this  wild  variety.  6.  Vitis  Bi-pinnata;  found  in  Cape  Girardeau  and 
Pemiscot  counties.  7.  Vitis  Indivisa;  found  in  central  and  western 



There  are  few  or  no  grasses  that  are  ^peculiar  to  Missouri;  and  fortu- 
nately so,  for  there  is  no  permanent  advantage  in  being  adapted  to  pecu- 
liar crops  any  more  than  in  being  a  peculiar  people.  The  great  blessings 
of  life  are  universal  and  widespread.  It  results  that  all  the  valuable 
members  of  this  great  and  beneficial  family  of  plants  are  adapted  to  and 
capable  of  being  introduced  and  cultivated  in  this  state.  Flint,  in  his 
standard  work  on  grasses,  says:  "Whoever  has  blue  grass  has  the  basis 
of  all  agricultural  prosperity,  and  that  man,  if  he  have  not  the  finest 
horses,  cattle  and  sheep,  has  no  one  to  blame  but  himself.  Others,  in 
other  circumstances,  may  do  well.  He  can  hardly  avoid  doing  well  if  he 
will  try." 

Blue  grass  is  indigenous  in  Missouri.  When  the  timber  is  removed  it 
springs  up  spontaneously  on  the  land,  and,  when  the  prairie  is  reclaimed, 
it  soon  takes  possession  and  supersedes  all  other  grasses.  This  famous 
grass  is  the  foundation  on  which  the  mighty  stock  industry  of  Kentucky* 
has  been  built,  and  has  given  a  world-renowned  reputation  to  its  fine 
blood  horses,  cattle  and  sheep.  The  combing-wool  sheep  and  the  fine 
mutton  breeds  have  obtained  a  national  reputation  for  wool  and  mutton  in 
that  state,  and  their  usefulness  has  but  begun.  What  blue  grass  has  done 
for  Kentucky,  it  is  now  doing  for  Missouri.  An  acre  of  this  grass  is 
worth  an  acre  of  corn. 

Recent  experience  has  proved  that  alfalfa  or  lucerne,  that  most  fatten- 
ing of  all  grasses,  grows  luxuriantly  in  this  region,  yielding  each  year 
three  or  four  good  crops  of  hay. 


As  early  as  1867,  our  state  board  of  agriculture  reported  destruction  by 
grasshoppers  (the  Rocky  Mountain  locust,)  in  the  western  part  of  the 
state  the  previous  fall;  and  also,  that  there  had  been  visitations  more  or 
less  injurious  in  former  years.  But  their  greatest  and  most  grievous 
invasion  occurred  in  the  fall  of  1874,  when  33  counties  of  western  Mis- 
souri suffered  from  thefr  ruthless  ravages.  Our  state  entomologist,  Prof. 
C.  V.  Riley,  made  such  a  thorough,  diligent  and  masterful  study  of  their 
origin  and  habits,  and  the  causes,  methods  and  consequences  of  their  migra- 
tions, that  he  became  the  standard  authority  on  grasshoppers  all  over  the 
civilized  world.  In  1876  the  government  appointed  a  special  commission 
of  entomologists  to  investigate  the  character  and  movements  of  these 
pests,  and  report  for  the  benefit  of  the  whole  infested  region,  which  com- 
prised the  country  west  of  St.  Paul,  Minnesota,  Jefferson  City,  Missouri, 
and  Galveston,  Texas,  ranging  from  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  on  the  south,  to 

*  "Kentucky  blue  grass,"  (so-called),  is  not  native  to  that  state :  it  is  the  same  as  the  En- 
glish spear  grass,  the  New  England  June  grass,,  or  meadow  grass — or,  in  botanical  lan- 
guage, poa  pratensis. 


Lake  Winnipeg  and  Manitoba  in  the  British  possessions  northward,  and 
as  far  west  as  the  headquarters  of  the  Columbia  river.  The  most  prom- 
inent scientists  on  this  commission  were  our  own  Prof.  Riley,  and  Prof. 
Samuel  Aughey,  of  the  state  university  of  Nebraska. 

The  results  of  this  United  States  commission  were  little  if  anything 
mere  than  a  tedious  elaboration  of  what  Prof.  Riley  had  presented  in 
three  annual  reports  as  state  entomologist  of  Missouri.  No  new  points 
of  any  special  importance  were  discovered  concerning  them.  The  devel- 
opment of  this  subject,  therefore,  belongs  to  the  history  of  what  Missouri 
has  done  for  science,  for  agriculture  and  for  the  public  weal.  In  his 
seventh  annual  report  to  our  state  board  of  agriculture,  IS 75,  Prof.  Riley 
says : 

''There  is  some  difference  of  opinion  as  to  the  precise  natural  habitat  and 
breeding  places  of  these  insects,  but  the  facts  all  indicate  that  it  is  by 
nature  a  denizen  of  high  altitudes,  breeding  in  the  valleys,  parks  and 
plateaus  of  the  Rocky  Mountain  region  of  Colorado,  and  especially  of 
Montana,  Wyoming  and  British  America.  Prof.  Cyrus  Thomas,  who 
has  had  an  excellent  opportunity  of  studying  it,  through  his  connection 
with  Hayden's  geological  survey  of  the  territories,  reports  it  as  occurring 
from  Texas  to  British  America,  and  from  the  Mississippi  westward  to  the 
Sierra  Nevada  range.  But  in  all  this  vast  extent  of  country,  and  espe- 
cially in  the  more  southern  latitudes,  there  is  every  reason  to  believe  that 
it  breeds  only  on  the  higher  mountain  elevations,  and  where  the  atmos- 
phere is  very  dry  and  attenuated,  and  the  soil,  seldom,  if  ever,  gets  soaked 
with  moisture.  Prof.  Thomas  found  it  most  numerous  in  all  stages  of 
growth,  along  the  higher  valleys  and  canyons  of  Colorado,  tracing  it  up 
above  the  perennial  snows,  where  the  insects  must  have  hatched,  as  it 
was  found  in  the  adolescent  stage.  In  crossing  the  mountains  in  Col- 
orado, it  often  gets  chilled  in  passing  snows,  and  thus  perishes  in 
immense  numbers,  where  bears  delight  to  feast  upon  it.  My  own  belief 
is  that  the  insect  is  at  home  in  the  higher  altitudes  of  Utah,  Idaho,  Col- 
orado, W}'omingf  Montana,  northwest  Dakota,  and  British  America.  It 
breeds  in  all  this  region,  but  particularly  on  the  vast  hot  and  dry  plains 
and  plateaus  of  the  last  named  territories,  and  on  the  plains  west  of  the 
mountains;  its  range  being  bounded,  perhaps,  on  the  east  by  that  of  the 
buffalo  grass. 

"  Mr.  Wm.  N.  Byers,  of  Denver,  Colorado,  shows  that  they  hatch  in 
immense  quantities  in  the  valleys  of  the  three  forks  of  the  Missouri  river 
and  along  the  Yellowstone,  and  how  they  move  on  from  there,  when 
fledged,  in  a  southeast  direction,  at  about  ten  miles  a  day.  The  swarms 
of  1867  were  traced,  as  he  states,  from  their  hatching  grounds  in  west 
Dakota,  and  Montana,  along  the  east  flank  of  the  P-ocky  Mountains,  in 
the  valleys  and  plains  of  the  Black  Hills,  and  between  them  and  the  main 
Rock}-  Mountain  range.  It  all  this  immense  stretch  of  countr}',as  is  well 
known,  there  are  immense  tracts  of  barren,  almost  desert  land,  while 
other  tracts  for  hundreds  of  miles  bear  only  a  scanty  vegetation,  the  short 
buffalo  grass  of  the  more  fertile  prairies  giving  way  now  to  a  more  luxu- 
riant vegetation  along  the  water  courses,  now  to  the  sage  bush  and  a  few 
cacti.  Another  physical  peculiarity  is  found  in  the  fact  that  while  the 


spring  on  these  immense  plains  often  opens  as  early,  even  away  up  into 
British  America,  as  it  does  with  us  in  the  latitude  of  St.  Louis,  yet  the  veg- 
etation is  often  dried  and  actually  burned  out  before  the  first  of  July,  so 
that  not  a  green  thing  is  to  be  found.  Our  Rocky  Mountain  locust, 
therefore,  hatching  out  in  untold  myriads  in  the  hot  sandy  plains,  five  or 
six  thousand  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  will  often  perish  in  immense 
numbers  if  the  scant  vegetation  of  its  native  home  dries  up  before  it 
acquires  wings;  but  if  the  season  is  propitious,  and  the  insect  becomes 
fledged  before  its  food  supplies  is  exhausted,  the  newly  acquired  wings 
prove  its  salvation.  It  may  also  become  periodically  so  prodigiously  mul- 
tiplied in  its  native  breeding  place,  that,  even  in  favorable  seasons,  every- 
thing green  is  devoured  by  the  time  it  becomes  winged. 

"  In  either  case,  prompted  by  that  most  exigent  law  of  hunger — spurred 
on  for  very  life — it  rises  in  immense  clouds  in  the  air  to  seek  for  fresh 
pastures  where  it  may  stay  its  ravenous  appetite.  Borne  along  by  pre- 
vailing winds  that  sweep  over  these  immense  treeless  plains  from  the  north- 
west, often  at  the  rate  of  fifty  or  sixty  miles  an  hour,  the  darkening  locust 
clouds  are  soon  carried  into  the  more  moist  and  fertile  country  to  the 
southeast,  where,  with  sharpened  appetites,  they  fall  upon  the  crops  like 
a  plague  and  a  blight. 

"  Many  of  the  more  feeble  or  of  the  more  recently  fledged  perish,  no 
doubt,  on  he  way,  but  the  main  army  succeeds,  with  favorable  wind, 
in  bridging  over  the  parched  country  which  offers  no  nourishment.  The 
hotter  and  dryer  the  season,  and  the  greater  the  extent  of  the  drouth,  the 
earlier  will  they  be  prompted  to  migrate,  and  the  farther  will  they  push 
on  to  the  east  and  south. 

"  The  comparatively  sudden  change  from  the  attenuated  and  dry  atmos- 
phere of  five  to  eight  thousand  feet  or  more  above  the  sea  level,  to  the 
more  humid  and  dense  atmosphere  of  one  thousand  feet  below  that  level, 
does  not  agree  with  them.  The  first  generation  hatched  in  this  low  coun- 
try is  unhealthy,  and  the  few  that  attain  maturity  do  not  breed,  but 
become  intestate  and  go  to  the  dogs.  At  least  such  is  the  case  in  our  own 
state  and  the  whole  of  the  Mississippi  valley  proper.  As  we  go  west  or 
northwest  and  approach  nearer  and  nearer  the  insect's  native  home,  the 
power  to  propagate  itself  and  become  localized,  becomes,  of  course,  greater 
and  greater,  until  at  last  we  reach  the  country  where  it  is  found  per- 
petually. Thus  in  the  western  parts  of  Kansas  and  Nebraska  the  pro- 
geny from  the  mountain  swarms  may  multiply  to  the  second  or  even  third 
generation,  and  wing  their  way  in  more  local  and  feeble  bevies  to  the 
country  east  and  south.  Yet  eventually  they  vanish  from  off  the  face  of 
the  earth,  unless  fortunate  enough  to  be  carried  back  by  favorable  winds 
to  the  high  and  dry  country  where  they  flourish. 

"  That  they  often  instinctively  seek  to  return  to  their  native  haunts  is 
proven  by  the  fact  that  they  are  often  seen  flying  early  in  the  season  in  a 
northwesterly  direction.  As  a  rule,  however,  the  wind  which  saved  the 
first  comers  from  starvation  by  bearing  them  away  from  their  native 
home,  keeps  them  and  their  issue  to  the  east  and  south,  and  thus,  in  the 
end  proves  their  destruction.  For  in  the  Mississippi  valley  they  are 
doomed,  sooner  or  later.  There  is  nothing  more  certain  than  that  the 
insect  is  not  antochthonous  in  west  Missouri,  Kansas,  Nebraska,  Iowa, 
or  even  Minnesota,  and  that  when  forced  to  migrate  from  its  native  home, 
from  the  causes  already  mentioned,  it  no  longer  thrives  in  this  country." 


February  23,  187t,  our  state  legislature  passed  a  law  providing  for 
the  payment  of  a  bounty  at  one  dollar  per  bushel  in  March,  fifty  cents 
per  bushel  in  April,  and  twenty-five  cents  per  bushel  in  May,  for  grass- 
hoppers; and  five  dollars  per  bushel  for  their  eggs  at  any  time.  Nebraska 
did  still  better,  by  making  every  road  supervisor  in  the  state  a  grasshop- 
per policeman,  and  giving  him  authority  to  call  out  every  man  from  six- 
teen to  sixty  years  old,  to  spend  two  days  killing  young  grasshoppers 
from  the  time  they  begin  to  hatch  in  the  spring. 

All  the  grasshopper  states  now  have  some  sort  of  protective  laws;  and 
if  another  invasion  occurs,  by  concerted  and  organized  effort  the  amount 
of  damage  suffered  can  be  reduced  to  a  small  per  cent  as  compared  with 
our  last  "  plague  of  the  locusts." 


It  is  not  certainly  known  just  what  modes  of  navigation  were  used  by 
the  prehistoric  mound-builders,  although  we  hare  some  relics  of  their 
time,  or  possibly  of  a  still  earlier  race,  which  are  deemed  to  show  that 
they  made  wooden  dug-outs  or  troughs,  by  burning  them  into  a  sort  of 
boat-like  shape  and  condition.  And  it  is  supposed  that,  prior  to  this  they 
lashed  together  logs  or  fragments  of  drift-wood,  and  made  rude  rafts 
upon  which  they  could  cross  rivers  or  float  down,  but  of  course  could 
not  return  with  them.  Some  remains  have  been  found  in  northwestern 
Iowa*  which  are  supposed  to  prove  that  men  used  wooden  dug-out  boats 
during  the  age  when  Missouri,  Iowa,  Kansas  and  Nebraska  were  the 
bottom  of  a  vast  inland  sea  or  lake,  into  which  the  Missouri  and  Platte 
rivers  emptied  their  muddy  waters  and  deposited  what  Prof.  Swallow 
calls  the  "bluff  formation"  over  these  states;  and  Prof.  Whitney  found 
in  California  undisputable  proof  of  man's  existence  there  a  whole  geolog- 
ical age  prior  to  the  period  when  the  great  fresh  water  Missouri  sea 
existed,  (see  note  to  chart,  on  page  67);  hence  the  fact  that  raft  and  dug- 
out navigation  was  in  use  among  the  islands  and  shallows  of  this  immense 
mud-lake  or  inland  sea,  seems  not  improbable. 

However,  the  modern  Indians,  before  the  white  man  appeared  in  these 
western  wilds,  had  the  art  of  making  light  and  elegant  canoes  of  birch 
bark,  and  could  manage  them  in  the  water  with  wonderful  skill.  They 
made  long  journeys  in  them,  both  up  and  down  stream;  and  when  they 
wanted  to  go  from  one  stream  to  another  these  canoes  were  so  light  that 
two  men  could  carry  one  on  their  shoulders  and  march  twenty  or  twenty- 
five  miles  a  day  with  it  if  necessary.  But  they  wrere  too  light  and  frail 
for  the  freighting  service  of  the  white  man's  commerce. 

*  Reported  to  the  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  at  its  St.  Louis 
meeting,  in  August,  1878,  by  W.  J.  McGee,  geologist,  of  Farley,  Iowa. 


The  European  explorers  of  this  new  world  utilized  the  Indian  canoes 
as  far  as  practicable,  often  making  considerable  voyages  in  them;  some- 
times two  were  lashed  together  by  means  of  coupling  poles  laid  across 
on  top  of  them,  thus  making  a  boat  with  two  hulls.  This  rig  could  not 
be  upset,  and  was  easy  to  tow  or  paddle,  besides  making  a  sort  of  over- 
deck  on  which  to  carry  baggage.  But  the  thin,  frail  material  was  too 
easily  punctured  to  be  safe,  and  boats  made  of  plank  were  always  in 
demand.  At  first  the  boats  were  built  in  the  "  scow  "  fashion,  with  full 
width  flat  bottom  and  full  width  sled-runner  bow.  But  they  soon  learned 
that  in  order  to  make  any  headway  going  up  stream  they  must  adopt  the 
keel  bottom  and  water-cutter  prow  style ;  and  for  more  than  a  hundred 
years  the  traffic  of  all  our  navigable  western  rivers  was  carried  on  mainly 
by  means  of  what  were  called  keel-boats.  The  manner  of  propelling 
them  up  stream  we  have  described  elsewhere. 


The  Missouri  river  was  first  opened  to  commerce  and  geography  by 
Lewis  and  Clarke,  who  were  commissioned  by  President  Jefferson,  in 
1803,  to  explore  it.  They  left  St.  Louis  May  14',  1804.  The  outfit  con- 
sisted of  twenty-six  men;  one  keel-boat  fifty-five  feet  long,  drawing  three 
feet  of  water,  and  provided  with  one  large  square  sail  and  twenty-two 
oars.  Also,  two  open  boats,  one  of  six,  and  one  of  seven  oars.  May  16th 
they  were  at  St.  Charles ;  on  the  25th  they  reached  LaCharrette,  a  small 
village  sixty-five  miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  river,  not  far  from  where 
Marthasville,  in  Warren  county,  is  now  located,  and  which  was  the  last 
white  settlement  up  the  river.  June  1st  they  reached  the  mouth  of  the 
Osage  river,  which  was  so  called  because  the  Osage  tribe  of  Indians 
dwelt  along  its  course.  June  26th,  they  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Kansas 
river,  where  Kansas  City  now  flourishes  in  all  her  glory,  and  remained 
here  two  days  for  rest  and  repairs.  The  Kansas  tribe  of  Indians  had  two 
villages  in  this  vicinity.  July  8th  they  were  at  the  mouth  of  the  Nodawa, 
where  now  is  the  village  of  Amazonia,  in  Andrew  county ;  and  on  the  11th 
they  landed  at  the  mouth  of  the  Nemaha  river.  On  the  14th  they  passed 
the  mouth  of  the  Nishnabotna  river,  and  noted  that  it  was  only  300  yards 
distant  from  the  Missouri  at  a  point  twelve  miles  above  its  mouth. 

This  was  their  last  point  within  the  boundaries  of  the  present  state  of 
Missouri.  St.  Louis  was  then  the  territorial  capital  of  the  whole  region 
they  were  to  explore  through  to  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  river  on  the 
Pacific  coast.  This  was  one  of  the  great  exploring  adventures  of  the 
world's  history,  and  its  narrative  is  full  of  romantic  and  thrilling  interest, 
but  space  forbids  its  presentation  here.  The  party  followed  up  the  entire 
length  of  the  Missouri  river,  then  down  the  Columbia  to  the  Pacific 
ocean,  reaching  that  point  November  14th,  1805.  Here  they  wintered; 
and  on  March  23d,  1806,  they  started  on   their  return  trip  by  the   same 


route,  arriving  at  St.  Louis  September  23d,  at  12  o'clock — not  a  man 
missing  from  the  party  that  first  started  out;  and  the  people  of  St.  Louis 
gave  them  an  enthusiastic  ovation. 


Steam  came  at  last,  and  revolutionized  the  business  of  navigation  and 
commerce  throughout  the  world.  The  first  steamboat  that  ever  lashed 
the  Missouri  shore  with  its  waves,  or  made  our  river  hills  and  forests  echo 
back  her  pulsating  puffs,  was  the  "  General  Pike,"  from  Louisville,  which 
landed  at  St.  Louis,  August  2,  1S17.  Such  boats  had  passed  a  few  times 
up  and  down  the  whole  length  of  the  Ohio  river,  and  between  Louisville 
and  New  Orleans,  before  this,  so  that  the  people  of  St.  Louis  had  heard 
about  them  from  the  keel-boat  navigators.  They  were  therefore  over- 
joyed when  the  firsi  one  landed  at  the  foot  of  their  main  business  street, 
and  thus  placed  them  for  the  first  time  in  steam  communication  with  the 
rest  of  the  civilized  world.  The  event  was  celebrated  with  the  most 
enthusiastic  manifestations  of  delight  by  the  ringing  of  bells,  firing  of 
guns,  floating  of  flags  and  streamers,  building  of  bonfires,  etc.  The 
second  one,  the  "  Constitution,"  arrived  October  2 ;  and  from  that  onward 
the  arrival  of  steamboats  became  a  very  commonplace  affair. 

The  first  boat  that  ever  entered  the  Missouri  river  was  the  "Independ- 
ence," commanded  by  Captain  Nelson.  She  left  St.  Louis  May  15,  1819, 
and  on  the  28th  arrived  at  Franklin,  a  flourishing  young  city  that  stood 
on  the  north  bank  of  the  Missouri  river,  opposite  where  Boonville  is  now 
located.  There  was  a  U.  S.  land  office  at  Franklin,  and  it  was  the 
metropolis  of  the  up-Missouri  region,  or  as  it  was  then  called,  the 
"Boone's  Lick  Country."*  When  this  first  steamboat  arrived  the  citi- 
zens got  up  a  grand  reception  and  public  dinner  in  honor  of  the  captain 
and  crew.  The  boat  proceeded  up  as  far  as  the  mouth  of  the  Chariton 
river,  where  there  was  then  a  small  village  called  Chariton,  but  from  that 
point  turned  back,  picking  up  freight  for  St.  Louis  and  Louisville  at  the 
settlements  as  she  passed  down.  The  town  *site  of  Old  Franklin  was 
long  ago  all  washed  away,  and  the  Missouri  river  now  flows  over  the 
very  spot  where  then  were  going  on  all  the  industries  of  a  busy,  thriving, 
populous  young  city. 

The  second  steamboat  to  enter  the  Missouri  river  (and  what  is  given  in 
most  histories  as  the  first)  was  in  connection  with  Major  S.  H.  Long's  U. 
S.  exploring  expedition,  and  occurred  June  21,  1819,  not  quite  a  month 
after  the  trip  of  the  "  Independence."  Major  Long's  fleet  consisted  of 
four  steamboats,  the  "  Western  Engineer,"  "  Expedition,"  "  Thomas  Jef- 
ferson "  and  "  R.  M.  Johnson,"  together  with  nine  keel-boats.  The 
"Jefferson,"   however,  was  wrecked  and  lost  a  few  days  after.     The 

♦Daniel  Boone  had  first  explored  this  region  and  discovered  some  rich  salt  springs,  and 
two  of  his  sons  manufactured  suit  and  shipped  it  from  Franklin  for  several  years. 


"Western  Engineer"  was  a  double  stern  wheel  boat,  and  had  projecting 
from  her  bow  a  figure-head  representing  a  huge  open-jawed,  red-mouthed, 
forked-tongued  serpent,  and  out  of  this  hideous  orifice  the  puffs  of  steam 
escaped  from  the  engines.  The  men  on  board  had  many  a  hearty  laugh 
from  watching  the  Indians  on  shore.  When  the  strange  monster  came 
in  sight,  rolling  out  smoke  and  sparks  from  its  chimney  like  a  fiery  mane, 
and  puffing  great  mouthfuls  of  steam  from  its  wide  open  jaws,  they 
would  look  an  instant,  then  yell,  and  run  like  deer  to  hide  away  from 
their  terrible  visitor.  They  thought  it  was  the  Spirit  of  Evil,  the  very 
devil  himself,  coming  to  devour  them.  But  their  ideas  and  their  actions 
were  not  a  whit  more  foolish  than  those  of  the  sailors  on  the  Hudson 
river,  who  leaped  from  their  vessels  and  swam  ashore  to  hide,  when  Ful- 
ton's first  steamboat  came  puffing  and  glaring  and  smoking  and  splashing 
toward  them,  like  a  wheezy  demon  broke  loose  from  the  bottomless  pit. 
Major  Long  was  engaged  five  years  in  exploring  all  the  region  between 
the  Mississippi  river  and  the  Rocky  Mountains  which  is  drained  by  the 
Missouri  and  its  tributaries;  and  his  steamboats  were  certainly  the  first 
that  ever  passed  up*  the  Missouri  to  any  great  distance.  Long's  Peak,  in 
Colorado,  14,272  feet  high,  was  named  after  him. 

From  this  time  forward  the  commerce  and  travel  by  steamboats  to  and 
from  St.  Louis  grew  rapidly  into  enormous  proportions,  and  small  towns 
sprung  up  in  quick  succession  on  every  stream  where  a  boat  with  paddle 
wheels  could  make  its  way.  For  half  a  century  steamboating  was  the 
most  economical  and  expeditious  mode  of  commerce  in  vogue  for  inland 
traffic;  and  Missouri,  with  her  whole  eastern  boundary  washed  by  the 
"  Father  of  Waters,"  and  the  equally  large  and  navigable  "  Big  Muddy  " 
meandering  entirely  across  her  territory  from  east  to  west,  and  for  nearly 
two  hundred  miles  along  her  northwestern  border,  became  an  imperial 
center  of  the  steamboating  interest  and  industry. 

About  1830  the  art  of  constructing  iron-railed  traffic-ways,  with  steam- 
propelled  carriages  upon  them,  began  to  be  developed  in  our  eastern 
states.  But  it  was  not  until  1855  that  these  new  devices  for  quick  transit 
began  to  affect  the  steamboating  interests  of  Missouri.  (The  first  rail- 
roads to  St.  Louis  were  opened  in  that  year;  the  railroad  history  of  the 
state  will  be  found  in  another  place.)  Then  commenced  the  memorable 
struggle  of  the  western  steamboat  interests,  with  headquarters  at  St. 
Louis,  to  prevent  any  railroad  bridge  from  being  built  across  the  Missis- 
sippi, Missouri  or  Ohio  rivers.  They  held  that  such  structures  would 
inevitably  be  an  artificial  obstruction  to  the  free  and  safe  navigation  of 
these  great  natural  highways.  But  it  was  evident  enough  to  clear- 
thinking  people  that  the  steamboat  business  must- decline  if  railroads 
were  permitted  to  cross  the  great  rivers  without  the  expense  of  breaking 
bulk,  and  this  was  the  "true  inwardness"  of  the   anti-railroad  bridge 


combination.  The  issue  was  made  against  the  first  railroad  bridge  that 
ever  spanned  the  Mississippi,  the  one  at  Rock  Island,  Illinois.  In  a  long 
course  of  controversy  and  litigation  the  railroads  came  out  ahead,  and 
steamboating  gradually  declined,  both  in  the  freight  and  passenger  traffic, 
to  less  than  half  its  former  proportions. 

However,  the  tables  have  been  turned  again;  and  now,  in  1881, 

has  suddenly  leaped  forth  to  break   the   threatening  power  of  monopoly 
which  the  great  east  and  west  railroad  lines  for  a  while  enjoyed. 

The  first  step  in  the  historic  progress  of  this  grand  revolution  in  the 
commercial  relations  and  connections  of  the  entire  Mississippi  and  Mis- 
souri valley  regions,  was  the  successful  construction  of  the  jetties  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Mississippi  river  by  Capt.  James  B.  Eads,  a  worthy  and 
distinguished  citizen  of  St.  Louis.  This  great  enterprise  was  undertaken 
by  Capt.  Eads  under  an  act  of  congress  approved  March  3d,  1875.  It 
required  him  to  obtain  a  channel  20  feet  deep  and  200  feet  wide  at  the 
bottom,  within  thirty  months  from  the  passage  of  the  act,  upon  which  a 
payment  of  $500,000  would  be  made;  and  upon  obtaining  channels  of  two 
feet  additional  depth,  with  correspondingly  increased  widths  at  bottom, 
until  a  depth  of  30  feet  and  a  width  at  bottom  of  350  feet  was  secured, 
payments  of  $500,000  were  to  be  made,  with  additional  payments  for 
maintenance  of  channel.  The  total  cost  to  the  government  of  a  channel 
30  feet  deep  by  350  feet  wide  would  be  $5,250,000.  Capt.  Eads  was  also 
to  receive  $100,000  per  year  for  twenty  years,  to  keep  the  works  in  repair 
and  maintain  the  channel. 

Before  the  jetty  works  were  commenced,  there  existed  an  immense  bar 
of  sand  or  silt,  with  a  depth  of  only  eight  feet  of  water  over  it,  between 
the  deep  water  of  the  Mississippi  and  the  navigable  water  of  the  Gulf. 
But  at  the  close  of  the  year  there  was  a  wide  and  ample  channel  of  23£ 
feet;  and  for  the  greater  portion  of  the  distance  between  the  jetties,  over 
this  same  bar,  there  was  a  channel  from  28  to  35  feet  deep.  The  scheme 
has  been  so  entirely  successful  that  it  has  attained  a  world-wide  celebrity 
and  commercial  importance,  owing  to  the  fact  that  the  largest  class  of 
sea-going  vessels  can  now  be  towed  in  and  out  of  the  Mississippi  river 
without  risk  or  difficulty:  and  it  is  this  achievement  by  our  honored  fellow- 
citizen  which  has  made  possible  the  success  of  the  grain-barge  system  of 
shipments  from  St.  Louis  direct  to  Europe,  that  is  now  revolutionizing  the 
entire  trade  and  commerce  of  the  major  half  of  the  United  States.  The 
following  facts  will  serve  to  show  what  has  already  been  accomplished  in 
this  direction. 

The  total  shipments  of  grain  by  the  barge  lines  from  St.  Louis  to  New 
Orleans  in  the  month  of  March  1881,  was  2,348,093  bushels. 

The  St.  Louis  Republican  of  April  2d,  1881,  stated: 


"  There  were  started  from  St.  Louis  yesterday  about  eighty  trains  of 
grain  to  New  Orleans,  or  what  amounts  to  the  same  thing,  three  different 
barge  companies  started  tows  down  the  river  with  567,000  bushels  of 
grain.  This  amount  would  have  filled  about  1,200  railway  cars,  and 
would  have  taken  eighty  trains  of  fifteen  cars  or  sixty  trains  of  twenty 
cars  each  to  transport.  "All  this  grain  was  put  into  fifteen  barges,  and  a 
matter  of  2,600  tons  of  miscellaneous  freight  besides.  All  these  three 
tow-boats  started  down  the  river  with  a  freight  list  that  would  have  filled 
between  thirteen  and  fourteen  hundred  railway  cars,  and  will  be  delivered 
to  New  Orleans  in  from  five  to  nine  days. 

"The  exact  statement  of  the  cost  of  transportation  of  flour  from  St. 
Louis  via  New  Orleans  to  Liverpool  and  to  Boston,  per  barrel,  is  ninety 
cents  freight  and  four  cents  drayage  to  boat  at  levee  at  St.  Louis,  or  ninety- 
four  cents  to  Liverpool,  while  the  freight  per  barrel  to  Boston  by  rail,  in 
car-loads  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  barrels,  from  East  St.  Louis,  is 
ninety-one  cents,  or  from  St.  Louis  (eight  cents  transfer  across  the  bridge 
addecl,)  ninety-nine  cents,  or  five  cents  less  to  Liverpool  by  river  and 
ocean,  than  by  rail  to  Boston.  This  rate  to  Liverpool  via  New  Orleans 
was  negotiated  March  30  by  the  St.  Louis,  New  Orleans  and  Foreign 
Dispatch  Company." 

George   H.   Morgan,   Esq.,   secretary  of  the  St.  Louis  "Merchant's 
Exchange,"  furnished  the  writer  of  this  history  with  the  following  state- 
ment of  grain  shipments  by  barge  line  from  St.  Louis  to  New  Orleans: 
1881.  Wheat.  Cora.  Oats.  Rye. 

February 232,248         126,770      22,423 

March 796,710      1,541,505     25,162      

April 819,038      1,312,432     24,916      

Total 1,847,996      2,980,707     50,078     22,423 

Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  the  tide  has  fairly  turned ;  that  St.  Louis  is  now 
practically  a  commercial  seaport,  and  will,  within  the  next  twelve  months, 
become  the  greatest  grain-shipping  city  on  the  American  continent. 


The  earliest  account  of  any  movement  in  this  state  with  regard  to  rail- 
roads is  to  the  effect  that  on  the  20th  of  April,  1835,  a  railroad  convention 
was  held  in  St.  Louis,  and  resolutions  were  adopted  in  favor  of  building 
two  railroads — one  from  St.  Louis  to  Fayette,  in  Howard  county;  and  the 
other  one  southward  to  Iron  Mountain,  Pilot  Knob,  etc.*  The  reason  for 
projecting  a  railroad  from  St.  Louis  into  the  great  iron  region  is  obvious 
enough ;  but  why  they  should  at  that  early  day  have  thought  of  building 
more  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  of  railroad  to  reach  a  town  that 
was  only  twelve  miles  from  Old  Franklin,  on  the  banks  of  the  Missouri 
river,  is  an  unsolved  mystery.     It  indicates,  at  least,  that  those  "early 

*The  first  steam  railroad  in  this  country  was  the  Baltimore  and  Susquehanna  line,  in 
1830;  though  horse  railroads  had  been  used  before,  especially  at  coal  mines  and  marble 
quarries,  and  in  two  cases  engines  had  been  used  on  such  roads. 


fathers"  were  not  under  the  control  of  any  narrow  or  shallow  views  con- 
cerning the  practical  value  of  railroads,  or  the  future  grandeur  of  St. 
Louis  as  the  central  point  for  all  trans-Mississippi  traffic.  In  this  first 
railroad  convention  ever  held  west  of  the  Allegheny  Mountains  there 
were  sixty-four  delegates  in  attendance,  representing  eleven  counties;  but 
practically  nothing  ever  came  of  their  deliberations. 

In  1840  a  State  Board  of  Internal  Improvement  was  created,  and  it 
made  a  survey  for  a  railroad  from  St.  Louis  to  the  Iron  Mountain,  by  the 
way  of  Big  River.  February  7th,  1849,  Col.  Thomas  H.  Benton,  sena- 
tor from  Missouri,  introduced  into  the  U.  S.  senate  a  bill  to  provide  for 
the  location  and  construction  of  a  central  national  road  from  the  Pacific 
ocean  to  the  Mississippi  river,  to  be  an  iron  railway  where  practicable, 
and  the  rest  a  wagon  way.  February  20th,  same  year,  a  public  meeting 
was  held  in  St.  Louis,  which  petitioned  the  legislature  for  a  charter  and 
right-of-way  for  a  railway  across  the  state  from  St.  Louis  to  the  western 
boundary;  and  on  the  12th  of  March  this  charter  was  granted. 

Next  a  meeting  was  held  which  called  a  national  convention  at  St. 
Louis  to  consider  the  project  of  a  national  Pacific  railway  across  the 
continent.  This  convention  was  held  October  15,  16,  17,  18,  1849.  Fif- 
teen states  were  represented ;  the  grand  project  was  warmly  commended, 
and  a  strong  memorial  sent  to  Congress  asking  the  public  authorities  to 
take  some  action  in  the  matter. 

Such  was  the  beginning  of  definite  moves  toward  a  trans-continental 

The  Missouri  Pacific  was  the  first  railroad  commenced  and  first  finished 
in  the  State.  Incorporated  March  12,  1849;  authorized  capital  $10,000,- 
000;  opened  to  Cheltenham,  March  23,  1852;  amount  of  state  aid, 
$7,000,000;  St.  Louis  county  aid  $700,000;  land  sold,  127,209  acres; 
entire  length  from  St.  Louis  to  Kansas  City,  382  miles;  total  cost,  $14,- 

The  successive  stages  of  its  construction  were:  Chartered,  March  12, 
1859;  first  ground  broken,  by  Mayor  Kennett  of  St.  Louis,  July  4,  1851; 
road  opened  to  Cheltenham,  Dec.  23, 1852;  to  Kirkwood  in  May,  and  to 
Franklin  July  23, 1853;  completed  to  Washington,  February  11,  1855;  to 
Hermann,  August  7,  the  same  year;*  and  to  Jefferson  City,  March  12, 1856 ; 
completed  to  California  in  Moniteau  county,  May,  14,  1858;  to  Tipton, 
July  26,  same  year;  and  to  Syracuse,  August,  1,    1859;  opened  to  Otter- 

*November  1, 1855,  a  large  excursion  train  left  St.  Louis  to  celebrate  the  opening  of  the 
railroad  through  to  Medora  station,  about  twenty  miles  beyond  Hermann.  It  was  a  long 
train  tilled  with  business  men  of  ths  city  and  their  families,  and  the  occasion  was  one  or 
great  festivity  and  rejoicing.  But  while  the  train  was  crossing  the  Gasconade  river  the 
bridge  gave  way,  and  plunged  cars,  bridge  and  people  in  one  mixed  and  horrible  wreck 
into  the  gulf  of  waters  fifty  feet  down.  The  president  and  chief  engineer  of  the  road,  and 
30  prominent  citizens  of  St.  Louis  were  killed,  while  scores  of  others  were  more  or  less 
injured.  It  was  the  first  and  the  most  terrible  railroad  accident  that  has  ever  occurred  in 
the  state. 


ville,  August  24,  1860;  to  Smithton,  November  1,  same  year;  and  to 
Sedalia  in  February  1861.  Here  it  stopped  during  the  first  two  years  of 
the  war.  But  Pettis  county  voted  $75,000  to  aid  it,  and  Jackson  county 
$200,000.  Commenced  running  trains  to  Dresden,  May  10,  1863;  to 
Warrensburg,  July  3,  1864;  in  1865  the  road  was  opened  to  Holden,  May 
28;  to  Pleasant  Hill,  July  19;  to  Independence,  September  19.  Meanwhile 
work  had  been  going  on  from  Kansas  City  westward,  the  two  gangs  of 
workmen  meeting  at  Independence;  and  on  this  19th  day  of  September, 
1865,  the  last  rail  was  laid  and  the  last  spike  driven,  which  connected 
Missouri's  two  principal  cities  with  iron  bands  unbroken  from  east  to  west 
line  of  the  noble  commonwealth.  On  the  next  day,  the  president  of  the  road 
Mr.  Daniel  R.  Garrison,  left  Kansas  City  at  3  a.  m.,  and  arrived  in  St.  Louis 
at  5  p.  m.,  thus  making  the  first  through  trip  over  the  completed  line. 

There  is  now  not  a  county  north  of  the  Missouri  river  which  has  not 
one  or  more  railroads  within  its  limits;  and  of  the  seventy  counties  south 
of  the  Missouri,  only  22  have  no  railroad  reaching  them.  However,  new 
roads  and  branches  are  being  built  each  year,  so  that  within  a  few  years 
every  county  will  be  provided  with  good  railroad  facilities. 

January  1,  1880,  there  were,  in  round  numbers,  3,600  miles  of  railroad 
in  operation  in  the  state,  embraced  in  about  fifty  different  main  lines  and 
branches,  allowned  by  thirty-five  different  corporations,  and  operated  by 
twenty-five  different  companies, as  shown  in  the  following  table: 

Atchison,  Topeka  and  Sante  Fe 22  Missouri  Pacific 375 

Burlington  and  Southwestern 64  Quincy,  Missouri  and  Pacific 75 

Cherry  Valley 6  St.  Joseph  and  Des  Moines 45 

Chicago  and  Alton 264  St.  Louis,  Hannibal  and  Keokuk 48 

Chicago,  Rock  Island  and  Pacific 169^  St.  Louis,  Iron  Mount'n  and  Southr'n  380 

Crystal  City 4  St.  Louis,  Keokuk  and  Northwestern  132}£ 

Hannibal  and  St.  Joseph 291%  St.  Louis,  Salem  and  Little  Rock 45 

Kansas  City  and  Eastern 43  St.  Louis  and  San  Francisco 363% 

Kansas  City,  Ft.  Scott  and  Gulf 8  Springfield    and  Western  Missouri..     20 

KansasCity,  St. Joe  and  Council  BlfFs  198  Union  Railway  and  Transit  Company      1 

Little  River  Valley  and  Arkansas 27  Wabash,  St.  Louis  and  Pacific 655 

Missouri,  Iowa  and  Nebraska 70  West  End  Narrow  Guage 16 

Missouri,  Kansas  and  Texas 284  

Total 3,607 


There  are  within  the  state  15,208  miles  of  postal  routes,  of  which 
10,426  miles  are  by  stage  and  horseback,  575  miles  by  steamboat,  and 
4,207  miles  by  railroad,  the  whole  involving  a  cost  for  the  year  1878-9  of 
$768,904.  There  are  1,700  post  towns — but  four  states  in  the  union  have 
a  greater  number.  These  are  all  offices  of  registration,  where  letters  and 
parcels  can  be  registered  for  transmission  through  the  males  to  all 
parts  of  this  and  foreign  countries.  In  200  Of  these  post-offices,  money- 
orders  may  be  purchased,  payable  at  all  similar  offices  in  the  United 
States,  and  a  portion  of  them  issue  orders  drawn  on  Great  Britain,  France,. 
Germany,  Italy,  Switzerland,  etc. 


There  are  in  the  state  562  telegraph  stations,  whence  messages  can  be 

sent  all  over  the  telegraph  world;  2,423  miles  of  line  and  6,0<>0  miles  of 



The  following  statistics  of  the  capital  employed  in  manufacturing  indus- 
tries, and  the  amount  of  production,  is  collated  from  careful  estimates 
made  in  1876,  the  latest  at  hand,  although  it  is  well  known  that  great 
increase  of  these  industries  has  been  made  since  that  date.  These  esti- 
mates showed  that  the  state  then  contained  14,245  manufacturing  estab- 
lishments, using  1,965  steam  engines,  representing  58,101  horse-power, 
465  water  wheels,  equaling  7,972  horse-power,  and  employing  80,000 
hands.  The  capital  employed  in  manufacturing  was  about  $100,000,- 
000;  the  material  used  in  1876  amounted  to  about  $140,000,000;  the 
wages  paid  were  $40,000,000,  and  the  products  put  upon  the  market 
were  over  $250,000,000.  Outside  of  St.  Louis  the  leading  manufacturing 
counties  of  the  state  are  Jackson,  about  $2,000,000 ;  Buchanan,  $7,000,- 
000;  St.  Charles,  $4,500,000;  Marion,  $3,500,000;  Franklin,  $3,000,000; 
Greene,  $1,500,000;  Cape  Girardeau,  $1,500,000;  Platte,  Boone  and 
Lafayette,  upwards  of  $1,000,000  each,  followed  by  several  counties 
nearly  reaching  the  last  sum. 

The  products  of    the  different  lines  of    manufacturing  interests  are, 

approximately,  as  follows: 

Fiouring  Mills $30,000,000  Furniture  $5,000,000 

Carpentering 20.000,000  Paints  and  painting 4.500.000 

Meut  Packing 20,000.000  Carriages  and  Wagons 4.500,000 

Iron  and  Castings 15,000,000  Bricks 4,500,000 

Tobacco 14,000.000  Marble,  Stone- work  ;tnd  Masonry.  4,000,000 

Clothing 11,000,000  Bakery  Products 4,000,000 

Liquors 10,000.000  Tin.  Copper  and  Sheet  Iron 4,000,000 

Lumber 10.000.000  Sash,  Doors  and  Blinds 8.250,000 

Bags  and  Bagging 7,000.060  Cooperage 3,000,000 

Saddlery 7.000,000  Blacksmithing  3,000.000- 

Oil 0.000.000  Bridie  Building 2,500.000 

Machinery 6,000,000  Patent  Medicines  2,500.000 

Printing  and  Publishing 5,500.000  Soap  and  Candles 2,500,000 

Molasses 5,000,000  Agricultural  Implements 2,000.000 

Boots  and  Shoes 5,000,000  Plumbing  and  Gas-fitting 2,000,000 

Of  the  manufacturing  in  Missouri,  more  than  three-fourths  is  done  in 
St.  Louis,  which  produced,  in  1879,  about  $275,000,000  of  manufactured 
articles.  The  city  has,  for  some  years  past,  ranked  as  the  third  in  the 
United  States  in  the  amount  of  her  manufactures,  leaving  a  wide  gap 
between  her  and  Chicago  and  Boston,  each  of  which  cities  manufactures 
a  little  more  than  one-half  as  much  in  amount  as  St.  Louis,  and  leaves  a 
doubt  as  to  which  of  them  is  entitled  to  rank  as  the  fourth  manufactur- 
ing city. 

Flour. — In  St.  Louis  there  are  twenty-four  flouring  mills,  having  a 
daily  productive  capacity  of  11,000  barrels.  The  total  amount  of  flour 
received  and  manufactured  by  the   dealers   and  millers  of  St.   Louis,  in 


1879,  was  4,154,757  barrels,  of  which  over  3,000,000  were  exported.  They 
also  made  425,963  barrels  of  corn  meal  arid  28,595  barrels  of  hominy  and 
grits.  Of  their  exports,  619,103  barrels  were  sent  to  European  nations 
and  to  South  America. 

Cotton. — There  are  in  the  city  two  mills,  which  consume  from  15,000 
to  20,000  bales  annually.  To  supply  the  manufactured  cotton  goods 
annually  sold  in  St.  Louis  will  require  mills  of  ten  times  the  capacity  of 
those  now  in  operation . 


St.  Louis  is  the  commercial  metropolis  not  only  of  the  state  of  Missouri 
but  also  of  the  Mississippi  and  Missouri  valley  regions  of  country;  and 
the  history  of  Missouri  is  to  a  very  large  extent  the  history  of  St.  Louis. 
There  is  so  much  concerning  this  imperial  city  embodied  in  other  parts  of 
this  work  that  little  need  be  added  here. 

St.  Louis  is  situated  upon  the  west  bank  of  the  Mississippi,  at  an  altitude 
of  four  hundred  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  It  is  far  above  the  highest 
floods  that  ever  swell  the  Father  of  Waters.  Its  latitude  is  38  deg.,  37 
min.,  28  sec,  north,  and  its  longitude  90  deg.,  15  min.,  16  sec,  west.  It  is 
twenty  miles  below  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri,  and  200  above  the  conflu- 
ence of  the  Ohio.  It  is  744  miles  below  the  falls  of  St.  Anthony,  and 
1194  miles  above  New  Orleans.  Its  location  very  nearly  bisects  the 
direct  distance  of  1,400  miles  between  Superior  City  and  the  Balize.  It 
is  the  geographical  center  of  a  valley  which  embraces  1,200,000  square 
miles.  In  its  course  of  3,200  miles  the  Mississippi  borders  upon  Missouri 
470  miles.  Of  the  3,000  miles  of  the  Missouri,  500  lie  within  the  limits 
'of  our  own  state,  and  St.  Louis  is  mistress  of  more  than  16,500  miles  of 
river  navigation. 

The  Missouri  Gazette,  the  first  newspaper,  wras  establised  in  1808,  by 
Joseph  Charless,  and  subsequently  merged  in  the  present  Missouri 
Republican.  The  town  was  incorporated  in  1809,  and  a  board  of  trustees 
elected  to  conduct  the  municipal  government.  In  1812  the  territory  of 
Missouri  was  designated,  and  a  legislative  assembly  authorized.  The 
Missouri  Bank  was  incorporated  in  1814.  The  first  steamboat  arrived  at 
the  foot  of  Market  street  in  the  year  1815,  followed  soon  by  others. 
In  1819  the  first  steamer  ascended  the  Missouri,  and  the  first  through 
boat  from  New  Orleans  arrived,  having  occupied  twenty-seven  days  in 
the  trip.  In  1821  a  city  directory  was  issued.  The  facts  stated  in  this 
volume  show  that  the  town  was  then  an  important  and  thriving  one.  In 
1825  Lafayette  visited  the  city  and  received  a  grand  public  ovation.  This 
year  the  United  States  arsenal  and  Jefferson  barracks  were  established. 


In  1827  there  were  hardly  a  dozen  German  families  in  St.  Louis,  where 
now  there  are  as  many  thousands  of  them.  In  1830  the  population  was 
6,654.  In  1835  the  first  railroad  convention  was  held.  [See  page  106.] 
In  1837  the  population  was  16,187,  and  184  steamboats  were  engaged  in 
the  commerce  of  the  city.  The  decade  between  1840  and  1850  saw 
increased  advancement  in  all  kinds  of  industry,  and  in  architectural 
growth.  We  find  that  in  1840  there  were  manufactured  19,075  barrels 
of  flour,  18,656  barrels  of  whisky,  and  1,075  barrels  of  beef  inspected, 
and  other  branches  of  business  had  correspondingly  increased.  In  1846, 
the  now  extensive  Mercantile  Library  was  founded.  The  close  of  the 
decade,  1849,  brought  upon  the  city  the  double  misfortune  of  fire  and 
pestilence.  On  May  19th,  the  principal  business  section  was  swept  away 
by  a  conflagration  originating  in  a  steamboat  at  the  levee;  and,  during 
the  summer  of  the  same  year,  the  population  was  scourged  by  cholera. 
In  1851,  the. first  railroad  enterprise — the  building  of  the  Missouri  Pacific 
— was  inaugurated,  and  quickly  followed  by  others.  [See  page  105.] 
The  decennial  increase  of  population  has  been  as  follows: 

Year.                           Pop.  Year.  Pop.  Year.                             Pop. 

1799 925     1830 5,862  1860 160,733 

1810 1,400     1840 16,469  1870 310,864 

1820 4,928     1850 74,439  1880 350,522 

During  1880  St.  Louis  received  1,703,874  barrels  of  flour;  manufactured 
2,077,625  barrels;  and  shipped  3,292,803  barrels.  Of  this  amount  975,970 
barrels  were  shipped  in  sacks  to  England,  Scotland,  Ireland,  Wales,  Hol- 
land, France,  Belgium,  Germany,  Brazil,  Cuba  and  Mexico.  During  the 
same  year  St.  Louis  shipped  11,313,879  bushels  of  wheat;  and  of  this 
amount  5,913,272  bushels  went  to  foreign  countries  via  New  Orleans, 
while  the  rest  went  eastward  by  rail.  The  receipts  of  corn  were  22,298,- 
077  bushels;  shipments,  17,571,322  bushels,  of  which  9,804,392  went  by 
barges  to  New  Orleans  for  foreign  ports,  3,157,684  to  the  south  for  con- 
sumption, and  4  591,944  eastward  by  rail  or  Ohio  river.  The  receipts  of 
cotton  were  496,570  bales,  and  shipments  478,219  bales. 

During  the  packing  season  of  1879-80,  there  were  927,793  hogs  packed. 
The  shipments  of  coffee  reached  $5,000,000,  and  that  of  sugar  $8,500,000. 

The  above  principal  items  are  gleaned  from  the  commercial  pantheon 
of  statistics  published  in  January,  1881,  by  the  Merchants'  Exchange  of 
St.  Louis. 

Kansas  City. — In  1724  the  Kansas  tribe  of  Indians  had  their  chief  town 
a  few  miles  below  the  mouth  of  the  Kansas  river,  and  M.  DeBourgmont, 
the  French  commandant  of  this  region,  held  a  grand  peace  council  with 
different  tribes  gathered  at  this  place  for  the  purpose,  on  July  3d  of  that 
year.  This  is  the  earliest  historic  record  of  white  men  in  the  vicinity  of 
where  Kansas  City  now  stands.     In  1808  the  U.  S.  government  established 


a  fort  and  Indian  agency  here,  calling  it  Fort  Osage,  which  was  not 
abandoned  until  1825,  when  the  Indian  title  to  a  certain  strip  of  country 
here  was  extinguished.  In  1821  Francis  G.  Chouteau  established  a  trad- 
ing post  on  the  Missouri  river  about  three  miles  below  the  site  of  Kansas 
City,  but  a  flood  in  the  spring  of  1826  swept  away  everything  he  had,  and 
he  then  settled  six  miles  up  the  Kansas  river. 

The  original  town  plat  of  Kansas  City  consisted  of  40  acres,  and  was 
laid  out  in  1839.  In  1846  some  additional  ground  was  laid  off,  and  a 
public  sale  of  lots  netted  $7,000,  averaging  $200  per  lot. 

The  first  charter  was  procured  in  the  winter  of  1852-3,  and  in  the 
spring  of  1853  was  organized  the  first  municipal  government.  The  first 
established  newspaper  made  its  appearance  in  1854,  with  the  title  of  the 
■"  Kansas  City  Enterprise,"  now  known  as  the  "  Kansas  City  Journal." 
During  the  years  1855-6-7,  the  border  troubles  very  visibly  affected  the 
prosperity  of  the  city,  so  that  business  in  those  years  did  not  exceed,  all 
told,  the  sum  of  $2,000,000;  but  at  the  close  of  the  struggle,  in  1857,  busi- 
ness began  to  revive,  and  it  was  then  stated,  in  the  St.  Louis  "Intelligen- 
cer," that  she  had  the  largest  trade  of  any  city  of  her  size  in  the  world. 
This  may  be  distinguished  as  the  great  steamboat  era.  It  was  estimated 
that,  in  the  year  1857,  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  boats  discharged  at  the 
Kansas  City  levee  over  tvventv-five  million  pounds  of  merchandise.  In 
May  of  this  year,  also,  the  steamboats  were  employed  to  carry  the  United 
States  mail,  and  in  1858  the  first  telegraph  pole  in  Jackson  county  was 

The  first  bank  established  in  Kansas  City  was  a  branch  of  the  Mechan- 
ics' Bank,  of  St.  Louis,  organized  May  1,  1859,  and  the  second  was  a 
branch  of  the  Union  Bank,  organized  in  July  of  the  same  year.  The  first 
jobbing  dry  goods  house  opened  in  July,  1S57.  The  first  city  loan  for 
local  improvement  was  made  in  1855,  amounting  to  $10,000,  all  taken  at 
home,  and  expended  in  improving  and  widening  the  levee;  and,  in  1858, 
another  loan  of  $100,000  for  street  improvements.  Only  in  the  matter  of 
railroads  was  Kansas  City  seriously  affected  by  the  panic  of  1857;  gov- 
ernment moneys,  immigration  over  the  border,  and  the  New  Mexican 
trade  tiding  her  safely  over  the  sea  of  financial  excitement  and  prostra- 
tion. She  had  also  become,  even  as  early  as  the  year  1854,  a  noted  mart 
for  the  purchase  and  sale  of  live  stock,  the  immense  freighting  across  the 
plains  inviting  trade  in  this  direction,  and  in  the  annual  reviews  of  the 
papers  it  is  said  that,  in  1857,  the  receipts  for  that  year,  in  mules  and  cattle, 
were  estimated  at  $200,000,  and  also  that,  in  1858,  about  20,000  head  of 
stock  cattle  were  driven  here  from  Texas  and  the  Indian  territory.  In 
1857  over  six' hundred  freighting  wagons  left  Kansas  City  with  loads  for 
Santa  Fe,  New  Mexico. 

The  principal   railroads  centering  at  Kansas  City  are,  the  Hannibal  & 


St.  Joseph  railroad,  the  Kansas  Pacific  railroad,  Uie  Kansas  City,  Law- 
rence &  Southern  railroad,  the  Kansas  City,  Fort  Scott  &  Gulf  railroad, 
the  Chicago  &  Alton  railroad,  the  Atchison  &  Nebraska  railroad,  the 
Kansas  City,  St.  Joseph  &  Council  Bluffs  railroad,  the  Missouri  Pacific 
railway,  the  Missouri,  Kansas  &  Texas  railway,  the  Wabash,  St.  Louis 
&  Pacific  railway,  the  Atchison,  Topeka  &  Sante  Fe  railroad,  the  Kansas 
City  &  Eastern  railroad,  (narrow  gauge).  The  Atchison,  Topeka  & 
Santa  Fe  railroad  has  extended  its  road  to  Albuquerque,  New  Mexico, 
and  to  Guyamas,  on  the  Pacific  coast ;  to  San  Francisco,  California,  and 
is  building  to  the  City  of  Mexico. 

The  elevator  storage  capacity  in  the  city  January  1,  1881,  was  1,500,- 
000  bushels.  In  1879  about  1,600  new  buildings  were  erected,  costing 
$1,500,000.  The  U.  S.  postoffice  and  custom  house  building  cost  $200,- 
000.  The  union  depot  building  cost  $300,000.  The  Kansas  City  stock 
yards  rank  as  second  only  to  those  of  Chicago  in  the  extent  and  com- 
pleteness of  their  facilities  for  the  cattle  trade. 

The  population  of  Kansas  City,  by  U.  S.  census  in  June,  1880,  was 
62,977  Taxable  wealth,  $13,378,950.  Cost  of  new  buildings  erected 
during  the  year  1880,  $2,200,000* 

St.  Joseph.  In  1803  Joseph  Robidon,  a  French  fur  trader,  located 
here,  and  continued  to  occupy  his  place  and  trade  with  the  Indians  for  33 
years.  Up  to  1843  the  place  contained  only  two  log  cabins,  and  a  small 
flouring  mill  on  Black  Snake  creek.  In  June,  1843,  Mr.  Robidoux 
received  his  title  from  the  government  to  160  acres  of  land,  and  laid  out 
the  city,  which  was  called  St.  Joseph  in  his  honor,  and  not,  as  is  commonly 
supposed,  in  honor  of  the  Saint  Joseph  of  the  church  calendar.  January 
1,  1846,  the  town  had  600  inhabitants,  having  been  incorporated  as  a  vil- 
lage February  26,  1845,  with  Joseph  Robidoux  as  president  of  the  board 
of  trustees.  The  first  city  charter  was  obtained  February  22, 1851,  but  it 
has  been  many  times  amended.  The  population  was :  In  1850, 3,460 ;  in  I860, 
8,932;  in  1870,  19,625;  in  1880,  32,461. 

St.  Joseph  is  situated  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Missouri,  545  miles  from 
its  mouth,  2,000  miles  from  the  great  falls,  nearly  1,300  miles  below  the 
mouth  of  the  Yellowstone,  310  miles  from  St.  Louis  by  railroad,  with 
which  it  is  connected  by  three  different  lines,  and  565  miles  from  St.  Louis 
by  river;  but  it  is  only  180  miles  on  an  air  line  from  the  Mississippi  river. 
The  latitude  of  St.  Joseph  is  39  degrees  47  minutes  north,  and  the  same 
parallel  passes  through  Indianapolis,  and  within  less  than  four  miles  of 
Denver,  Colorado,  Springfield,  Illinois,  and  the  famous  Mason  and  Dixon's 
line,  separating  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania,  reaching  the  Atlantic  coast 
half  way  from  Cape  May  to  New  York  City,  and  the  Pacific,  two  degrees 

♦These  statistics  are  gathered  mostly  from  the  able  annual  reports  of  W.  H.  Miller,  Esq., 
who  has  been  secretary  of  the  Kansas  City  Board  of  Trade  continuously  since  1873. 

112  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    MISSOURI. 

north  of  San  Francisco,  near  Cape  Mendicino.  A  straight  line  drawn  on 
the  map  from  Augusta,  the  capital  of  Maine,  to  San  Diego  in  California, 
passes  through  Detroit,  Chicago,  and  St.  Joseph,  and  this  last  city  is  just 
half  way  from  end  to  end  of  this  line 

St.  Joseph  has  an  altitude  of  about  1,030  feet  above  the  sea,  which  is 
200  feet  higher  than  St.  Paul,  400  feet  higher  than  Chicago,  and  nearly 
600  feet  higher  than  St.  Louis.  The  city  is  romantically  and  beautifully 
situated,  the  business  portion  lying  in  a  huge  basin  on  a  great  bend  in  the 
Missouri  river,  while  the  residence  part  of  the  city  clambers  up  the 
mound-shaped  hills,  which  rise  on  all  sides  like  a  vast  amphitheater. 

The  wholesale  and  retail  trade  is  figured  above  $40,000,000  annually, 
while  it  is  said  that  there  are  no  fewer  than  eight  commercial  houses  which 
have  a  cash  capital  of  $1,000,000  each.  It  is  stated  on  reliable  authority, 
that  there  is  handled  at  this  point  15,000,000  bushels  of  corn,  5,000,000  of 
wheat,  250,000  rye,  and  500,000  barley,  per  annum.  The  stock  yards  cover 
seven  acres,  and  belong  to  a  stock  company.  There  are  received  at  the 
yards  120,000  to  150,000  hogs  per  annum,  and  10,000  to  12,000  cattle. 
The  figures  do  not  include  direct  shipments  to  several  large  packing 
houses,  which  will  increase  the  number  of  hogs  to  300,000.  There  are 
four  packing  houses  in  the  city— one  having  a  capacity  of  15,000  hogs 
per  day. 

The  railroad  lines  which  connect  St.  Joseph  with  the  rest  of  the  busi- 
ness world  are  the  Hannibal  &  St.  Joseph,  the  pioneer  road  of  the  state, 
extending  east  across  the  entire  state  to  Hannibal  and  Quincy  on  the  Miss- 
issippi river;  the  Wabash,  St.  Louis  &  Pacific,  forming  a  direct  line  to  St. 
Louis;  the  St.  Joseph  &  Western, extending  across  the  great  iron  bridge, 
through  Kansas  and  Nebraska,  to  a  junction  at  Grand  Island  with  the 
Union  Pacific,  of  which  it  is  really  a  part;  the  Missouri  Pacific,  another 
connecting  line  with  St.  Louis;  the  Kansas  City,  St.  Joseph  &  Council 
Bluffs,  extending  south  to  Kansas  City  and  north  to  Omaha,  with  its 
Nodaway  Valley  branch,  extending  through  the  Nodaway  valley,  and  its 
Chicago  branch,  making  connection  with  the  Chicago,  Burlington  & 
Quincy;  the  Atchison,  Topeka  &  Santa  Fe;  the  St.  Joseph  &  Des 
Moines,  now  owned  and  operated  by  the  Chicago,  Burlington  &  Quincy; 
the  Chicago,  Rock  Island  &  Pacific,  and  the  Atchison  &  Nebraska. 


We,  the  people  of  the  United  States,  in  order  to  form  a  more -perfect  union, 
establish  justice,  insure  domestic  tranquillity,  provide  for  the  common 
defense,  promote  the  general  zirlfarc,  and  secure  the  blessings  of  liberty 
to  ourselves  and  our  posterity,  do  ordain  and  establish  this  Constitu- 
tion for  the  United  States  of  America. 


Section  1.  All  legislative  powers  herein  granted  shall  be  vested  in  a 
congress  of  the  United  States,  which  shall  consist  of  a  senate  and  house 
of  representatives. 

Sec  2.  The  house  of  representatives  shall  be  composed  of  members 
chosen  every  second  year  by  the  people  of  the  several  states,  and  the 
electors  in  each  state  shall  have  the  qualifications  requisite  for  electors  of 
the  most  numerous  branch  of  the  state  legislature. 

No  person  shall  be  a  representative  who  shall  not  have  attained  to  the 
age  of  twenty-five  years,  and  been  seven  years  a  citizen  of  the  United 
States,  and  who  shall  not,  when  elected,  be  an  inhabitant  of  that  state  in 
which  he  shall  be  chosen. 

Representatives  and  direct  taxes  shall  be  apportioned  among  the  sev- 
eral states  which  may  be  included  within  this  Union,  according  to  their 
respective  numbers,  which  shall  be  determined  by  adding  to  the  whole 
number  of  free  persons,  including  those  bound  to  service  for  a  term  of 
years,  and  excluding  Indians  not  taxed,  three-fifths  of  all  other  persons. 
The  actual  enumeration  shall  be  made  within  three  years  after  the  first 
meeting  of  the  congress  of  the  United  States,  and  within  every  subsequent 
term  of  ten  years,  in  such  manner  as  they  shall  by  law  direct.  The  num- 
ber of  representatives  shall  not  exceed  one  for  every  thirty  thousand,  but 
each  state  shall  have  at  least  one  representative;  and  until  such  enumer- 
ation shall  be  made  the  state  of  New  Hampshire  shall  be  entitled  to  choose 
three,  Massachusetts  eight,  Rhode  Island  and  Providence  Plantations  one, 
Connecticut  five,  New  York  six,  New  Jersey  four,  Pennsylvania  eight, 
Delaware  one,  Maryland  six,  Virginia  ten,  North  Carolina  five,  and 
Georgia  three. 

When  vacancies  happen  in  the  representation  from  any  state,  the  exec- 
utive authority  thereof  shall  issue  writs  of  election  to  fill  such  vacancies. 

The  house  of  representatives  shall  choose  their  speaker  and  other 
officers,  and  shall  have  the  sole  power  of  impeachment. 

Sec.  3.  The  senate  of  the  United  States  shall  be  composed  of  two 
senators  from  each  state,  chosen  by  the  legislature  thereof  for  six  years; 
and  each  senator  shall  have  one  vote. 

Immediately  after  they  shall  be  assembled  in  consequence  of  the  first 
election,  they  shall  be  divided  as  equally  as  may  be  into  three  classes. 
The  seats  of  the  senators  of  the  first  class  shall  be  vacated  at  the  expira- 
tion of  the  second  year,  of  the  second  class  at  the  expiration  of  the  fourth 
year,  and  of  the  third  class  at  the  expiration  of  the  sixth  year,  so  that  one- 
third  may  be  chosen  every  second  year;  and  if  vacancies  happen  by  resig- 
nation or  otherwise,  during  the  recess  of  the  legislature  of  any  state,  the 
executive  thereof  may  make  temporary  appointments  until  the  next 
meeting  of  the  legislature,  which  shall  then  fill  such  vacancies. 

No  person  shall  be  a  senator  who  shall  not  have  attained  to  the  age  of 
thirty  years,  and  been  nine  years  a  citizen  of  the  United  States,  and  who 


shall  not,  when  elected,  be  an  inhabitant  of  that  state  for  which  he  shall 
be  chosen. 

The  vice-president  of  the  United  States  shall  be  president  of  the  senate, 
but  shall  have  no  vote  unless  they  be  equally  divided. 

The  senate  shall  choose  their  other  officers,  and  also  a  president  -pro 
tempore,  in  the  absence  of  the  vice-president,  or  when  he  shall  exercise 
the  office  of  president  of  the  United  States. 

The  senate  shall  have  the  sole  power  to  try  all  impeachments.  When 
sitting  for  that  purpose  thev  shall  be  on  oath  or  affirmation.  When  the 
president  of  the  United  States  is  tried,  the  chief-justice  shall  preside. 
And  no  person  shall  be  convicted  without  the  concurrence  of  two-thirds 
of  the  members  present. 

Judgment,  in  cases  of  impeachment,  shall  not  extend  further  than  to 
removal  from  office,  and  disqualification  to  hold  and  enjoy  any  office  of 
honor,  trust  or  profit  under  the  United  States;  but  the  party  convicted 
shall  nevertheless  be  liable  and  subject  to  indictment,  trial,  judgment,  and 
punishment  according  to  law. 

Sec.  4.  The  times,  places,  and  manner  of  holding  elections  for  senators 
and  representatives,  shall  be  prescribed  in  each  state  by  the  legislature 
thereof;  but  the  congress  may  at  any  time  by  law  make  or  alter  such 
regulations,  except  as  to  the  places  of  choosing  senators. 

The  congress  shall  assemble  at  least  once  in  every  year,  and  such  meet- 
ing shall  be  on  the  first  Monday  in  December,  unless  they  shall  by  law 
appoint  a  different  day. 

Sec.  5.  Each  house  shall  be  the  judge  of  the  election,  returns,  and 
qualifications  of  its  own  members,  and  a  majority  of  each  shall  constitute 
a  quorum  to  do  business ;  but  a  smaller  number  may  adjourn  from  day  to 
day,  and  may  be  authorized  to  compel  the  attendance  of  absent  members 
in  such  manner  and  under  such  penalties  as  each  house  may  provide. 

Each  house  may  determine  the  rules  of  it's  proceedings,  punish  its  mem- 
bers for  disorderly  behavior,  and,  with  the  concurrence  of  two-thirds, 
expel  a  member. 

Each  house  shall  keep  a  journal  of  its  proceedings,  and  from  time  to 
time  publish  the  same,  excepting  such  parts  as  may,  in  their  judgment, 
require  secrecy;  and  the  yeas  and  nays  of  the  members  of  either  house  on 
any  question  shall,  at  the  desire  of  one-fifth  of  those  present^  be  entered 
on  the  journal. 

■Neither  house,  during  the  session  of  congress,  shall,  without  the  consent 
of  the  other,  adjourn  for  more  than  three  days,  nor  to  any  other  place 
than  that  in  which  the  two  houses  shall  be  sitting. 

Sec.  6.  The  senators  and  representatives  shall  receive  a  compensation 
for  their  services,  to  be  ascertained  by  law,  and  paid  out  of  the  treasury 
of  the  United  States.  They  shall  in  all  cases,  except  treason,  felony,  and 
breach  of  the  peace,  be  privileged  from  arrest  during  their  attendance  at 
the  session  of  their  respective  houses,  and  in  going  to  and  returning  from 
the  same;  and  for  any  speech  or  debate  in  either  house,  they  shall  not  be 
questioned  in  any  other  place. 

No  senator  or  representative  shall,  during  the  time  for  which  he  was 
elected,  be  appointed  to  any  civil  office  under  the  authority  of  the  United 
States,  which  shall  have  been  created,  or  the  emoluments  whereof  shall 
have  been  increased  during  such  time;  and  no  person  holding  any  office 
under  the  United  States  shall  be  a  member  of  either  house  during  his 
continuance  in  office. 


Sec.  7.  All  bills  for  raising  revenue  shall  originate  in  the  house  of 
representatives;  but  the  senate  may  propose  or  concur  with  amendments 
as  on  other  bills. 

Every  bill  which  shall  have  passed  the  house  of  representatives  and 
the  senate  shall,  before  it  becomes  a  law,  be  presented  to  the  president  of 
the  United  States:  if  he  approve  he  shall  sign  it;  but  if  not  he  shall 
return  it,  with  his  objections,  to  that  house  in  which  it  shall  have  origi- 
nated, who  shall  enter  the  objections  at  large  on  their  journal,  and  pro- 
ceed to  reconsider  it.  If,  after  such  reconsideration,  two-thirds  of  that 
house  shall  agree  to  pass  the  bill,  it  shall  be  sent,  together  with  the  objec- 
tions, to  the  other  house,  by  which  it  shall  likewise  be  reconsidered,  and 
if  approved  by  two-thirds  of  that  house,  it  shall  become  a  law.  But  in  all 
such  cas  e  s  the  votes  of  both  houses  shall  be  determined  by  yeas  and  nays, 
and  the  names  of  the  persons  voting  for  and  against  the  bilf  shall  be  entered 
on  the  journal  of  each  house  respectively.  If  any  bill  shall  not  be  returned 
by  the  president  within  ten  days  (Sundays  excepted),  after  it  shall  have 
been  presented  to  him,  the  same  shall  be  a  law  in  like  manner  as  if  he 
had  signed  it,  unless  the  congress,  by  their  adjournment,  prevents  its 
return,  in  which  case  it  shall  not  be  a  law. 

Every  order,  resolution,  or  vote  to  which  the  concurrence  of  the  senate 
and  house  of  representatives  may  be  necessary  (except  on  a  question  of 
adjournment),  shall  be  presented  to  the  president  of  the  United  States, 
and  before  the  same  shall  take  effect  shall  be  approved  by  him,  or,  being 
disapproved  by  him,  shall  be  re-passed  by  two-thirds  of  the  senate  and 
house  of  representatives,  according  to  the  rules  and  limitations  prescribed 
in  the  case  of  a  bill. 

Sec.  S.     The  congress  shall  have  power — 

To  lay  and  collect  taxes,  duties,  imposts  and  excises,  to  pay  the  debts, 
and  provide  for  the  common  defense  and  general  welfare  of  the  United 
States;  but  all  duties,  imposts,  and  excises  shall  be  uniform  throughout 
the  United  States; 

To  borrow  money  on  the  credit  of  the  United  States; 

To  regulate  commerce  with  foreign  nations,  and  among  the  several 
states,  and  with  the  Indian  tribes; 

To  establish  a  uniform  rule  of  naturalization,  and  uniform  laws  on  the 
subject  of  bankruptcies* throughout  the  United  States; 

To  coin  money,  regulate  the  value  thereof  and  of  foreign  coin,  and  fix 
the  standard  of  weights  and  measures; 

To  provide  for  the  punishment  of  counterfeiting  the  securities  and  cur- 
rent coin  of  the  United  States; 

To  establish  post  offices  and  post  roads; 

To  promote  the  progress  of  sciences  and  useful  arts,  by  securing,  for 
limited  times,  to  authors  and  inventors,  the  exclusive  right  to  their  respec- 
tive writings  and  discoveries; 

To  constitute  tribunals  inferior  to  the  supreme  court; 

To  define  and  punish  piracies  and  felonies  committed  on  the  high  seas; 
and  offenses  against  the  law  of  nations: 

To  declare  war,  grant  letters  of  marque  and  reprisal  and  make  rules 
concerning  captures  on  land  and  water; 

To  raise  and  support  armies,  but  no  appropriation  of  monev  to  that  use 
shall  be  for  a  longer  term  than  two  years; 

To  provide  and  maintain  a  navy: 

To  make  rules  for  government  and  regulation  of  the  land  and  naval  forces ; 


To  provide  for  calling  forth  the  militia  to  execute  the  laws  of  the  Union, 
suppress  insurrections,  and  repel  invasions; 

To  provide  for  organizing,  arming  and  disciplining  the  militia,  and  for 
governing  such  part  of  them  as  may  be  employed  in  the  service  of  the 
United  States,  reserving  to  the  states  respectively  the  appointment  of  the 
officers,  and  the  authority  of  training  the  militia  according  to  the  discipline 
prescribed  by  congress; 

To  exercise  legislation  in  all  cases  whatsoever  over  such  district  (not 
exceeding  ten  miles  square)  as  may  by  cession  of  particular  states,  and 
the  acceptance  of  congress,  become  the  seat  of  the  government  of  the 
United  States,  and  to  exercise  like  authority  over  all  places  purchased  by 
the  consent  of  the  legislature  of  the  state  in  which  the  same  shall  be,  for 
the  erection  of  forts,  magazines,  arsenals,  dock  yards,  and  other  needful 
buildings;  and 

To  make  all  laws  which  shall  be  necessary  and  proper  for  carrying 
into  execution  the  foregoing  powers,  and  all  other  powers  vested  by  this 
constitution  in  the  government  of  the  United  States,  or  in  any  department 
or  officer  thereof. 

Sec.  9.  The  migration  or  importation  of  such  persons  as  any  of  the 
states  now  existing  shall  think  proper  to  admit,  shall  not  be  prohibited  by 
the  congress  prior  to  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eight,  but 
a  tax  of  duty  may  be  imposed  on  such  importation,  not  exceeding  ten 
dollars  for  each  person. 

The  privilege  of  the  writ  of  habeas  corpus  shall  not  be  suspended,  unless 
when  in  cases  of  rebellion  or  invasion  the  public  safety  may  require  it. 

No  bill  of  attainder  or  ex  -post facto  law  shall  be  passed. 

No  capitation  or  other  direct  tax  shall  be  laid,  unless  in  proportion  to 
the  census  or  enumeration  hereinbefore  directed  to  be  taken. 

No  tax  or  duty  shall  be  laid  on  articles  exported  from  any  state. 

No  preference  shall  be  given  by  any  regulation  of  commerce  or  rev- 
enue to  the  ports  of  one  state  over  those  of  another;  nor  shall  vessels 
bound  to  or  from  one  state  be  obliged  to  enter,  clear,  or  pay  duties  in 

No  money  shall  be  drawn  from  the  treasury,  but  in  consequence  of 
appropriations  made  by  law;  and  a  regular  statement  and  account  of  the 
receipts  and  expenditures  of  all  public  money  shall  be  published  from 
time  to  time. 

No  title  of  nobility  shall  be  granted  by  the  United  States ;  and  no  per- 
son holding  any  office  of  profit  or  trust  under  them,  shall,  without  the 
consent  of  the  congress,  accept  of  any  present,  emolument,  office,  or  title 
of  any  kind  whatever,  from  any  king,  prince  or  foreign  state. 

Sec.  10.  No  state  shall  enter  into  any  treaty,  alliance,  or  confederation; 
grant  letters  of  marque  and  reprisal;  coin  money;  emit  bills  of  credit; 
make  anything  but  gold  and  silver  coin  a  tender  in  payment  of  debts; 
pass  any  bill  of  attainder,  ex  post  facto  law,  or  law  impairing  the  obliga- 
tion of  contracts,  or  grant  any  title  of  nobility. 

No  state  shall,  without  the  consent  of  the  congress,  lay  any  imposts  or 
duties  on  imports  or  exports,  except  what  may  be  absolutely  necessary 
for  executing  its  inspection  laws,  and  the  net  produce  of  all  duties  and 
imposts  laid  by  any  state  on  imports  or  exports,  shall  be  for  the  use  of  the 
treasury  of  the  United  States;  and  all  such  laws  shall  be  subject  to  the 
revision  and  control  of  the  congress. 

No  state  shall,  without  the  consent  of  congress,  lay  any  duty  on  tonnage, 


keep  troops  or  ships  of  war  in  time  of  peace,  enter  into  any  agreement 
or  compact  with  another  state,  or  with  a  foreign  power,  or  engage  in 
war,  unless  actually  invaded,  or  in  such  imminent  danger  as  will  not  admit 
of  delay. 


Section  1.  The  executive  power  shall  be  vested  in  a  president  of  the 
United  States  of  America.  He  shall  hold  his  office  during  the  term  of 
four  years,  and,  together  with  the  vice-president  chosen  for  the  same  term, 
be  elected  as  follows  : 

Each  state  shall  appoint,  in  such  manner  as  the  legislature  thereof  may 
direct,  a  number  of  electors,  equal  to  the  whole  number  of  senators  and 
representatives  to  which  the  state  may  be  entitled  in  the  congress;  but  no 
senator  or  representative,  or  person  holding  an  office  of  trust  or  profit 
under  the  United  States  shall  be  appointed  an  elector. 

[*The  electors  shall  meet  in  their  respective  states  and  vote  by  ballot 
for  two  persons,  of  whom  one  at  least  shall  not  be  an  inhabitant  of  the 
same  state  with  themselves.  And  they  shall  make  a  list  of  all  the  persons 
voted  for,  and  of  the  number  of  votes  for  each;  which  list  they  shall  sign 
and  certify,  and  transmit,  sealed,  to  the  seat  of  government  of  the  United 
States,  directed  to  the  president  of  the  senate.  The  president  of  the  sen- 
ate shall,  in  the  presence  of  the  senate  and  house  of  representatives,  open 
all  the  certificates,  and  the  votes  shall  then  be  counted.  The  person  hav- 
ing the  greatest  number  of  votes  shall  be  the  president,  if  such  number  be 
a  majority  of  the  whole  number  of  electors  appointed:  and  if  there  be 
more  than  one  who  have  such  majority,  and  have  an  equal  number  of 
votes,  then  the  house  of  representatives  shall  immediately  choose  by  bal- 
lot, one  of  them  for  president;  and  if  no  person  have  a  majority, then  from 
the  five  highest  on  the  list  the  said  house  shall  in  like  manner  choose  the 
president.  But,  in  choosing  the  president,  the  vote  shall  be  taken  by  states, 
the  representation  from  each  state  having  one  vote;  a  quorum  for  this 
purpose  shall  consist  of  a  member,  or  members,  from  two-thirds  of  the 
states,  and  a  majority  of  all  the  states  shall  be  necessary  to  a  choice.  In 
every  case,  after  the  choice  of  the  president,  the  person  having  the  great- 
est number  of  votes  of  the  electors  shall  be  the  vice-president.  But  if 
there  should  remain  two  or  more  who  have  equal  votes,  the  senate  shall 
choose  from  them,  by  ballot,  the  vice-president.] 

The  congress  may  determine  the  time  of  choosing  the  electors,  and  the 
day  on  which  they  shall  give  their  votes,  which  day  shall  be  the  same 
throughout  the  United  States. 

No  person  except  a  natural-born  citizen,  or  a  citizen  of  the  United 
States  at  the  time  of  the  adoption  of  this  constitution,  shall  be  eligible  to 
the  office  of  president;  neither  shall  any  person  be  eligible  to  that  office 
who  shall  not  have  attained  the  age  of  thirty-five  years,  and  been  fourteen 
years  a  resident  within  the  United  States. 

In  case  of  the  removal  of  the  president  from  office,  or  of  his  death,  res- 
ignation, or  inability  to  discharge  the  powers  and  duties  of  the  said  office, 
the  same  shall  devolve  on  the  vice-president,  and  the  congress  may  by  law 
provide  for  the  case  of  removal,  death,  resignation,  or  inability,  both  of 
the  president  and  vice-president,  declaring  what  officer  shall  then  act  as 

*This  clause  between  brackets  has  been  superseded  and  annulled  by  the  twelfth   amend- 



president,  and  such  officer  shall   act  accordingly,  until   the  disability  rx 
removed,  or  a  president  shall  be  elected. 

The  president  shall,  at  stated  times,  receive  for  his  services  a  compen- 
sation, which  shall  neither  be  increased  nor  diminished  during  the  period 
for  which  he  shall  have  been  elected,  and  he  shall  not  receive  during  that 
period  any  other  emolument  from  the  United  States,  or  any  of  them. 

Before  he  enters  upon  the  execution  of  his  office  he  shall  take  the  fol- 
lowing oath,  or  affirmation: 

"  I  do  solemnly  swear  (or  affirm)  that  I  will  faithfully  execute  the  office 
of  president  of  the  United  States,  and  will,  to  the  best  of  my  ability,  pre- 
serve, protect,  and  defend  the  constitution  of  the  United  States." 

Sec.  2.  The  president  shall  be  commander-in-chief  of  the  army  and 
navy  of  the  United  States,  and  of  the  militia  of  the  several  states,  when 
called  into  the  actual  service  of  the  United  States;  he  may  require  the 
opinion,  in  writing,  of  the  principal  officer  in  each  of  the  executive  depart- ' 
ments,  upon  any  subject  relating  to  the  duties  of  their  respective  offices, 
and  he  shall  have  power  to  grant  reprieves  and  pardons  for  offenses  against 
the  United  States,  except  in  cases  of  impeachment. 

He  shall  have  power,  bv  and  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  senate, 
to  make  treaties,  provided  two-thirds  of  the  senators  present  concur;  and 
he  shall  nominate,  and  by  and  with  the  advice  of  the  senate,  shall  appoint 
embassadors,  other  public  ministers  and  consuls,  judges  of  the  supreme 
court,  and  all  other  officers  of  the  United  States  whose  appointments  are 
not  herein  otherwise  provided  for,  and  which  shall  be  established  bv  law; 
but  the  congress  may,  by  law,  vest  the  appointment  of  such  inferior  officers 
as  they  think  proper  in  the  president  alone,  in  the  courts  of  law,  or  in  the 
heads  of  departments. 

The  president  shall  have  power  to  rill  up  all  vacancies  that  may  happen 
during  the  recess  of  the  senate,  by  granting  commissions  which  shall 
expire  at  the  end  of  their  next  session. 

Sec  3.  He  shall,  from  time  to  time,  ffive  to  the  congress  information 
of  the  state  of  the  union,  and  recommend  to  their  consideration  such 
measures  as  he  shall  judge  necessary  and  expedient;  he  may,  on  extraor- 
dinary occasions,  convene  both  houses,  or  either  of  them,  and  in  case  of 
disagreement  between  them,  with  respect  to  the  time  of  adjournment,  he 
may  adjourn  them  to  such  time  as  he  shall  think  proper;  he  shall  receive 
embassadors  and  other  public  ministers;  he  shall  take  care  that  the  laws  be 
faithfully  executed,  and  shall  commission  all  the  officers  of  the  United  States. 
^  Sec.  4.  The  president,  vice-president  and  all  civil  officers  of  the  United 
States,  shall  be  removed  from  office  on  impeachment  for,  and  conviction  of, 
treason,  briber}-,  or  other  high  crimes  and  misdemeanors. 


Section  1.  The  judicial  power  of  the  United  States  shall  be  vested  in 
one  supreme  court,  and  in  such  inferior  courts  as  the  congress  may  from 
time  to  time  ordain  and  establish.  The  judges,  both  of  the  supreme  and 
inferior  courts,  shall  hold  their  office  during  good  behavior,  and  shall,  at 
stated  times,  receive  for  their  services  a  compensation,  which  shall  not  be 
diminished  during  their  continuance  in  office. 

Sec.  2.  The  judicial  power  shall  extend  to  all  cases,  in  law  and  equity, 
arising  under  this  constitution,  the  laws  of  the  United  States,  and  treaties 
made,  or  which  shall  be  made,  under  their  authority;  to  all  cases  affecting 


embassadors,  other  public  ministers  and  consuls:  to  all  cases  of  admiralty 
and  maritime  jurisdiction:  to  controversies  to  which  the  United  States  shall 
be  a  party;  to  controversies  between  two  or  more  states:  between  a  state 
and  citizens  of  another  state;  between  citizens  of  different  states;  between 
citizens  of  the  same  state  claiming  lands  under  grants  of  different  states; 
and  between  a  state  or  the  citizens  thereof,  and  foreign  states,  citizens  or 

In  all  cases  affecting  embassadors,  other  public  ministers,  and  consuls, 
and  those  in  which  a  state  shall  be  a  party,  the  supreme  court  shall  have 
original  jurisdiction. 

In  all  the  other  cases  before  mentioned,  the  supreme  court  shall  have 
appellate  jurisdiction,  both  as  to  law  and  fact,  with  such  exceptions  and 
under  such  regulations  as  the  congress  shall  make. 

The  trial  of  all  crimes,  except  in  cases  of  impeachment,  shall  be  bv  jurv ; 
and  such  trial  shall  be  held  in  the  state  where  the  said  crimes  shall  "have 
been  committed;  but  when  not  committed  within  any  state,  the  trial  shall 
be  at  such  place  or  places  as  the  congress  may  bv  law  have  directed. 

Sec.  3.  Treason  against  the  United  States  shall  consist  only  in  levying 
war  against  them,  or  in  adhering  to- their  enemies,  giving  them  aid  and 
comfort.  Xo  person  shall  be  convicted  of  treason  unless  on  the  testimony 
of  two  witnesses  to  the  same  overt  act,  or  on  confession  in  open  court. 

The  congress  shall  have  power  to  declare  the  punishment  of  treason, 
but  no  attainder  of  treason  shall  work  corruption  of  blood,  or  forfeiture, 
except  during  the  life  of  the  person  attainted. 


Section  1.  Full  faith  and  credit  shall  be  given  in  each  state  to  the 
public  acts,  records,  and  judicial  proceedings  of  everv  other  state.  And 
the  congress  may,  by  general  laws,  prescribe  the  manner  in  which  such 
acts,  records,  and  proceedings  shall  be  proved,  and  the  effect  thereof. 

Sec  2.  The  citizens  of  each  state  shall  be  entitled  to  ail  privileges  and 
immunities  of  citizens  in  the  several  states. 

A  person  charged  in  any  state  with  treason,  felonv,  or  other  crime,  who 
shall  flee  from  justice  and  be  found  in  another  state,  shall,  on  demand  of 
the  executive  authority  of  the  state  from  which  he  fled,  be  delivered  up,  to 
be  removed  to  the  state  having  jurisdiction  of  the  crime. 

No  person  held  to  service  or  labor  in  one  state,  under  the  laws  thereof, 
escaping  into  another,  shall,  in  consequence  of  anv  law  or  regulation 
therein,  be  discharged  from  such  service  or  labor,  but  shall  be  delivered 
up  on  claim  of  the  part}-  to  whom  such  service  or  labor  mav  be  due. 

Sec  3.  New  states  may  be  admitted  by  congress  into  this  Union:  but 
no  new  state  shall  be  formed  or  erected  within  the  jurisdiction  of  anv 
other  state;  nor  any  state  be  formed  by  the  junction  of  two  or  more 
states,  or  parts  of  states,  without  the  consent  of  the  legislatures  of  the 
states  concerned,  as  well  as  of  the  congress. 

The  congress  shall  have  power  to  dispose  of  and  make  all  needful  rules 
and  regulations  respecting  the  territory  or  other  property  belonging  to 
the  United  States:  and  nothing  in  this  constitution  shall  be  so  construed  as 
to  prejudice  any  claims  of  the  United  States  or  of  anv  particular  state. 

Sec  4.  The  United  States  shall  guarantee  to  everv  state  in  this  union 
a  republican  form  of  government,  and  shall  protect  each  of  them  against 
invasion,  and  on  application  of  the  legislature,  or  of  the  executive  ^when 
the  legislature  can  not  be  convened »,  against  domestic  violence. 




The  congress,  whenever  two-thirds  of  both  houses  shall  deem  it  neces- 
sary, shall  propose  amendments  to  this  constitution,  or,  on  the  application 
of  the  legislatures  of  two-thirds  of  the  several  states  shall  call  a  conven- 
tion for  proposing  amendments,  which,  in  either  case  shall  be  valid  to  all 
intents  and  purposes  as  part  of  this  constitution,  when  ratified  by  the  leg- 
islatures of  three-fourths  of  the  several  states,  or  by  conventions  in  three- 
fourths  thereof,  as  the  one  or  the  other  mode  of  ratification  may  be  pro- 
posed by  the  congress.  Provided,  that  no  amendment  which  may  be 
made  prior  to  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eight  shall  in  any 
manner  affect  the  first  and  fourth  clauses  in  the  ninth  section  of  the  first 
article;  and  that  no  state,  without  its  consent,  shall  be  deprived  of  its  equal 
suffrage  in  the  senate. 


All  debts  contracted  and  engagements  entered  into  before  the  adoption 
of  this  constitution  shall  be  as  valid  against  the  United  States  under  this 
constitution  as  under  the  confederation. 

This  constitution,  and  the  laws  of  the  United  States  which  shall  be 
made  in  pursuance  thereof,  and  all  treaties  made,  or  which  shall  be  made, 
under  the  authority  of  the  United  States,  shall  be  the.  supreme  law  of  the 
land;  and  the  judges  in  every  state  shall  be  bound  thereby,  anything  in 
the  constitution  or  laws  of  any  state  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding. 

The  senators  and  representatives  before  mentioned,  and  the  members  of 
the  several  state  legislatures,  and  all  executive  and  judicial  officers,  both 
of  the  United  States  and  of  the  several  states,  shall  be  bound  by  oath  or 
affirmation  to  support  this  constitution ;  but  no  religious  test  shall  ever  be 
required  as  a  qualification  to  any  office  or  public  trust  under  the  United 


The  ratification  of  the  conventions  of  nine  states  shall  be  sufficient  for 
the  establishment  of  this  constitution  between  the  states  so  ratifying  the 

Done  in  convention  by  the  unanimous  consent  of  the  states  present,  the  seventeenth  day  of 
September,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-seven,  and 
of  the  independence  of  the  United  States  of  America,  the  twelfth.  In  witness  whereof  we 
have  hereunto  subscribed  our  names. 


President,  and  Deputy  from  Virginia. 

New  Hampshire. 
John  Langdon, 
Nicholas  Gilman. 

Nathaniel  Gorham, 
Rufus  King. 

Wm.  Samuel  Johnson, 
Roger  Sherman. 

New  York. 
Alexander  Hamilton. 

New  Jersey. 
Wil.  Livingston, 
Wm.  Patterson, 
David  Brearley, 
Jona.  Dayton. 

George  Reed, 
John  Dickinson, 
Jacob  Broom, 
Gunning  Bedford,  Jr., 
Richard  Bassett. 

James  M'Henry, 
Danl.  Carroll, 
Dan.  of  St.  Thos.  Jenifer. 

John  Blair, 
James  Madison,  Jr. 

North  Carolina. 
Wm.  Blount. 
Hu.  Williamson, 
Richard  Dobbs  Spaight. 

B.  Franklin, 
Robt.  Morris, 
Thos.  Fitzsimons, 
James  Wilson, 
Thos.  Mifflin, 
Geohge  Clymer, 


Gouv.  Morris. 

South  Carolina. 
J.  Rutledge, 
Charles  Pinckney, 
Chas.  Cotesworth  Pinckney 
Pierce  Butler. 

Wm.  Few, 
Abr.  Baldwin. 

WILLIAM  JACKSON,  Secretary. 

amendments  to  the  constitution.  121 

Articles  in  Addition  to   and  Amendatory  of  the  Constitution 
of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Proposed  by    Congress  and  Ratified  5v  the  Legislatures  of  the  several 
States  pursuant  to  the  fifth  article  of  the  original  Constitution. 


Congress  shall  make  no  law  respecting  an  establishment  of  religion,  or 
prohibiting  the  free  exercise  thereof;  or  abridging  the  freedom  of  speech, 
or  of  the  press ;  or  the  right  of  the  people  peaceably  to  assemble,  and  to 
petition  the  government  for  a  redress  of  grievances. 


A  well  regulated  militia  being  necessary  to  the  security  of  a  free  state, 
the  right  of  the  people  to  keep  and  bear  arms  shall  not  be  infringed. 


No  soldier  shall,  in  time  of  peace,  be  quartered  in  any  house  without 
the  consent  of  the  owner,  nor  in  time  of  war,  but  in  a  manner  to  be  pre- 
scribed by  law. 


The  right  of  the  people  to  be  secure  in  their  persons,  houses,  papers, 
and  effects  against  unreasonable  searches  and  seizures,  shall  not  be  vio- 
lated, and  no  warrants  shall  issue  but  upon  probable  cause,  supported  by 
oath  or  affirmation,  and  particularly  describing  the  place  to  be  searched 
and  the  persons  or  things  to  be  seized. 


No  person  shall  be  held  to  answer  for  a  capital  or  otherwise  infamous 
crime,  unless  on  a  presentment  or  indictment  of  a  grand  jury,  except  in 
cases  arising  in  the  land  or  naval  forces,  or  in  the  militia  when  in  actual 
service  in  time  of  war  or  public  danger;  nor  shall  any  person  be  subject 
for  the  same  offense,  to  be  twice  put  in  jeopardy  of  life  or  limb;  nor  shall 
be  compelled,  in  any  criminal  case,  to  be  a  witness  against  himself,  nor  be 
deprived  of  life,  liberty,  or  property,  without  due  process  of  law;  nor 
shall  private  property  be  taken  for  public  use,  without  just  compensation. 


In  all  criminal  prosecutions,  the  accused  shall  enjoy  the  right  to  a  speedy 
and  public  trial,  by  an  impartial  jurv  of  the  state  and  district  wherein  the 
crime  shall  have  been  committed,  which  district  shall  have  been  previously 
ascertained  by  law,  and  to  be  informed  of  the  nature  and  cause  of  the 
accusation;  to  be  confronted  with  the  witnesses  against  him;  to  have  com- 
pulsory process  for  obtaining  witnesses  in  his  favor;  and  to  have  the  assist- 
ance of  counsel  for  his  defense. 


In  suits  at  common  lawr,  where  the  value  in  controversy  shall  exceed 
twenty  dollars,  the  right  of  trial  by  jury  shall  be  preserved,  and  no  fact 
tried  by  a  jury  shall  be  otherwise  re-examined  in  any  court  of  the  United 
States  than  according  to  the  rules  of  the  common  law. 



Excessive  bail  shall  not  be  required,  nor  excessive  fines  imposed,  nor 
cruel  and  unusual  punishments  inflicted. 


The  enumeration,  in  the  constitution,  of  certain  rights,  shall  not  be  con- 
strued to  deny  or  disparage  others  retained  by  the  people. 


The  powers  not  delegated  to  the  United  States  by  the  constitution,  nor 
prohibited  by  it  to  the  states,  are  reserved  to  the  states  respectively,  or  to 
the  people. 


The  judicial  power  of  the  United  States  shall  not  be  construed  to  extend 
to  any  suit  in  law  or  equity  commenced  or  prosecuted  against  one  of  the 
United  States  by  citizens  of  another  state,  or  by  citizens  or  subjects  of  any 
foreign  state. 


Sec  1.  The  electors  shall  meet  in  their  respective  states  and  vote  by  ballot 
for  president  and  vice-president,  one  of  whom,  at  least,  shall  not  be  an  inhab- 
itant of  the  same  state  with  themselves;  they  shall  name  in  their  ballots 
the  person  to  be  voted  for  as  president,  and  in  distinct  ballots  the  person 
voted  for  as  vice-president,  and  they  shall  make  distinct  lists  of  all  persons 
voted  for  as  president,  and  of  all  persons  voted  for  as  vice-president,  and 
of  the  number  of  votes  for  each,  which  lists  they  shall  sign  and  certify,  and 
transmit,  sealed,  to  the  seat  of  the  government  of  the  United  States, 
directed  to  the  president  of  the  senate.  The  president  of  the  senate  shall, 
in  presence  of  the  senate  and  house  of  representatives,  open  all  the  certifi- 
cates, and  the  votes  shall  then  be  counted.  The  person  having  the  great- 
est number  of  votes  for  president  shall  be  the  president,  if  such  number 
be  a  majority  of  the  whole  number  of  electors  appointed;  and  if  no  person 
have  such  majority,  then  from  the  persons  having  the  highest  numbers  not 
exceeding  three  on  the  list  of  those  voted  for  as  president,  the  house  of 
representatives  shall  choose  immediately,  by  ballot,  the  president.  But  in 
choosing  the  president,  the  votes  shall  be  taken  by  states,  the  representa- 
tives from  each  state  having  one  vote;  a  quorum  for  this  purpose  shall  con- 
sist of  a  member  or  members  from  two-thirds  of  the  states,  and  a  majority 
of  all  the  states  shall  be  necessary  to  a  choice.  And  if  the  house  of  rep- 
resentatives shall  not  choose  a  president  whenever  the  right  of  choice 
shall  devolve  upon  them,  before  the  fourth  day  of  March  next  following, 
then  the  vice-president  shall  act  as  president,  as  in  the  case  of  the  death  or 
other  constitutional  disability  of  the  president.  The  person  having  the 
greatest  number  of  votes  as  vice-president  shall  be  the  vice-president,  if 
such  number  be  the  majority  of  the  whole  number  of  electors  appointed 
and  if  no  person  have  a  majority,  then  from  the  two  highest  numbers  on 
the  list  the  senate  shall  choose  the  vice-president;  a  quorum  for  that  pur- 
pose shall  consist  of  two-thirds  of  the  whole  number  of  senators,  and  a 
majority  of  the  whole  number  shall  be  necessary  to  a  choice.  But  no 
person  constitutionally  ineligible  to  the  office  of  president  shall  be  eligible 
to  that  of  vice-president  of  the  United  States. 



Section  1.  Neither  slavery  nor  involuntary  servitude,  except  as  a  pun- 
ishment for  crime,  whereof  the  party  shall  have  been  duly  convicted, 
shall  exist  within  the  United  States,  or  any  place  subject  to  their  juris- 

Sec.  2.  Congress  shall  have  power  to  enforce  this  article  by  appropri- 
ate legislation. 

article  xiv. 

Section  1.  All  persons  born  or  naturalized  in  the  United  States,  and 
subject  to  the  jurisdiction  thereof,  are  citizens  of  the  United  States,  and  of 
the  state  wherein  they  reside.  No  state  shall  make  or  enforce  any  law 
which  shall  abridge  the  privileges  or  immunities  of  citizens  of  the  United 
States;  nor  shall  any  state  deprive  any  person  of  life,  liberty,  or  property, 
without  due  process  of  law,  nor  deny  to  any  person  within  its  jurisdiction 
the  equal  protection  of  the  law. 

Sec.  2.  Representatives  shall  be  apportioned  among  the  several  states 
according  to  their  respective  numbers,  counting  the  whole  number  of  per- 
sons in  each  state,  excluding  Indians  not  taxed;  but  when  the  right  to  vote 
at  any  election  for  the  choice  of  electors  for  president  and  vice-president 
of  the  United  States,  representatives  in  congress,  the  executive  and  judi- 
cial officers  of  a  state,  or  the  members  of  the  legislature  thereof,  is  denied 
to  any  of  the  male  inhabitants  of  such  state,  being  twenty-one  years  of 
age  and  citizens  of  the  United  States,  or  in  any  way  abridged  except  for 
participation  in  rebellion  or  other  crime,  the  basis  of  representation  therein 
shall  be  reduced  in  the  proportion  which  the  number  of  such  male  citizens 
shall  bear  to  the  whole  number  of  male  citizens  twenty -one  years  of  age 
in  such  state. 

Sec.  3.  No  person  shall  be  a  senator  or  representative  in  congress,  or 
elector  of  president  and  vice-president,  or  hold  any  office,  civil  or  military, 
under  the  United  States,  or  under  any  state,  who,  having  previously  taken 
an  oath  as  a  member  of  congress,  or  as  an  officer  of  the  United  States,  or 
as  a  member  of  any  state  legislature,  or  as  an  executive  or  judicial  officer 
of  any  state  to  support  the  constitution  of  the  United  States,  shall  have 
engaged  in  insurrection  or  rebellion  against  the  same,  or  given  aid  or 
comfort  to  the  enemies  thereof.  But  congress  may,  by  a  vote  of  two- 
thirds  of  each  house,  remove  such  disability. 

Sec.  4.  The  validity  of  the  public  debt  of  the  United  States  author- 
ized by  law,  including  debts  incurred  for  payment  of  pensions  and  boun- 
ties for  services  in  suppressing  insurrection  or  rebellion,  shall  not  be 
questioned.  But  neither  the  United  States  nor  any  state  shall  assume  or 
pay  any  debt  or  obligation  incurred  in  the  aid  of  insurrection  or  rebellion 
against  the  United  States,  or  any  claim  for  the  loss  or  emancipation  of 
any  slave;  but  all  such  debts,  obligations  and  claims  shall  be  held  illegal 
and  void. 

Sec.  5.  The  congress  shall  have  power  to  enforce,  by  appropriate 
legislation,  the  provisions  of  this  article. 


Section  1.  The  right  of  citizens  of  the  United  States  to  vote  shall 
not  be  denied  or  abridged  by  the  United  States,  or  by  any  state,  on 
account  of  race,  color,  or  previous  condition  of  servitude. 

Sec.  2.  The  congress  shall  have  power  to  enforce  this  article  by  appro- 
priate legislation." 

Constitution  of  the  State  of  Missouri, 


NOVEMBER  30,  1875. 


We,  the  people  of  Missouri,  with  profound  reverence  for  the  Supreme 
Ruler  of  the  Universe,  and  grateful  for  his  goodness,  do,  for  the  better 
government  of  the  state,  establish  this  constitution. 


Section  1.  The  boundaries  of  the  state  as  heretofore  established  by 
law,  are  hereby  ratified  and  confirmed.  The  state  shall,  have  concurrent 
jurisdiction  on  the  river  Mississippi,  and  every  other  river  bordering  on  the 
state,  so  far  as  the  said  rivers  shall  form  a  common  boundary  to  this  state 
and  any  other  state  or  states;  and  the  river  Mississippi  and  the  navigable 
rivers  and  waters  leading  to  the  same,  shall  be  common  highways,  and 
forever  free  to  the  citizens  of  this  state  and  of  the  United  States,  without 
any  tax,  duty,  import  or  toll  therefor,  imposed  by  this  state. 


In  order  to  assert  our  rights,  acknowledge  our  duties,  and  proclaim  the 
principles  on  which  our  government  is  founded,  we  declare: 

Section  1.  That  all  political  power  is  vested  in,  and  derived  from  the 
people;  that  all  government  of  right  originates  from  the  people,  is  founded 
upon  their  will  onlv,  and  is  instituted  solely  for  the  good  of  the  whole. 

Sec.  2.  That  the  people  of  this  state  have  the  inherent,  sole  and  exclu- 
sive right  to  regulate  the  internal  government  and  police  thereof,  and  to 
alter  and  abolish  their  constitution  and  form  of  government  whenever 
they  may  deem  it  necessary  to  their  safety  and  happiness:  Provided, 
Such  change  be  not  repugnant  to  the  constitution  of  the  United  States. 

Sec.  3.  That  Missouri  is  a  free  and  independent  state,  subject  only  to 
the  constitution  of  the  United  States;  and  as  the  preservation  of  the 
states  and  the  maintenance  of  their  governments,  are  necessary  to  an 
indestructible  Union,  and  were  intended  to  co-exist  with  it,  the  legislature 
is  not  authorized  to  adopt,  nor  will  the  people  of  this  state  ever  assent  to 
any  amendment  or  change  of  the  constitution  of  the  United  States  which 
may  in  any  wise  impair  the  right  of  local  self-government  belonging  to 
the  people  of  this  state. 

Sec.  4.  That  all  constitutional  government  is  intended  to  promote  the 
general  welfare  of  the  people ;  that  all  persons  have  a  natural  right  to  life, 
liberty  and  the  enjoyment  of  the  gains  of  their  own  industry;  that  to  give 
security  to  these  things  is  the  principal  office  of  government,  and  that 
when  government  does  not  confer  this  security,  it  fails  of  its  chief  design. 

Sec.  5.  That  all  men  have  a  natural  and  indefeasible  right  to  worship 
Almighty  God  according  to  the  dictates  of  their  own  conscience;  that  no 



person  can,  on  account  of  his  religious  opinions,  be  rendered  ineligible  to 
any  office  of  trust  or  profit  under  this  state,  nor  be  disqualified  from  testi- 
fying, or  from  serving  as  a  juror;  that  no  human  authority  can  control  or 
interfere  with  the  rights  of  conscience;  that  no  person  ought,  by  any  law, 
to  be  molested  in  his  person  or  estate,  on  account  of  his  religious  persua- 
sion or  profession ;  but  the  liberty  of  conscience  hereby  secured,  shall  not 
be  so  construed  as  to  excuse  acts  of  licentiousness,  nor  to  justify  practices 
inconsistent  with  the  good  order,  peace  or  safety  of  this  state,  or  with  the 
rights  of  others. 

Sec.  6.  That  no  person  can  be  compelled  to  erect,  support  or  attend 
any  place  or  system  of  worship,  or  to  maintain  or  support  any  priest,  min- 
ister, preacher  or  teacher  of  any  sect,  church,  creed  or  denomination  of  re- 
ligion; but  if  any  person  shall  voluntarily  make  a  contract  for  any  such 
object,  he  shall  be  held  to  the  performance  of  the  same. 

Sec.  7.  That  no  money  shall  ever  be  taken  from  the  public  treasury, 
directly  or  indirectly,  in  aid  of  any  church,  sect  or  denomination  of  religion, 
or  in  aid  of  any  priest,  preacher,  minister  or  teacher  thereof,  as  such;  and 
that  no  preference  shall  be  given  to,  nor  any  discrimination  made  against 
any  church,  sect  or  creed  of  religion,  or  any  form  of  religious  faith  or  wor- 

Sec.  S.  That  no  religious  corporation  can  be  established  in  this  state,, 
except  such  as  may  be  created  under  a  general  law  for  the  purpose  only 
of  holding  the  title  to  such  real  estate  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law  for 
church  edifices,  parsonages  and  cemeteries. 

Sec  9.  That  all  elections  shall  be  free  and  open ;  and  no  power,  civil 
or  military,  shall  at  any  time  interfere  to  prevent  the  free  exercise  of  the 
right  of  suffrage. 

Sec  10.  The  courts  of  justice  shall  be  open  to  every  person,  and  cer- 
tain remedy  afforded  for  every  injury  to  person,  property  or  character, 
and  that  right  and  justice  should  be  administered  without  sale,  denial  or 

Sec  11.  That  the  people  shall  be  secure  in  their  persons,  papers,, 
homes  and  effects,  from  unreasonable  searches  and  seizures;  and  no  war- 
rant to  search  any  place,  or  seize  any  person  or  thing,  shall  issue  without 
describing  the  place  to  be  searched,  or  the  person  or  thing  to  be  seized,  as 
nearly  as  may  be;  nor  without  probable  cause,  supported  by  oath  or  affir- 
mation reduced  to  writing. 

Sec  12.  That  no  person  shall,  for  felony,  be  proceeded  against  crimi- 
nally otherwise  than  by  indictment,  except  in  cases  arising  in  the  land  or 
naval  forces,  or  in  the  militia  when  in  actual  service  in  time  of  war  or  pub- 
lic danger;  in  all  other  cases,  offenses  shall  be  prosecuted  criminally  by  in- 
dictment or  information  as  concurrent  remedies. 

Sec  13.  That  treason  against  the  state  can  consist  only  in  levying 
war  against  it,  or  in  adhering  to  its  enemies,  giving  them  aid  and  comfort; 
that  no  person  can  be  convicted  of  treason,  unless  on  the  testimony  of  two 
witnesses  to  the  same  overt  act,  or  on  his  confession  in  open  court;  that 
no  person  can  be  attainted  of  treason  or  felony  by  the  general  assembly; 
that  no  conviction  can  work  corruption  of  blood  or  forfeiture  of  estate; 
that  the  estates  of  such  persons  as  may  destroy  their  own  lives  shall 
descend  or  vest  as  in  cases  of  natural  death:  and  when  any  person  shall 
be  killed  by  casualty,  there  shall  be  no  forfeiture  by  reason  thereof. 

Sec  14.     That  no  law  shall  be  passed  impairing  the  freedom  of  speech; 


that  every  person  shall  be  free  to  say,  write  or  publish  whatever  he  will 
on  any  subject,  being  responsible  for  all  abuse  of  that  liberty;  and  that  in 
all  suits  and  prosecutions  for  libel,  the  truth  thereof  may  be  given  in  evi- 
dence, and  the  jury,  under  the  direction  of  the  court,  shall  determine  the 
law  and  the  fact. 

Sec.  15.  That  no  ex  -post  facto  law,  nor  law  impairing  the  obligation 
of  contracts,  or  retrospective  in  its  operation,  or  making  any  irrevocable 
grant  of  special  privileges  or  immunities,  can  be  passed  by  the  general 

Sec.  16.  That  imprisonment  for  debt  shall  not  be  allowed,  except  for 
the  nonpayment  of  fines  and  penalties  imposed  for  violation  of  law. 

Sec.  17.  That  the  right  of  no  citizen  to  keep  and  bear  arms  in  defense 
of  his  home,  person  and  property,  or  in  aid  of  the  civil  power,  when  thereto 
legally  summoned,  shall  be  called  in  question;  but  nothing  herein  con- 
tained is  intended  to  justify  the  practice  of  wearing  concealed  weapons. 

Sec.  18.  That  no  person  elected  or  appointed  to  any  office  or  employ- 
ment of  trust  or  profit  under  the  laws  of  this  state,  or  any  ordinance  of 
any  municipality  in  this  state,  shall  hold  such  office  without  personally 
devoting  his  time  to  the  performance  of  the  duties  to  the  same  belonging. 

Sec.  19.  That  no  person  who  is  now,  or  may  hereafter  become  a  col- 
lector or  receiver  of  public  money,  or  assistant  or  deputy  of  such  collector 
or  receiver,  shall  be  eligible  to  any  office  of  trust  or  profit  in  the  state  ®f 
Missouri  under  the  laws  thereof,  or  of  any  municipality  therein,  until  he 
shall  have  accounted  for  and  paid  over  all  the  public  money  for  which  he 
may  be  accountable. 

Sec.  20.  That  no  private  property  can  be  taken  for  private  use  with  or 
without  compensation,  unless  by  the  consent  of  the  owner,  except  for  pri- 
vate ways  of  necessity,  and  except  for  drains  and  ditches  across  the  lands 
of  others  for  agricultural  and  sanitary  purposes,  in  such  manner  as  may  be 
prescribed  by  law ;  and  that  whenever  an  attempt  is  made  to  take  private 
property  for  a  use  alleged  to  be  public,  the  question  whether  the  contem- 
plated use  be  really  public  shall  be  a  judicial  question,  and  as  such,  judi- 
cially determined,  without  regard  to  any  legislative  assertion  that  the  use 
is  public. 

Sec.  21.  That  private  property  shall  not  be  taken  or  damaged  for  pub- 
lic use  without  just  compensation.  Such  compensation  shall  be  ascer- 
tained by  a  jury  or  board  of  commissioners  of  not  less  than  three  free- 
holders, in  such  manner  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law ;  and  until  the  same 
shall  be  paid  to  the  owner,  or  into  court  for  the  owner,  the  property  shall 
not  be  disturbed,  or  the  proprietary  rights  of  the  owner  therein  divested. 
The  fee  of  land  taken  for  railroad  tracts  without  consent  of  the  owner 
thereof,  shall  remain  in  such  owner,  subject  to  the  use  for  which  it  is 

Sec.  22.  In  criminal  prosecutions  the  accused  shall  have  the  right  to 
appear  and  defend,  in  person,  and  by  counsel;  to  demand  the  nature  and 
cause  of  the  accusation ;  to  meet  the  witnesses  against  him  face  to  face ;  to 
have  process  to  compel  the  attendance  of  witnesses  in  his  behalf,  and  a 
speedy,  public  trial  by  an  impartial  jury  of  the  county. 

Sec.  23.  That  no  person  shall  be  compelled  to  testify  against  himself 
in  a  criminal  cause,  nor  shall  any  person,  after  being  once  acquitted  by  a 
jury,  be  again,  for  the  same  offense,  put  in  jeopardy  of  life  or  liberty;  but 
if  the  jury  to  which  the  question  of  his  guilt  or  innocence  is  submitted 


fail  to  render  a  verdict,  the  court  before  which  the  trial  is  had  may,  in  its 
discretion,  discharge  the  jury  and  commit  or  bail  the  prisoner  for  trial  at 
the  next  term  of  court,  or  if  the  state  of  business  will  permit,  at  the  same 
term  ;  and  if  judgment  be  arrested  after  a  verdict  of  guilty  on  a  defective 
indictment,  or  if  judgment  on  a  verdict  of  guilty  be  reversed  for  error  in 
law,  nothing  herein  contained  shall  prevent  a  new  trial  of  the  prisoner  on 
a  proper  indictment,  or  according  to  correct  principles  of  law. 

Sec  24.  That  all  persons  shall  be  bailable  by  sufficient  sureties,  ex- 
cept for  capital  offenses,  when  the  proof  is  evident  or  the  presumption  great. 

Sec.  25.  That  excessive  bail  shall  not  be  required,  nor  excessive  fines 
imposed,  nor  cruel  and  unusual  punishment  inflicted. 

Sec  26.  That  the  privilege  of  the  writ  of  habeas  corfus  shall  never 
be  suspended. 

Sec  27.  That  the  military  shall  always  be  in  strict  subordination  to 
the  civil  power;  that  no  soldier  shall,  in  time  of  peace,  be  quartered  in  any 
house  without  the  consent  of  the  owner,  nor  in  time  of  war,  except  in  the 
manner  prescribed  by  law. 

Sec  28.  The  right  of  trial  by  jury,  as  heretofore  enjoyed,  shall  remain 
inviolate;  but  a  jury  for  the  trial  of  criminal  or  civil  cases,  in  courts  not  of 
record,  may  consist  of  less  than  twelve  men,  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law. 
Hereafter,  a  grand  jury  shall  consist  of  twelve  men,  any  nine  of  whom 
concurring  may  find  an  indictment  or  a  true  bill. 

Sec  29.  That  the  people  have  the  right  peaceably  to  assemble  for 
their  common  good,  and  to  apply  to  those  invested  with  the  powers  of  gov- 
ernment for  redress  of  grievances  by  petition  or  remonstrance. 

Sec  30.  That  no  person  shall  be  deprived  of  life,  liberty  or  property 
without  due  process  of  law. 

Sec  31.  That  there  cannot  be  in  this  state  either  slavery  or  involun- 
tary servitude,  except  as  a  punishment  for  crime,  whereof  the  party  shall 
have  been  duly  convicted. 

Sec  32.  The  enumeration  in  this  constitution  of  certain  rights  shall 
not  be  construed  to  deny,  impair,  or  disparage  others  retained  by  the 


The  powers  of  government  shall  be  divided  into  three  distinct  depart- 
ments— the  legislative,  executive,  and  judicial — each  of  which  shall  be  con- 
fided to  a  separate  magistracy  and  no  person,  or  collection  of  persons, 
charged  with  the  exercise  of  powers  properly  belonging  to  one  of  those 
departments,  shall  exercise  any  power  properly  belonging  to  either  of  the 
others,  except  in  the  instances  in  this  constitution  expressly  directed  or 


Section  1.  The  legislative  power,  subject  to  the  limitations  herein 
contained,  shall  be  vested  in  a  senate  and  house  of  representatives,  to  be 
styled  "  The  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Missouri." 


Sec  2.  The  house  of  representatives  shall  consist  of  members  to  be 
chosen  every  second  year  by  the  qualified  voters  of  the  several  counties, 
and  apportioned  in  the  following  manner:  The  ratio  of  representation  shall 
be  ascertained  at  each  apportioning  session  of  the  general  assembly,  by 


dividing  the  whole  number  of  inhabitants  of  the  state,  as  ascertained  by 
the  last  decennial  census  of  the  United  States,  by  the  number  two  hun- 
dred. Each  county  having  one  ratio,  or  less,  shall  be  entitled  to  one  rep- 
resentative; each  county  having  two  and  a  half  times  said  ratio,  shall  be 
entitled  to  two  representatives;  each  county  having  four  times  said  ratio, 
shall  be  entitled  to  three  representatives;  each  county  having  six  times 
such  ratio,  shall  be  entitled  to  four  representatives,  and  so  on  above  that 
number,  giving  one  additional  member  for  every  two  and  a  half  additional 

Sec.  3.  When  any  countv  shall  be  entitled  to  more  than  one  repre- 
sentative, the  county  court  shall  cause  such  county  to  be  subdivided  into 
districts  of  compact  and  contiguous  territory,  corresponding  in  number  to 
the  representatives  to  which  such  county  is  entitled,  and  in  population  as 
nearlv  equal  as  mav  be,  in  each  of  whi^h  the  qualified  voters  shall  elect 
one  representative,  who  shall  be  a  resident  of  such  district:  Provided, 
That  when  any  county  shall  be  entitled  to  more  than  ten  representatives, 
the  circuit  court  shall  cause  such  county  to  be  subdivided  into  districts,  so 
as  to  give  each  district  not  less  than  two,  nor  more  than  four  representa- 
tives, who  shall  be  residents  of  such  district;  the  population  of  the  districts  to 
be  proportioned  to  the  number  of  representatives  to  be  elected  therefrom. 

Sec.  4.  Xo  person  shall  be  a  member  of  the  house  of  representatives 
who  shall  not  have  attained  the  age  of  twenty-four  years,  who  shall  not  be 
a  male  citizen  of  the  United  States,  who  shall  not  have  been  a  qualified 
voter  of  this  state  two  years,  and  an  inhabitant  of  the  county  or  district 
which  he  may  be  chosen  to  represent,  one  year  next  before  the  day  of  his 
election,  if  such  countv  or  district  shall  have  been  so  long  established,  but 
if  not,  then  of  the  countv  or  district  from  which  the  same  shall  have  been 
taken,  and  who  shall  not  have  paid  a  state  and  county  tax  within  one  year 
next  preceding  the  election. 

Sec.  5.  The  senate  shall  consist  of  thirty-four  members,  to  be  chosen 
by  the  qualified  voters  of  their  respective  districts  for  four  years.  For  the 
election  of  senators  the  state  shall  be  divided  into  convenient  districts,  as 
nearlv  equal  in  population  as  may  be,  the  same  to  be  ascertained  by  the 
last  decennial  census  taken  bv  the  United  States. 

Sec  6.  No  person  shall  be  a  senator  who  shall  not  have  attained  the 
age  of  thirty  years,  who  shall  not  be  a  male  citizen  of  the  United  States, 
who  shall  not  have  been  a  qualified  voter  of  this  state  three  years,  and  an 
inhabitant  of  the  district  which  he  may  be  chosen  to  represent  one  year 
next  before  the  dav  of  his  election,  if  such  district  shall  have  been  so  long 
established;  but  if  not,  then  of  the  district  or  districts  from  which  the  same 
shall  have  been  taken,  and  who  shall  not  have  paid  a  state  and  county  tax- 
within  one  year  next  preceding  the  election.  When  any  county  shall  be 
entitled  to  more  than  one  senator,  the  circuit  court  shall  cause  such  county 
to  be  subdivided  into  districts  of  compact  and  contiguous  territory,  and  of 
population  as  nearlv  equal  as  ma}-  be,  corresponding  in  number  with  the 
senators  to  which  such  county  may  be  entitled;  and  in  each  of  these  one 
senator,  who  shall  be  a  resident  of  such  district,  shall  be  elected  by  the 
qualified  voters  thereof. 

Sec  7.  Senators  and  representatives  shall  be  chosen  according  to  the 
rule  of  apportionment  established  in  this  constitution,  until  the  next  decen- 
nial census  by  the  United  States  shall  have  been  taken  and  the  result 
thereof  as  to  this  state  ascertained,  when  the  apportionment  shall  be  revised 


p-t~-i^?  z 



and  adjusted  on  the  basis  of  that  census,  and  every  ten  years  there- 
after upon  the  basis  of  the  United  States  census;  or  if  such  census  be  not 
taken,  or  is  delayed,  then  on  the  basis  of  a  state  census;  such  apportion- 
ment to  be  made  at  the  first  session  of  the  general  assembly  afier  each 
such  census:  Provided,  That  if  at  any  time,  or  from  any  cause,  the  general 
assembly  shall  fail  or  refuse  to  district  the  state  for  senators,  as  required 
in  this  section,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  governor,  secretary  of  state,  and 
attorney-general,  within  thirty  days  after  the  adjournment  of  the  general 
assembly  on  which  such  duty  devolved,  to  perform  said  duty,  and  to  file  in 
the  office  of  the  secretary  of  state  a  full  statement  of  the  districts  formed 
by  them,  including  the  names  of  the  counties  embraced  in  each  district, 
and  the  numbers  thereof;  said  statement  to  be  signed  by  them,  and 
attested  by  the  great  seal  of  the  state,  and  upon  the  proclamation  of  the 
governor,  the  same  shall  be  as  binding  and  effectual  as  if  done  by  the 
general  assembly. 

Sec  8.  Until  an  apportionment  of  representatives  can  be  made,  in 
accordance  with  the  provisions  of  this  article,  the  house  of  representa- 
tives shall  consist  of  one  hundred  and  forty-three  members,  which  shall  be 
divided  among  the  several  counties  of  the  state,  as  follows:  The  county  of 
St.  Louis  shall  have  seventeen;  the  county  of  Jackson  four;  the  county  of 
Buchanan  three;  the  counties  of  Franklin,  Greene,  Johnson,  Lafayette, 
Macon,  Marion,  Pike,  and  Saline,  each  two,  and  each  of  the  other  coun- 
ties in  the  state,  one. 

Sec.  9.  Senatorial  and  representative  districts  may  be  altered,  from 
time  to  time,  as  public  convenience  may  require.  When  any  senatorial 
district  shall  be  composed  of  two  or  more  counties,  they  shall  be  contigu- 
ous; such  districts  to  be  as  compact  as  may  be,  and  in  the  formation  of 
the  same  no  county  shall  be  divided. 

Sec  10.  The  first  election  of  senators  and  representatives,  under  this 
constitution,  shall  be  held  at  the  general  election  in  the  year  one  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  seventy-six,  when  the  whole  number  of  representa- 
tives, and  the  senators  from  the  districts  having  odd  numbers,  who  shall 
compose  the  first  class,  shall  be  chosen;  and  in  one  thousand  eight  hun- 
dred and  seventy-eight,  the  senators  from  the  districts  having  even  num- 
bers, who  shall  compose  the  second  class,  and  so  on  at  each  succeeding 
general  election,  half  the  senators  provided  for  by  this  constitution  shall 
be  chosen. 

Sec  11.  Until  the  state  shall  be  divided  into  senatorial  districts,  in 
accordance  with  the  provisions  of  this  article,  said  districts  shall  be  con- 
stituted and  numbered  as  follows: 

The  First  District  shall  be  composed  of  the  counties  of  Andrew,  Holt, 
Nodaway  and  Atchison. 

Second  District — The  counties  of  Buchanan,  DeKalb,  Gentry  and 

Third  District — The  counties  of  Clay,  Clinton  and  Platte. 

Fourth  District— The  counties  of  Caldwell,  Ray,  Daviess  and  Harrison. 

Fifth  District — The  counties  of  Livingston,  Grundy,  Mercer  and  Carroll. 

Sixth  District — The  counties  of  Linn,  Sullivan,  Putnam  and  Chariton. 

Seventh  District — The  counties  of  Randolph,  Howard  and  Monroe. 

Eighth  District — The  counties  of  Adair,  Macon  and  Schuyler. 

Ninth  District — The  counties  of  Audrain,  Boone  and  Callaway. 

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Sec :.  19.    T  :  each  house  shall  be  held  with  open  doors, 

The   gene  the   year  one  thousand 

e  _  .  ...  ::::::  an  die  first  Wedi 

I     \     .  -  .rht  hundred  and  9f         "-seven:  and 

thereafte  _  assembly  shall  meet  in  r   _  session  once  onlv  in 

ft :  and  such  meeting  shall  be  on  the  first  Wednesdav  after 
the  first  dav  of  Januarv  next  after  :ions  of  the  members  thereof. 

Sec  31.  Every  adjournment  or  recess  taken  by  the  _r::eral  assemblv 
for  more  than  thi  :  of  and  be  an  adjournment 

Sec   32.     Every  adiournment  or  recess  taken  by  the  general  assemblv 
for  three  lays  w  less,  -aall  be  construed  as  not  interrupting  the  session  at 
which  thev  are  had  or  taken,  but  as  continuing  the  session  for  all  the  pur- 
poses mentioned  in  section  sbrteei  article. 

Sec  22  Neither  house  shall,  without  the  consent  of  the  other,  adjourn 
for  more  than  two  days  at  anv  one  time,  nor  to  any  other  place  than  that 
in  which  thetwc  h :  nses  maybe  sitting. 


-    .-     .-  s  of  this  state  shall  be:     "Be  it  enacted 

by  the  Gener  ,         -  _Y  '.'.-..  s :" 

Sec  35.  Ne  lav*  shall  be  passec.  except  by  bill,  and  no  bill  shall  be  so 
amended  in  its  -sage  through  either  house,  as  to  chancre  its  original 
rurr  :se. 

Sec  36.  KDs  mav  originate  in  either  house,  and  may  be  amended  or 
rr  acted  by  the  rther;  an  D  be  read  on  three  different  days 

ich  house. 

37.  Xo  bill  shall  be  considered  for  final  passage  unless  the  same 
has  been  reported  upon  bv  a  committee  and  printed  for  the  use  of   the 

:  r:; 

38.  Xo  hi  . ot  general  appropriation  bills,  which  may  em- 
brace the  various  subjects  and  accounts  for  and  on  account  of  which  moneys 
are  appropriated,  and  except  bills  passed  under  the  third  subdivision  of 
section  fortv-four  of  this  article  I  shall  contain  more  than  one  subject,  which 
sh ill  :e  zlrirlv  r::rressri  ir  its  title. 

Sec  39.  All  amendments  adopted  by  either  house  to  a  bill  pending 
and  originating  in  the  -  ame,  shall  be  incorpora te :.  with  the  bill  by  engross- 
ment, and  the  bill  as  thus  engrossed,  shall  be  printed  for  the  use  of  the 
members  before  its  final  g  The  engrossing  and  printing  shall  be 

the  supervision  of  a  committer  .  report  to  the  house  shall  set 

forth,  ir.  g,  that   thev  rind  the  bill  truly    engrossed,  and  that  the 

printed  copv  furnished  to  the  members  is  corr^ 

If  a  bili  pas  er  house  be  returned  .  amended 

:ther,  the  house  to  which  the  same  is  retur  1  cause  the 

amendment         r  edtc  be  printed  under  the  same  super- 

aon  as  provided  in  og  seen  sn,  for  the  use  of  the  mem- 

before  final  action  on  such  a-  arts. 

Sec  1.  Xo  bill  shall  become  a  law,  unless  on  its  final  passage  the 
vote  be  taken  by  :  the  members  voting  for  and 

agair.-:  e  be  entei  te    :urnal,  and  a  majority  of  the  members 

.  h  house  be  recorded  thereon  as  voting  in  its  favor. 

:t:tvt:  :::-:v?z  133 

S  z :    52.     No  amendment  to  bills  by  ooe  house  shall  be  coocnrr 
bv  the  other,  e :::- pi  :  jravoteof  a  m;  :  the  members  elected  the re- 

taken bv  veas  and  nays,  and  the  names  of  those  voting  for  and  against 
recorded  upon  the  journal  thereof;  and  reports  of  committees  of  confer- 
ence shall  be  adopted  in  either  house  onlv  bv  the  vote  of  a  majority  of  the 
members  elected  thereto,  taken  by  yeas  and  nays,  and  the  names  of  those 
g  recorded  upon  the  journaL 

Shc  33.     No  act  shall  be  revived  or  re-enacted  by  mere  reference  to 
the  tide  thereof!  but  the  same  shall  be  set  forth  at  length,  i  s       :  .vere  an 

oi.     No  act  shall  be  amended  by  providing  that  designated  words 

thereof  be  stricken  out.  or  that  designated  words  be  inserted,  or  that  desig- 

Drds  be  stricken  out  and  others  inserted  in  Ken  thereof;  but  the 

words  to  be  stricken  out,  or  the  words  to  be  inserted,  or  the  words  to  be 

:::;n::::;::r  _  ::    ±e  i;:    it 

section  amended,  shall  be  set  forth  in  full,  as  amended. 

5z  j  When  a  bill  is  put  upon  its  final  passage  in  either  house,  and, 

failing  to  pass,  a  motion  is  made  to  reconsider  the  vote  by  which    : 
defeated,  the  vote  upon  such  motion  to  reconsider  shall  be  immediately 
taken,  and  the  sub:ec:  rir  :  ::"  bri:rc  the  hiuse  ":■;— is  ::  in- 

other  busine  — 

No  law  passed  by  the  general  assembly,  except  the  general 
appropriation  act.  shall  take  effect  or  go  into  force  until  nine:  -iter 

the  adjournment  of  the  session  at  which  it  was  enacted,  unless  in  case  :  I 
ar.  r~t:;rr.:v.  .v-:;h  trr.trjt"  :  r-r  rx::-?r:  :n  the  rrrinh.e  :r  ;r. 
the  bodv  of  the  ad  .  me  general  assembly  shall,  by  a  vote  of  two-thirds 
of  all  the  members  elected  to  each  house,  otherwise  direct;  saidvotr  lobe 
taken  bv  veas  and  nays,  an :.  rntered  upon  the  iournaL 

Sec.  37.     X:  bill  >: 


r.  ::rr.  ^:--.;  r. . 

signed  by  the  presiding  off 
ar.i  brfrrr  such  rr.Jrr  ?hi' 
all  other  business,  declare  1 

ns  be  made,  he  will  sign  the  same,  to  the  end  that  it  may  become  a 
hv~       Tr.r  ::_  5'-;...  :r.rr.  br  ::..:  :.:  .:"::  i  i:  -    ■  :         :  ; 

he  shall,  in  rrr^r-jr  ::  e n  session,  and  before  any  other 

business  is  e":cr:;.:r.ri.  -h          -  -_  t       ii;h  :j.j:  shili  r-r  r     t  :    t 

journal,  and  the  bill  immexfrh:  the  other  house.       ha   I  reaches 

the  other  house  the  presiding  officer  thereof  shall  immediately  suspend  all 

as,annoi  :::::::::::^:: -::thesa~e: 

shall  thereupon  be  c  respect,  aa  in  the  house  in  whic 

-  :  -  _  •  .       1:  -  -  •  -  .     ' 

.;:..  :  rriss:  -  -  - 

signed  is  not  the  -bstance  and  form  as  when  considered  and 

the  house,  or  that  any  particular  clause  of  this  article  of  the 
ion  has  beer,  violated  _       uch  objection  shall  be  pa  a 

upon  by  the  house,  and  if  susl  residing  officer  shall  withholi 

^  _  -  bri- 

bers may  embc  d  sax  signataues,  as  a 

_     :  the  hii".      Such  rr::es:. 
the  house,  shall  be  noted  upon  the  journal,  and  the  original  shall  be  an- 
nex e  bill  to  be  considerec  _     r.-norin  connection  there v 
i:;    58.     When  the  tafl  has  been  -  _  • 


ing  section,  it  shall  be  the  dut)'  of  the  secretary  of  the  senate,  if  the  bill 
originated  in  the  senate,  and  of  the  chief  clerk  of  the  house  of  representa- 
tives, if  the  bill  originated  in  the  house,  to  present  the  same  in  person,  on 
the  same  day  on  which  it  was  signed  as  aforesaid,  to  the  governor, 
and  enter  the  fact  upon  the  journal.  Ever)'-  bill  presented  to  the  governor, 
and  returned  within  ten  days  to  the  house  in  which  the  same  originated, 
with  the  approval  of  the  governor,  shall  become  a  law,  unless  it  be  in  vio- 
lation of  some  provision  ot  this  constitution. 

Sec.  39.  Every  bill  presented  as  aforesaid,  but  returned  without  the 
approval  of  the  governor,  and  with  his  objections  thereto,  shall  stand  as 
reconsidered  in  the  house  to  which  it  is  returned.  The  house  shall  cause 
the  objections  of  the  governor  to  be  entered  at  large  upon  the  journal,  and 
proceed,  at  its  convenience,  to  consider  the  question  pending,  which  shall 
be  in  this  form:  "Shall  the  bill  pass,  the  objections  of  the  governor  thereto 
notwithstanding?"  The  vote  upon  this  question  shall  be  taken  by  yeas 
and  na}^s,  and  the  names  entered  upon  the  journal,  and  if  two-thirds  of  all 
the  members  elected  to  the  house  vote  in  the  affirmative,  the  presiding 
officer  of  that  house  shall  certify  that  fact  on  the  roll,  attesting  the  same 
by  his  signature,  and  send  the  bill,  with  the  objections  of  the  governor,  to 
the  other  house,  in  which  like  proceedings  shall  be  had  in  relation  thereto; 
and  if  the  bill  receive  a  like  majority  of  the  votes  of  all  the  members  elected 
to  that  house,  the  vote  being  taken  by  yeas  and  nays,  the  presiding  officer 
thereof  shall,  in  like  manner,  certify  the  fact  upon  the  bill.  The  bill  thus 
certified  shall  be  deposited  in  the  office  of  the  secretary  of  state,  as  an  au- 
thentic act,  and  shall  become  a  law  in  the  same  manner  and  with  like  effect 
as  if  it  had  received  the  approval  of  the  governor. 

Sec.  40.  Whenever  the  governor  shall  fail  to  perform  his  duty,  as  pre- 
scribed in  section  twelve,  article  V,  of  this  constitution,  in  relation  to  any 
bill  presented  to  him  for  his  approval,  the  general  assembly  may,  by  joint 
resolution,  reciting  the  fact  of  such  failure  and  the  bill  at  length,  direct  the 
secretary  of  state  to  enrol  the  same  as  an  authentic  act  in  the  archives  of 
the  state,  and  such  enrollment  shall  have  the  same  effect  as  an  approval  by 
the  governor:  Provided,  That  such  joint  resolution  shall  not  be  submit- 
ted to  the  governor  for  his  approval. 

Sec.  41 .  Within  five  years  after  the  adoption  of  this  constitution  all 
the  statute  laws  of  a  general  nature,  both  civil  and  criminal,  shall  be  re- 
vised, digested,  and  promulgated  in  such  manner  as  the  general  assembly 
shall  direct;  and  a  like  revision,  digest,  and  promulgation  shall  be  made 
at  the  expiration  of  ever}'  subsequent  period  of  ten  years. 

Sec.  42.  Each  house  shall,  from  time  to  time,  publish  a  journal  of  its 
proceedings,  and  the  yeas  and  nays  on  any  question  shall  be  taken  and 
entered  on  the  journal  at  the  motion  of  any  two  members.  Whenever  the 
yeas  and  nays  are  demanded,  the  whole  list  of  members  shall  be  called, 
and  the  names  of  the  absentees  shall  be  noted  and  published  in  the  journal. 


Sec.  43.  All  revenue  collected  and  moneys  received  by  the  state  from 
any  source  whatsoever,  shall  go  into  the  treasury,  and  the  general  assem- 
bly shall  have  no  power  to  divert  the  same,  or  to  permit  money  to  be  drawn 
from  the  treasury,  except  in  pursuance  of  regular  appropriations  made  by 
law.  All  appropriations  of  money  by  the  successive  general  assemblies 
shall  be  made  in  the  following  order: 


First,  For  the  payment  of  all  interest  upon  the  bonded  debt  of  the 
state  that  may  become  due  during  the  term  for  which  each  general 
assembly  is  elected. 

Second,  For  the  benefit  of  the  sinking  fund,  which  shall  not  be  less  an- 
nually than  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars. 

Third,  For  free  public  school  purposes. 

Fourth,  For  the  payment  of  the  cost  of  assessing  and  collecting  the 

Fifth,  For  the  payment  of  the  civil  list. 

Sixth,  For  the  support  of  the  eleemosynary  institutions  of  the  state. 

Seventh,  For  the  pay  of  the  general  assembly,  and  such  other  purposes 
not  herein  prohibited,  as  it  may  deem  necessary;  but  no  general  assembly 
shall  have  power  to  make  any  appropriation  of  money  for  any  purpose 
whatsoever,  until  the  respective  sums  necessary  for  the  purposes  in  this 
section  specified  have  been  set  apart  and  appropriated,  or  to  give  pri- 
ority in  its  action  to  a  succeeding  over  a  preceding  item  as  above  enumer- 

Sec  44.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  contract  or  to 
authorize  the  contracting  of  any  debt  or  liability  on  behalf  of  the  state,  or 
to  issue  bonds  or  other  evidences  of  indebtedness  thereof,  except  in  the 
following  cases: 

First,  In  renewal  of  existing  bonds,  when  they  cannot  be  paid  at  matu- 
rity, out  of  the  sinking  fund  or  other  resources. 

Second,  On  the  occurring  of  an  unforeseen  emergency,  or  casual  defi- 
ciency of  the  revenue  when  the  temporary  liability  incurred,  upon  the  rec- 
ommendation of  the  governor  first  had,  shall  not  exceed  the  sum  of  two 
hundred  and  fiftv  thousand  dollars  for  any  one  year,  to  be  paid  in  not 
more  than  two  years  from  and  after  its  creation. 

Third,  On  the  occurring  of  any  unforeseen  emergency  or  casual  defi- 
ciency of  the  revenue,  when  the  temporary  liability  incurred  or  to  be  incur- 
red shall  exceed  the  sum  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars  for 
any  one  vear,  the  general  assembly  may  submit  an  act  providing  for  the 
loan,  or  lor  the  contracting  of  the  liability,  and  containing  a  provision  for 
levying  a  tax  sufficient  to  pay  the  interest  and  principal  when  they  become 
due,  (the  latter  in  not  more  than  thirteen  years  from  the  date  of  its  crea- 
tion) to  the  qualified  voters  of  the  state,  and  when  the  act  so  submitted 
shall  have  been  ratified  by  a  two-thirds  majority,  at  an  election  held  for 
that  purpose,  due  publication  having  been  made  of  the  provisions  of  the 
act  for  at  least  three  months  before  such  election,  the  act  thus  ratified 
shall  be  irrepealable  until  the  debt  thereby  incurred  shall  be  paid,  princi- 
pal and  interest. 

Sec  45.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  give  or  to  lend, 
or  to  authorize  the  giving  or  lending  of  the  credit  of  the  state  in  aid  of  or 
to  any  person,  association  or  corporation,  whether  municipal  or  other,  or  to 
pledge  the  credit  of  the  state  in  any  manner  whatsoever,  for  the  payment 
of  the  liabilities,  present  or  prospective,  of  any  individual,  association  of 
individuals,  municipal  or  other  corporation  whatsoever. 

Sec  4(5.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  make  any 
grant,  or  to  authorize  the  making  of  any  grant  of  public  money  or  thing  of 
v^alue  to  any  individual,  association  of  individuals,  municipal  or  other  cor- 
poration whatsoever:  Provided,  That  this  shall  not  be  so  construed  as  to 
prevent  the  grant  of  aid  in  a  case  of  public  calamity. 


Sec.  47.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  authorize  any 
county,  city,  town  or  township,  or  other  political  corporation  or  subdivision 
of  the  state  now  existing,  or  that  may  be  hereafter  established,  to  lend  its 
credit,  or  to  grant  public  money  or  thing  of  value  in  aid  of,  or  to  any  indi- 
vidual, association  or  corporation  whatsoever,  or  to  become  a  stockholder 
in  such  corporation,  association  or  company. 

Sec.  48.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  grant,  or  to 
authorize  anv  county  or  municipal  authorit}^  to  grant  any  extra  compensa- 
tion, fee  or  allowance  to  a  public  officer,  agent,  servant  or  contractor,  after 
service  has  been  rendered  or  a  contract  has  been  entered  into  and  per- 
formed in  whole  or  in  part,  nor  pay  nor  authorize  the  payment  of  any  claim 
hereafter  created  against  the  state,  or  any  county  or  municipality  of  the 
state  under  any  agreement  or  contract  made  without  express  authority  of 
law;  and  all  such  unauthorized  agreements  or  contracts  shall  be  null  and 

Sec.  49.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  hereafter  to  sub- 
scribe or  authorize  the  subscription  of  stock  on  behalf  of  the  state,  in  any 
corporation  or  association  except  for  the  purpose  of  securing  loans  hereto- 
fore extended  to  certain  railroad  corporations  by  the  state. 

Sec.  50.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  release  or 
alienate  the  lien  held  by  the  state  upon  any  railroad,  or  in  anywise  change 
the  tenor  or  meaning,  or  pass  any  act  explanatory  thereof;  but  the  same 
shall  be  enforced  in  accordance  with  the  original  terms  upon  which  it  was 

Sec.  51.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  release  or  ex- 
tinguish, or  authorize  the  releasing  or  extinguishing,  in  whole  or  in  part, 
the  indebtedness,  liability  or  obligation  of  any  corporation  or  individual,  to 
this  state,  or  to  any  county  or  other  municipal  corporation  therein. 

Sec.  52.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  make  any  ap- 
propriation of  money,  or  to  issue  any  bonds  or  other  evidences  of  indebted- 
ness for  the  payment,  or  on  account,  or  in  recognition  of  any  claims  audited, 
or  that  may  hereafter  be  audited  by  virtue  of  an  act  entitled  "  An  act  to 
audit  and  adjust  the  war  debt  of  the  state, "  approved  March  19, 1874,  or  any 
act  of  a  similar  nature,  until  after  the  claims  so  audited  shall  have  been 
presented  to  and  paid  by  the  government  of  the  United  States  to  the  state 
of  Missouri. 

Sec.  53.     The  general  assembly  shall  not  pass  any  local  or  special  law: 

Authorizing  the  creation,  extension  or  impairing  of  liens: 

Regulating  the  affairs  of  counties,  cities,  townships,  wards  or  school 
districts : 

Changing  the  names  of  persons  or  places: 

Changing  the  venue  in  civil  or  criminal  cases: 

Authorizing  the  laying  out,  opening,  altering  or  maintaining  roads, 
highways,  streets  or  alleys: 

Relating  to  ferries  or  "bridges,  or  incorporating  ferry  or  bridge  compa- 
nies, except  for  the  erection  of  bridges  crossing  streams  which  form 
boundaries  between  this  and  any  other  state: 

Vacating  roads,  town  plats,  streets  or  alleys: 

Relating  to  cemeteries,  grave  yards  or  public  grounds  not  of  the  state: 

Authorizing  the  adoption  or  legitimation  of  children: 
•  Locating  or  changing  county  seats: 

Incorporating  cities,  towns  or  villages,  or  changing  their  charters: 


For  the  opening  and  conducting  of  elections,  or  fixing  or  changing  the 
places  of  voting: 
Granting  divorces: 

Erecting  new  townships,  or  changing  township  lines,  or  the  lines  of 
school  districts: 

Creating  offices,  or  prescribing  the  powers  and  duties  of  officers  in 
counties,  cities,  townships,  election  or  school  districts: 
Changing  the  law  of  descent  or  succession: 

Regulating  the  practice  or  jurisdiction  of,  or  changing  the  rules  of  evi- 
dence in  any  judicial  proceeding  or  inquiry  before  courts,  justices* of  the 
peace,  sheriffs,  commissioners,  arbitrators  or  other  tribunals,  or  providing 
or  changing  methods  for  the  collection  of  debts,  or  the  enforcing  of  judg- 
ments, or  prescribing  the  effect  of  judicial  sales  of  real  estate: 

Regulating  the  fees  or  extending  the  powers  and  duties  of  aldermen, 
justices  of  the  peace,  magistrates  or  constables: 

Regulating  the  management  of  public  schools,  the  building  or  repairing 
of  school  houses,  and  the  raising  of  money  for  such  purposes: 
Fixing  the  rate  of  interest: 

Affecting  the  estates  of  minors  or  persons  Under  disability: 
Remitting  fines,  penalties  and  forfeitures,  or  refunding  moneys  legally 
paid  into  the  treasury: 

Exempting  property  from  taxation: 
Regulating  labor,  trade,  mining  or  manufacturing: 

Creating  corporations,  or  amending,  renewing,  extending  or  explaining 
the  charter  thereof: 

Granting  to  any  corporation,  association  or  individual  any  special  or 
exclusive  right,  privilege  or  immunity,  or  to  any  corporation,  association  or 
individual,  the  right  to  lay  down  a  railroad  track: 
Declaring  any  named  person  of  age: 

Extending  the  time  for  the  assessment  or  collection  of  taxes,  or  other- 
wise relieving  any  assessor  or  collector  of  taxes  from  the  due  performance 
of  their  official  duties,  or  their  securities  from  liability: 
Giving  effect  to  informal  or  invalid  wills  or  deeds: 
Summoning  or  empanneling  grand  or  petit  juries: 
For  limitation  of  civil  actions: 

Legalizing  the  unauthorized  or  invalid  acts  of  any  officer  or  agent  of 
the  state,  or  of  any  county  or  municipality  thereof.  In  all  other  cases 
where  a  general  law  can  be  made  applicable,  no  local  or  special  law  shall 
be  enacted;  and  whether  a  general  law  could  have  been  made  applicable 
in  any  case,  is  hereby  declared  a  judicial  question,  and  as  such  shall  be  ju- 
dicially determined  without  regard  to  any  legislative  assertion  on  that 

Nor  shall  the  general  assembly  indirectly  enact  such  special  or  local 
law  by  the  partial  repeal  of  a  general  law ;  but  laws  repealing  local  or 
special  acts  may  be  passed. 

Sec  5  i.  No  local  or  special  law  shall  be  passed  unless  notice  of  the 
intention  to  apply  therefor  shall  have  been  published  in  the  locality  where 
the  matter  or  thing  to  be  aflected  may  be  situated,  which  notice  shall  state 
the  substance  of  the  contemplated  law,  and  shall  be  published  at  least 
thirty  days  prior  to  the  introduction  into  the  general  assembly  of  such 
bill,  and  in  the  manner  to  be  provided  by  law.  The  evidence  of  such 
notice  having  been  published,  shall  be  exhibited  in  the  general  assembly 


before  such  act  shall  be  passed,  and  the  notice  shall  be  recited  in  the  act 
according  to  its  tenor. 

Sec.  55.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power,  when  convened 
in  extra  session  by  the  governor,  to  act  upon  subjects  other  than  those 
specially  designated  in  the  proclamation  by  which  the  session  is  called,  or 
recommended  by  special  message  to  its  consideration  by  the  governor 
after  it  shall  have  been  convened. 

Sec.  56.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  remove  the 
seat  of  goveEnment  of  this  state  from  the  city  of  Jefferson. 

ARTICLE  V. — executive  department. 

Section  1.  The  executive  department  shall  consist  of  a  governor,, 
lieutenant  governor,  secretary  of  state,  state  auditor,  state  treasurer, 
attorney  general  and  superintendent  of  public  schools,  all  of  whom,  except 
the  lieutenant  governor,  shall  reside  at  the  seat  of  government  during 
their  term  of  office,  and  keep  the  public  records,  books  and  papers  there, 
and  shall  perform  such  duties  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law. 

Sec.  2.  The  term  of  office  of  the  governor,  lieutenant  governor,  sec- 
retary of  state,  state  auditor,  -state  treasurer,  attorney  general  and  super- 
intendent of  public  schools,  shall  be  four  years  from  the  second  Monday 
of  January  next  after  their  election,  and  until  their  successors  are  elected 
and  qualified;  and  the  governor  and  state  treasurer  shall  be  ineligible  to 
re-election  as  their  own  successors.  At  the  general  election  to  be  held  in 
the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-six,  and  every  four 
years  thereafter,  all  of  such  officers,  except  the  superintendent  of  public 
schools,  shall  be  elected,  and  the  superintendent  of  public  schools  shall  be 
elected  at  the  general  election  in  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
seventy-eight,  and  every  four  years  thereafter. 

Sec.  3.  The  returns  of  every  election  for  the  above  named  officers 
shall  be  sealed  up  and  transmitted  by  the  returning  officers  to  the  secre- 
tary of  state,  directed  to  the  speaker  of  the  house  of  representatives,  who 
shall  immediately,  after  the  organization  of  the  house,  and  before  proceed- 
ing to  other  business,  open  and  publish  the  same  in  the  presence  of  a 
majority  of  each  house  of  the  general  assembly,  who  shall  for  that  pur- 
pose assemble  in  the  hall  of  the  house  of  representatives.  The  person 
having  the  highest  number  of  votes  for  either  of  said  offices  shall  be 
declared  dulv  elected;  but  if  two  or  more  shall  have  an  equal  and  the 
highest  number  of  votes,  the  general  assembly  shall,  by  joint  vote,  choose 
one  of  such  persons  for  said  office. 

Sec.  4.  The  supreme  executive  power  shall  be  vested  in  a  chief  mag- 
istrate, who  shall  be  styled  "the  governor  of  the  state  of  Missouri." 

Sec.  5.  The  governor  shall  be  at  least  thirty-five  years  old,  a  male, 
and  shall  have  been  a  citizen  of  the  United  States  ten  years,  and  a  resi- 
dent of  this  state  seven  years  next  before  his  election. 

Sec.  6.  The  governor  shall  take  care  that  the  laws  are  distributed  and 
faithfully  executed;  and  he  shall  be  a  conservator  of  the  peace  through- 
out the  state. 

Sec.  7.  The  governor  shall  be  commander-in-chief  of  the  militia  of 
this  state,  except  when  they  shall  be  called  into  the  service  of  the  United 
States,  and  may  call  out  the  same  to  execute  the  laws,  suppress  insurrec- 
tion and  repel  invasion;  but  he  need  not  command  in  person  unless 
directed  so  to  do  by  a  resolution  of  the  general  assembly. 


Sec.  8.  The  governor  shall  have  power  to  grant  reprieves,  commuta- 
tions and  pardons,  after  conviction,  for  all  offenses,  except  treason  and 
cases  of  impeachment,  upon  such  condition  and  with  such  restrictions  and 
limitations  as  he  may  think  proper,  subject  to  such  regulations  as  may  be 
provided  by  law  relative  to  the  manner  of  applying  for  pardons.  He  shall, 
at  each  session  of  the  general  assembly,  communicate  to  that  body  each 
case  of  reprieve,  commutation  or  pardon  granted,  stating  the  name  of  the 
convict,  the  crime  of  which  he  was  convicted,  the  sentence  and  its  date, 
the  date  of  the  commutation,  pardon  or  reprieve,  and  the  reason  for  grant- 
ing the  same. 

Sec  9.  The  governor  shall,  from  time  to  time,  give  to  the  general 
assembly  information  relative  to  the  state  of  the  government,  and  shall 
recommend  to  its  consideration  such  measures  as  he  shall  deem  necessary 
and  expedient.  On  extraordinary  occasions  he  may  convene  the  general 
assembly  by  proclamation,  wherein  he  shall  state  specifically  each  matter 
concerning  which  the  action  of  that  body  is  deemed  necessary. 

Sec  10.  The  governor  shall,  at  the  commencement  of  each  session  of 
the  general  assembly,  and  at  the  close  of  his  term  of  office,  give  informa- 
tion by  message,  of  the  condition  of  the  state,  and  shall  recommend  such 
measures  as  he  shall  deem  expedient.  He  shall  account  to  the  general 
assembly,  in  such  manner  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law,  for  all  moneys 
received  and  paid  out  by  him  from  any  funds  subject  to  his  order,  with 
vouchers;  and  at  the  commencement  of  each  regular  session,  present  esti- 
mates of  the  amount  of  money  required  to  be  raised  by  taxation  for  all 

Sec.  11.  When  anv  office  shall  become  vacant,  the  governor,  unless 
otherwise  provided  by  law,  shall  appoint  a  person  to  fill  such  vacancy, 
who  shall  continue  in  office  until  a  successor  shall  have  been  duly  elected 
or  appointed  and  qualified  according  to  law. 

Sec  12.  The  governor  shall  consider  all  bills  and  joint  resolutions, 
which,  having  been  passed  by  both  houses  of  the  general  assembly,  shall 
be  presented  to  him.  He  shall,  within  ten  days  after  the  same  shall  have 
been  presented  to  him,  return  to  the  house  in  which  they  respectively 
originated,  all  such  bills  and  joint  resolutions,  with  his  approval  endorsed 
thereon,  or  accompanied  by  his  objections:  Provided,  That  if  the  general 
assembly  shall  finally  adjourn  within  ten  days  after  such  presentation, 
the  governor  may,  within  thirty  days  thereafter,  return  such  bills  and  res- 
olutions to  the  office  of  the  secretary  of  state,  with  his  approval  or  reasons 
for  disapproval. 

Sec  13.  If  any  bill  presented  to  the  governor  contain  several  items 
of  appropriation  of  money,  he  may  object  to  one  or  more  items  while 
approving  other  portions  of  the  bill.  In  such  case  he  shall  append  to  the 
bili,  at  the  time  of  signing  it,  a  statement  of  the  items  to  which  he  objects, 
and  the  appropriations  so  objected  to  shall  not  take  effect.  If  the  general 
assembly  be  in  session,  he  shall  transmit  to  the  house  in  which  the  bill 
originated  a  copy  of  such  statement,  and  the  items  objected  to  shall  be 
separately  reconsidered.  If  it  be  not  in  session,  then  he  shall  transmit  the 
same  within  thirty  days  to  the  office  of  secretary  of  state,  with  his  approval 
or  reasons  for  disapproval. 

Sec  14.  Every  resolution  to  which  the  concurrence  of  the  senate  and 
house  of  representatives  may  be  necessary,  except  on  questions  of  adjourn- 
ment, of  going  into  joint  session,  and  of  amending  this  constitution,  shall 


be  presented  to  the  governor,  and  before  the  same  shall  take  effect,  shall 
"be  proceeded  upon  in  the  same  manner  as  in  the  case  of  a  bill:  Provided, 
That  no  resolution  shall  have  the  effect  to  repeal,  extend,  alter  or  amend 
any  law. 

Sec.  15.  The  lieutenant  governor  shall  possess  the  same  qualifications 
as  the  governor,  and  by  virtue  of  his  office  shall  be  president  of  the  senate. 
In  committee  of  the  whole  he  may  debate  all  questions;  and  when  there 
is  an  equal  division  he  shall  give  the  casting  vote  in  the  senate,  and  also  in 
joint  vote  of  both  houses. 

Sec.  16.  In  case  of  death,  conviction,  or  impeachment,  failure  to  qual- 
ify, resignation,  absence  from  the  state,  or  other  disability  of  the  governor, 
the  oowers,  duties,  and  emoluments  of  the  office  for  the  residue  of  the 
term,  or  until  the  disability  shall  be  removed,  shall  devolve  upon  the  lieu- 
tenant governor. 

Sec  IT.  The  senate  shall  choose  a  president  pro  tempore  to  preside  in 
cases  of  the  absence  or  impeachment  of  the  lieutenant-governor,  or  when 
he  shall  hold  the  office  of  governor.  If  there  be  no  lieutenant-governor, 
or  the  lieutenant  governor  shall,  for  any  of  the  causes  specified  in  section 
sixteen,  of  this  article,  become  incapable  of  performing  the  duties  of  the 
office,  the  president  of  the  senate  shall  act  as  governor  until  the  vacancy 
is  filled,  or  the  disability  removed;  and  if  the  president  of  the  senate,  for 
any  of  the  above  namecl  causes,  shall  become  incapable  of  performing  the 
duties  of  governor,  the  same  shall  devolve  upon  the  speaker  of  the  house 
of  representatives,  in  the  same  manner,  and  with  the  same  powers  and 
compensation  as  are  prescribed  in  the  case  of  the  office  devolving  upon 
the  lieutenant-governor. 

Sec.  18.  The  lieutenant-governor,  or  the  president  -pro  tempore  of  the 
senate,  while  presiding  in  the  senate,  shall  receive  the  same  compen- 
sation as  shall  be  allowed  to  the  speaker  of  the  house  of  representatives. 

Sec  19.  No  person  shall  be  eligible  to  the  office  of  secretary  of  state, 
state  auditor,  state  treasurer,  attorney-general,  or  superintendent  of  public 
schools,  unless  he  be  a  male  citizen  of  the  United  States,  and  at  least 
twenty-five  years  old,  and  shall  have  resided  in  this  state  at  least  five  years 
next  before  his  election. 

Sec  20.  The  secretary  of  state  shall  be  the  custodian  of  the  seal  of 
the  state,  and  authenticate  therewith  all  official  acts  of  the  governor,  his 
approval  of  laws  excepted.  The  said  seal  shall  be  called  the  "  Great  Seal 
of  the  State  of  Missouri,"  and  the  emblems  and  devices  thereof,  hereto- 
fore prescribed  by  law,  shall  not  be  subject  to  change. 

Sec  21.  The  secretary  of  state  shall  keep  a  register  of  the  official  acts 
of  the  governor,  and  when  necessary,  shall  attest  them,  and  lay  copies  of 
the  same,  together  with  copies  of  all  papers  relative  thereto,  before  either 
house  of  the  general  assembly  whenever  required  to  do  so. 

Sec  22.  An  account  shall  be  kept  by  the  officers  of  the  executive 
department  of  all  moneys  and  choses  in  action  disbursed,  or  otherwise  dis- 
posed of  by  them  severally,  from  all  sources,  and  for  every  service  per- 
formed; and  a  semi-annual  report  thereof  shall  be  made  to  the  governor 
under  oath.  The  governor  may  at  any  time  require  information,  in  writ- 
ing, under  oath,  from  the  officers  of  the  executive  department,  and  all 
officers  and  managers  of  state  institutions,  upon  any  subject  relating  to 
the  condition,  management  and  expenses  of  their  respective  offices  and 
institutions;  which  information,  when  so  required,  shall  be  furnished  by 


such  officers  and  managers,  and  any  officer  or  manager  who  at  any  time 
shall  make  a  false  report,  shall  be  guilty  of  perjury  and  punished  accord- 

Sec.  23.  The  governor  shall  commission  all  officers  not  otherwise  pro- 
vided for  by  law.  All  commissions  shall  run  in  the  name  and  by  the 
authority  of  the  state  of  Missouri,  be  signed  by  the  governor,  sealed  with 
the  great  seal  of  the  state  of  Missouri,  and  attested  by  the  secretary  of  state. 

Sec.  24.  The  officers  named  in  this  article  shall  receive  for  their  ser- 
vices a  salary  to  be  established  by  law,  which  shall  not  be  increased  or 
diminished  during  their  official  terms;  and  they  shall  not,  after  the  expir- 
ation of  the  terms  of  those  in  office  at  the  adoption  of  this  constitution, 
receive  to  their  own  use  any  fees,  costs,  perquisites  of  office,  or  other  com- 
pensation. All  fees  that  may  hereafter  be  payable  by  law  for  any  service 
performed  by  any  officer  provided  for  in  this  article  shall  be  paid  in 
advance  into  the  state  treasury. 

Sec.  25.  Contested  elections  of  governor  and  lieutenant-governor 
shall  be  decided  by  a  joint  vote  of  both  houses  of  the  general  assembly, 
in  such  manner  as  may  be  provided  by  law;  and  contested  elections  of 
secretary  of  state,  state  auditor,  state  treasurer,  attorney-general,  and  su- 
perintendent of  public  schools  shall  be  decided  before  such  tribunal,  and 
in  such  manner  as  may  be  provided  by  law. 

ARTICLE   VI.—  judicial  department. 

Section  1.  The  judicial  power  of  the  state,  as  to  matters  of  law  and 
equity,  except  as  in  this  constitution  otherwise  provided,  shall  be  vested 
in  a  supreme  court,  the  St,  Louis  court  of  appeals,  circuit  courts,  crim- 
inal courts,  probate  courts,  county  courts,  and  municipal  corporation  courts. 

Sec.  2.  The  supreme  court,  except  in  cases  otherwise  directed  by  this 
constitution,  shall  have  appellate  jurisdiction  only,  which  shall  be  co-ex- 
tensive with  the  state,  under  the  restrictions  and  limitations  in  this  consti- 
tution provided. 

Sec.  3.  .The  supreme  court  shall  have  a  general  superintending  con- 
trol over  all  inferior  courts.  It  shall  have  power  to  issue  writs  of  habeas 
corpus,  mandamus,  quo  warranto,  certiorari,  and  other  original  remedial 
writs,  and  to  hear  and  determine  the  same. 

Sec.  4.  The  judges  of  the  supreme  court  shall  hold  office  for  the  term 
of  ten  years.  The  judge  oldest  in  commission  shall  be  chief  justice  of  the 
court;  and,  if  there  be  more  than  one  commission  of  the  same  date,  the 
court  may  select  the  chief  justice  from  the  judges  holding  the  same. 

Sec.  5.  The  supreme  court  shall  consist  of  five  judges,  any  three  of 
whom  shall  constitute  a  quorum ;  and  said  judges  shall  be  conservators  of 
the  peace  throughout  the  state,  and  shall  be  elected  by  the  qualified  voters 

Sec.  6.  The  judges  of  the  supreme  court  shall  be  citizens  of  the 
United  States,  not  less  than  thirty  years  old,  and  shall  have  been  citizens 
of  this  state  for  five  years  next  preceding  their  election  or  appointment, 
and  shall  be  learned  in  the  law. 

Sec.  7.  The  full  terms  of  the  judges  of  the  supreme  court  shall  com- 
mence on  the  first  day  of  January  next  ensuing  their  election,  and  those 
elected  to  fill  any  vacancy  shall  also  enter  upon  the  discharge  of  their 
duties  on  the  first  day  of  January  next  ensuing  such  election.  Those  ap- 
pointed shall  enter  upon  the  discharge  of  their  duties  as  soon  as  qualified. 


Sec.  8.  The  present  judges  of  the  supreme  court  shall  remain  in 
office  until  the  expiration  of  their  respective  terms  of  office.  To  fill  their 
places  as  their  terms  expire,  one  judge  shall  be  elected  at  the  general 
election  in  eighteen  hundred  and  seventy-six,  and  one  every  two  years 

Sec.  9.  The  supreme  court  shall  be  held  at  the  seat  of  government  at 
such  times  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law;  and  until  otherwise  directed  by 
law,  the  terms  of  said  court  shall  commence  on  the  third  Tuesday  in  Octo- 
ber and  April  of  each  year. 

Sec.  10.  The  state  shall  provide  a  suitable  court  room  at  the  seat  of 
government,  in  which  the  supreme  court  shall  hold  its  sessions ;  also  a 
clerk's  office,  furnished  offices  for  the  judges,  and  the  use  of  the  state 

Sec.  11.  If,  in  any  cause  pending  in  the  supreme  court,  or  the  St. 
Louis  court  of  appeals,  the  judges  sitting  shall  be  equally  divided  in  opin- 
ion, no  judgment  shall  be  entered  therein  based  on  such  division ;  but  the 
parties  to  the  cause  may  agree  upon  some  person,  learned  in  the  law,  to 
act  as  special  judge  in  the  cause,  who  shall  therein  sit  with  the  court,  and 
give  decision  in  the  same  manner  and  with  the  same  effect  as  one  of  the 
judges.  If  the  parties  cannot  agree  upon  a  special  judge,  the  court  shall 
appoint  one. 

Sec.  12.  There  is  hereby  established  in  the  city  of  St.  Louis  an  appel- 
late court,  to  be  known  as  the  "  St.  Louis  court  of  appeals,"  the  jurisdic- 
tion of  which  shall  be  coextensive  with  the  city  of  St.  Louis  and  the  coun- 
ties of  St.  Louis,  St.  Charles,  Lincoln  and  Warren.  Said  court  shall  have 
power  to  issue  writs  of  habeas  corpus,  quo  warranto,  mandamus,  certiorari, 
and  other  original  remedial  writs, and  to  hear  and  determine  the  same;  and 
shall  have  a  superintending  control  over  all  inferior  courts  of  record  in  said 
counties.  Appeals  shall  lie  from  the  decisions  of  the  St.  Louis  court  of  ap- 
peals to  the  supreme  court,  and  writs  of  error  may  issue  from  the  supreme 
court  to  said  court  in  the  following  cases  only:  In  all  cases  where  the 
amount  in  dispute,  exclusive  of  costs,  exceeds  the  sum  of  two  thousand  five 
hundred  dollars;  in  cases  involving  the  construction  of  the  constitution  of 
the  United  States  or  of  this  state;  in  cases  where  the  validity  of  a  treaty  or 
statute  of,  or  authority  exercised  under  the  United  States  is  drawn  in  ques- 
tion ;  in  cases  involving  the  construction  of  the  revenue  laws  of  this  state, 
or  the  title  to  any  office  under  this  state;  in  cases  involving  title  to  real 
estate;  in  cases  where  a  county  or  other  political  subdivision  of  the  state, 
or  any  state  officer  is  a  party,  and  in  all  cases  of  felony. 

Sec.  13.  The  St.  Louis  court  of  appeals  shall  consist  of  three  judges, 
to  be  elected  by  the  qualified  voters  of  the  city  of  St.  Louis,  and  the  coun- 
ties of  St.  Louis,  St.  Charles,  Lincoln  and  Warren,  who  shall  hold  their 
offices  for  the  period  of  twelve  years.  They  shall  be  residents  of  the  dis- 
trict composed  of  said  counties,  shall  possess  the  same  qualifications  as 
judges  of  the  supreme  court,  and  each  shall  receive  the  same  compensation 
as  is  now,  or  may  be,  provided  by  law  for  the  judges  of  the  circuit  court  of 
St.  Louis  county,  and  be  paid  from  the  same  sources:  Provided,  That 
each  of  said  counties  shall  pay  its  proportional  part  of  the  same,  according 
to  its  taxable  property. 

Sec.  14.  The  judges  of  said  court  shall  be  conservators  of  the  peace 
throughout  said  counties.  Any  two  of  said  judges  shall  constitute  a  quo- 
rum.    There  shall  be  two  terms  of  said  court  to  be  held  each  year,  on  the 


first  Monday  of  March  and  October,  and  the  first  term  of  said  court  shall 
be  held  on  the  first  Monday  in  January,  1876. 

Sec.  15.  The  opinions  of  said  court  shall  be  in  writing,  and  shall  be 
filed  in  the  cases  in  which  they  shall  be  respectively  made,  and  become 
parts  of  their  record;  and  all  laws  relating  to  the  practice  in  the  supreme 
court  shall  apply  to  this  court,  so  far  as  the  same  may  be  applicable. 

Sec.  16.  At  the  first  general  election  held  in  said  city  and  counties 
after  the  adoption  of  this  constitution,  three  judges  of  said  court  shall  be 
elected,  who  shall  determine  by  lot  the  duration  of  their  several  terms  of 
office,  which  shall  be  respectively  four,  eight  and  twelve  years,  and  certify 
the  result  to  the  secretary  of  state;  and  every  four  years  thereafter  one 
judge  of  said  court  shall  be  elected  to  hold  office  for  the  term  of  twelve 
years.  The  term  of  office  of  such  judges  shall  begin  on  the  first  Monday 
in  January  next  ensuing  their  election.  The  judge  having  the  oldest 
license  to" practice  law  in  this  state,  shall  be  the  presiding  judge  of  said 

Sec.  17.  Upon  the  adoption  of  this  constitution  the  governor  shall 
appoint  three  judges  for  said  court,  who  shall  hold  their  offices  until  the 
first  Monday  of  January,  eighteen  hundred  and  seventy-seven,  and  until 
their  successors  shall  be  duly  qualified. 

Sec.  18.  The  clerk  of  the  supreme  court  at  St.  Louis  shall  be  the  clerk 
of  the  St.  Louis  court  of  appeals  until  the  expiration  of  the  term  for  which 
he  was  appointed  clerk  of  the  supreme  court,  and  until  his  successor  shall 
be  duly  qualified. 

Sec.  19.  All  cases  which  may  be  pending  in  the  supreme  court  at  St. 
Louis  at  the  time  of  the  adoption  of  this  constitution,  which  by  its  terms 
would  come  within  the  final  appellate  jurisdiction  of  the  St.  Louis  court  of 
appeals,  shall  be  certified  and  transferred  to  the  St.  Louis  court  of  appeals, 
to  be  heard  and  determined  by  said  court. 

Sec.  20.  All  cases  coming  to  said  court  by  appeal,  or  writ  of  error, 
shall  be  triable  at  the  expiration  of  fifteen  days  from  the  filing  of  the  tran- 
script in  the  office  of  the  clerk  of  said  court. 

Sec.  21.  Upon  the  adoption  of  this  constitution,  and  after  the  close  of 
the  next  regular  terms  of  the  supreme  court  at  St.  Louis  and  St.  Joseph,  as 
now  established  by  law,  the  office  of  the  clerk  of  the  supreme  court  at  St. 
Louis  and  St.  Joseph  shall  be  vacated,  and  said  clerks  shall  transmit  to  the 
clerk  of  the  supreme  court  at  Jefferson  City  all  the  books,  records,  docu- 
ments, transcripts  and  papers  belonging  to  their  respective  offices,  except 
those  required  by  section  nineteen  of  this  article,  to  be  turned  over  to  the 
St.  Louis  court  of  appeals;  and  said  records,  documents,  transcripts  and 
papers  shall  become  part  of  the  records,  documents,  transcripts  and  papers 
of  said  supreme  court  at  Jefferson  City,  and  said  court  shall  hear  and 
determine  all  the  cases  thus  transferred  as  other  cases. 

Sec.  22.  The  circuit  court  shall  have  jurisdiction  over  all  criminal 
cases  not  otherwise  provided  for  by  law;  exclusive  original  jurisdiction  in 
all  civil  cases  not  otherwise  provided  for;  and  such  concurrent  jurisdiction 
with,  and  appellate  jurisdiction  from  inferior  tribunals  and  justices  of  the 
peace  as  is  or  may  be  provided  by  law.  It  shall  hold  its  terms  at  such 
times  and  places  in  each  county  as  may  be  by  law  directed;  but  at  least 
two  terms  shall  be  held  every  year  in  each  county. 

Sec.  23.  The  circuit  court  shall  exercise  a  superintending  control  over 
■criminal   courts,   probate   courts,   county   courts,   municipal   corporation 


courts,  justices  of  the  peace,  and  all  inferior  tribunals  in  each  county  in 
their  respective  circuits. 

Sec  24.  The  state,  except  as  otherwise  provided  in  this  constitution, 
shall  be  divided  into  convenient  circuits  of  contiguous  counties,  in  each  of 
which  circuits  one  circuit  judge  shall  be  elected ;  and  such  circuits  may  be 
changed,  enlarged,  diminished  or  abolished,  from  time  to  time,  as  public 
convenience  mav  require;  and  whenever  a  circuit  shall  be  abolished,  the 
office  of  the  judge  of  such  circuit  shall  cease. 

Sec.  25.  The  judges  of  the  circuit  courts  shall  be  elected  by  the  quali- 
fied voters  of  each  circuit;  shall  hold  their  offices  for  the  term  of  six  years, 
and  shall  reside  in  and  be  conservators  of  the  peace  within  their  respective 

Sec  26.  No  person  shall  be  eligible  to  the  office  of  judge  of  the  cir- 
cuit court  who  shall  not  have  attained  the  age  of  thirty  years,  been  a  citi- 
zen of  the  United  States  five  years,  a  qualified  voter  of  this  state  for  three 
years,  and  who  shall  not  be  a  resident  of  the  circuit  in  which  he  may  be 
elected  or  appointed. 

Sec  27.  The  circuit  court  of  St.  Louis  county  shall  be  composed  of 
five  iudges,  and  such  additional  number  as  the  general  assembly  may, 
from  time  to  time,  provide.  Each  of  said  judges  shall  sit  separately  for 
the  trial  of  causes  and  the  transaction  of  business  in  special  term.  The 
judges  of  said  circuit  court  may  sit  in  general  term,  for  the  purpose  of 
making  rules  of  court,  and  for  the  transaction  of  such  other  business  as 
may  be  provided  by  law,  at  such  time  as  they  may  determine;  but  shall  have 
no  "power  to  review  any  order,  decision  or  proceeding  of  the  court  in 
special  term.  The  St.  Louis  court  of  appeals  shall  have  exclusive  jurisdic- 
tion of  all  appeals  from,  and  writs  of  error  to  circuit  courts  of  St.  Charles, 
Lincoln  and  Warren  counties,  and  the  circuit  court  of  St.  Louis  county,  in 
special  term,  and  all  courts  of  record  having  criminal  jurisdiction  in  said 

Sec  28.  In  any  circuit  composed  of  a  single  county,  the  general  assem- 
bly may,  from  time  time,  provide  for  one  or  more  additional  judges,  as  the 
business  shall  require ;  each  of  whom  shall  separately  try  cases  and  per- 
form all  other  duties  imposed  upon  circuit  judges. 

Sec  29.  If  there  be  a  vacancy  in  the  office  of  judge  of  any  circuit,  or 
if  the  judge  be  sick,  absent,  or  from  any  cause  unable  to  hold  any  term,  or 
part  of  term  of  court,  in  any  county  in  his  circuit,  such  term,  or  part  of 
term  of  court,  may  be  held  by  a  judge  of  any  other  circuit;  and  at  the  re- 
quest of  the  judge  of  any  circuit,  any  term  of  court,  or  part  of  term  in  his 
circuit,  may  be  held  by  the  judge  of  any  other  circuit,  and  in  all  such  cases, 
or  in  any  case  where  the  judge  cannot  preside,  the  general  assembly  shall 
make  such  additional  provision  for  holding  court  as  may  be  found  necessary. 

Sec  30.  The  election  of  judges  of  all  courts  of  record  shall  be  held  as 
is  or  may  be  provided  by  law,  and  in  case  of  a  tie  or  contested  election  be- 
tween the  candidates,  the  same  shall  be  determined  as  prescribed  by  law. 

Sec  31.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  establish  crim- 
inal courts,  except  in  counties  having  a  population  exceeding  fifty  thousand. 

Sec  32.  In  case  the  office  of  judge  of  any  court  of  record  becomes  va- 
cant by  death,  resignation,  removal,  failure  to  qualify,  or  otherwise,  such 
vacancy  shall  be  filled  in  the  manner  provided  by  law. 

Sec  33.  The  judges  of  the  supreme,  appellate  and  circuit  courts, 
and  of  all  other  courts  of  record  receiving  a  salary,  shall,  at  stated  times, 


receive  such  compensation  for  their  services  as  is  or  may  be  prescribed  by- 
law ;  but  it  shall  not  be  increased  or  diminished  during  the  period  for  which 
they  were  elected. 

Sec.  34.  The  general  assembly  shall  establish  in  every  county  a  pro- 
bate court,  which  shall  be  a  court  of  record,  and  consist  of  one  judge,  who 
shall  be  elected.  Said  court  shall  have  jurisdiction  over  all  matters  per- 
taining to  probate  business,  to  granting  letters  testamentary  and  of  admin- 
istration, the  appointment  of  guardians  and  curators  of  minors  and  persons 
of  unsound  mind,  settling  the  accounts  of  executors,  administrators,  cura- 
tors and  guardians,  and  the  sale  or  leasing  of  lands  by  administrators, 
curators  and  guardians;  and,  also,  jurisdiction  over  all  matters  relating  to 
apprentices:  Provided,  That  until  the  general  assembly  shall  provide  by 
law  for  a  uniform  system  of  probate  courts,  the  jurisdiction  of  probate 
courts  heretofore  established  shall  remain  as  now  provided  by  law. 

Sec.  35.  Probate  courts  shall  be  uniform  in  their  organization,  juris- 
diction, duties  and  practice,  except  that  a  separate  clerk  may  be  provided 
for,  or  the  judge  may  be  required  to  act,  cx-qfficio,  as  his  own  clerk. 

Sec.  36.  In  each  county  there  shall  be  a  county  court,  which  shall  be 
a  court  of  record,  and  shall  have  jurisdiction  to  transact  all  county  and 
such  other  business  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law.  The  court  shall  consist 
of  one  or  more  judges,  not  exceeding  three,  of  whom  the  probate  judge 
may  be  one,  as  may  be  provided  by  law. 

Sec.  37.  In  each  county  there  shall  be  appointed,  or  elected,  as  many 
justices  of  the  peace  as  the  public  good  may  require,  whose  powers,  duties 
and  duration  in  office  shall  be  regulated  by  law. 

Sec.  38.  All  writs  and  process  shall  run,  and  all  prosecutions  shall  be 
conducted  in  the  name  of  the  "state  of  Missouri;"  all  writs  shall  be 
attested  by  the  clerk  of  the  court  from  which  they  shall  be  issued;  and  all 
indictments  shall  conclude  "  against  the  peace  and  dignity  of  the  state." 

Sec  39.  The  St.  Louis  court  of  appeals  and  supreme  court  shall 
appoint  their  own  clerks.  The  clerks  of  all  other  courts  of  record  shall 
be  elective,  for  such  terms  and  in  such  manner  as  may  be  directed  by  law; 
-provided,  that  the  term  of  office  of  no  existing  clerk  of  any  court  of  record, 
not  abolished  by  this  constitution,  shall  be  affected  by  such  law. 

Sec.  40.  In  case  there  be  a  tie,  or  a  contested  election  between  can- 
didates for  clerk  of  any  court  of  record,  the  same  shall  be  determined 
in  such  manner  as  may  be  directed  by  law. 

Sec.  41.  In  case  of  the  inability  of  any  judge  of  a  court  of  record  to 
discharge  the  duties  of  his  office  with  efficiency,  by  reason  of  continued 
sickness,  or  physical  or  mental  infirmity,  it  shall  be  in  the  power  of  the 
general  assembly,  two  thirds  of  the  members  of  each  house  concurring, 
with  the  approval  of  the  governor,  to  remove  such  judge  from  office;  but 
each  house  shall  state  on  its  respective  journal  the  cause  for  which  it  shall 
wish  his  removal,  and  give  him  notice  thereof,  and  he  shall  have  the  right 
to  be  heard  in  his  defense,  in  such  manner  as  the  general  assembly  shall 
by  law  direct. 

Sec  42.  All  courts  now  existing  in  this  state,  not  named  or  provided 
for  in  this  constitution,  shall  continue  until  the  expiration  of  the  terms  of 
office  of  the  several  judges;  and  as  such  terms  expire,  the  business  of  said 
court  shall  vest  in  the  court  having  jurisdiction  thereof  in  the  counties 
where  said  courts  now  exist,  and  all  the  records  and  papers  shall  be  trans- 
ferred to  the  proper  courts. 


Sec.  43.  The  supreme  court  of  the  state  shall  designate  what  opin- 
ions delivered  by  the  court,  or  the  judge  thereof,  may  be  printed  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  state;  and  the  general  assembly  shall  make  no  provision  for 
payment  by  the  state  for  the  publication  of  any  case  decided  by  said  court, 
not  so  designated. 

Sec.  44.  All  judicial  decisions  in  this  state  shall  be  free  for  publica- 
tion by  any  person. 


Section  1.  The  governor,  lieutenant  governor,  secretary  of  state, 
state  auditor,  state  treasurer,  attorney  general,  superintendent  of  pub- 
lic schools,  and  judges  of  the  supreme,  circuit  and  criminal  courts,  and 
of  the  St.  Louis  court  of  appeals,  shall  be  liable  to  impeachment  for  high 
crimes  or  misdemeanors,  and  for  misconduct,  habits  of  drunkenness,  or  op- 
pression in  office. 

Sec.  2.  The  house  of  representatives  shall  have  the  sole  power  of 
impeachment.  All  impeachments  shall  be  tried  by  the  senate,  and,  when 
sitting  for  that  purpose,  the  senators  shall  be  sworn  to  do  justice  according 
to  law  and  evidence.  When  the  governor  of  the  state  is  on  trial,  the  chief 
justice  of  the  supreme  court  shall  preside.  No  person  shall  be  convicted 
without  the  concurrence  of  two-thirds  of  the  senators  present.  But  judg- 
ment in  such  cases  shall  not  extend  any  further  than  removal  from  office, 
and  disqualification  to  hold  any  office  of  honor,  trust  or  profit  under  this 
state.  The  party,  whether  convicted  or  acquitted,  shall,  nevertheless,  be 
liable  to  prosecution,  trial,  judgment  and  punishment  according  to  law. 

ARTICLE  VIII .— SUFFRAC.E  and  elections. 

Section  1.  The  general  election  shall  be  held  biennially  on  the  Tues- 
day next  following  the  first  Monday  in  November.  The  first  general  elec- 
tion under  this  constitution  shall  be  held  on  that  day,  in  the  year  one  thou- 
sand eight  hundred  and  seventy-six;  but  the  general  assembly  may,  by 
law,  fix  a  different  day,  two-thirds  of  all  the  members  of  each  house  con- 
senting thereto. 

Sec.  2.  Every  male  citizen  of  the  United  States,  and  every  male  per- 
son of  foreign  birth,  who  may  have  declared  his  intention  to  become  a  citi- 
zen of  the  United  States  according  to  law,  not  less  than  one  year  nor  more 
than  five  }rears  before  he  offers  to  vote,  who  is  over  the  age  of  twenty-one 
years,  possessing  the  following  qualifications,  shall  be  entitled  to  vote  at 
all  elections  by  the  people: 

First,  He  shall  have  resided  in  the  state  one  year  immediately  preceding 
the  election  at  which  he  offers  to  vote. 

Second,  He  shall  have  resided  in  the  county,  city  or  town  where  he 
shall  offer  to  vote,  at  least  sixtv  days  immediately  preceding  the  election. 

Sec.  3.  All  elections  by  the  people  shall  be  by  ballot;  every  ballot  voted 
shall  be  numbered  in  the  order  in  which  it  shall  be  received,  and  the 
number  recorded  by  the  election  officers  on  the  list  of  voters,  opposite  the 
name  of  the  voter  who  presents  the  ballot.  The  election  officers  shall  be 
sworn  or  affirmed  not  to  disclose  how  any  voter  shall  have  voted,  unless 
required  to  do  so  as  witnesses  in  a  judicial  proceeding:  Provided,  That  in  all 
cases  of  contested  elections  the  ballots  cast  may  be  counted,  compared  with 
the  list  of  voters,  and  examined  under  such  safeguards  and  regulations  as 
may  be  prescribed  by  law. 


Sec.  4.  Voters  shall,  in  all  cases  except  treason,  felony  or  breach  of 
the  peace,  be  privileged  from  arrest  during  their  attendance  at  elections, 
and  in  going  to  and  returning  therefrom. 

Sec.  5.  The  general  assembly  shall  provide,  by  law,  for  the  registra- 
tion of  all  voters  in  cities  and  counties  having  a  population  of  more  than 
one  'hundred  thousand  inhabitants,  and  may  provide  for  such  registration  in 
cities  having  a  population  exceeding  twenty-five  thousand  inhabitants  and 
not  exceeding  one  hundred  thousand,  but  not  otherwise. 

Sec.  6.  All  elections,  by  persons  in  a  representative  capacity,  shall  be 
■viva  voce. 

Sec.  7.  For  fhe  purpose  of  voting,  no  person  shall  be  deemed  to  have 
gained  a  residence  by  reason  of  his  presence,  or  lost  it  by  reason  of  his  ab- 
sence, while  employed  in  the  service,  either  civil  or  military,  of  this  state, 
or  of  the  United  States,  nor  while  engaged  in  the  navigation  of  the  waters 
of  the  state  or  of  the  United  States,  or  of  the  high  seas,  nor  while  a  student 
of  any  institution  of  learning,  nor  while  kept  in  a  poor  house  or  other  asy- 
lum at  public  expense,  nor  while  confined  in  public  prison. 

Sec.  8.  No  person,  while  kept  at  any  poor  house,  or  other  asylum,  at 
public  expense,  nor  while  confined  in  any  public  prison,  shall  be  entitled  to 
vote  at  any  election  under  the  laws  of  this  state. 

Sec.  9.  The  trial  and  determination  of  contested  elections  of  all  public 
officers,  whether  state,  judicial,  municipal,  or  local,  .except  governor  and 
lieutenant  governor,  shall  be  by  the  courts  of  law,  or  by  one  or  more  of  the 
judges  thereof.  The  general  assembly  shall,  by  general  law,  designate  the 
court  or  judge  by  whom  the  several  classes  of  election  contests  shall  be 
tried,  and  regulate  the  manner  of  trial  and  all  matters  incident  thereto;  but 
no  such  law,  assigning  jurisdiction  or  regulating  its  exercise,  shall  apply  to 
any  contest  arising  out  of  any  election  held  before  said  law  shall  take  effect. 

Sec.  10.  The  general  assembly  may  enact  laws  excluding  from  the 
right  of  voting  all  persons  convicted  of  felony  or  other  infamous  crime,  or 
misdemeanors  connected  with  the  exercise  of  the  right  of  suffrage. 

Sec.  11.  No  officer,  soldier  or  marine,  in  the  regular  army  or  navy  of 
the  United  States,  shall  be  entitled  to  vote  at  any  election  in  this  state. 

Sec.  12.  No  person  shall  be  elected  or  appointed  to  any  office  in  this 
state,  civil  or  military,  who  is  not  a  citizen  of  the  United  States,  and  who 
shall  not  have  resided  in  this  state  one  year  next  preceding  his  election  or 

ARTICLE  IX. — counties,  cities  and  towns, 

Section  1.  The  several  counties  of  this  state,  as  they  now  exist,  are 
hereby  recognized  as  legal  subdivisions  of  the  state. 

Sec.  2.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  remove  the 
county  seat  of  any  county,  but  the  removal  of  county  seats  shall  be  pro- 
vided for  by  general  law ;  and  no  county  seat  shall  be  removed  unless  two- 
thirds  of  the  qualified  voters  of  the  county,  voting  on  the  proposition  at  a 
general  election,  vote  therefor;  and  no  such  proposition  shall,  be  sub- 
mitted oftener  than  once  in  five  years.  All  additions  to  a  town,  which 
is  a  county  seat,  shall  be  included,  considered  and  regarded  as  part  of  the 
county  seat. 

Sec.  3.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  establish  any 
new  county  with  a  territory  of  less  than  four  hundred  and  ten  square  miles, 
nor  to  reduce  anv  county,  now  established,  to  a  less  area  or  less  population 


than  required  for  a  ratio  of  representation  existing  at  the  time;  but  when 
a  new  county  is  formed,  having  a  population  less  than  a  ratio  of  represent- 
ation, it  shall  be  attached  for  representative  purposes  to  the  county  from 
which  the  greatest  amount  of  territory  is  taken  until  such  ratio  shall  be 
obtained.  No  county  shall  be  divided  or  have  any  portion  stricken  there- 
from, without  submitting  the  question  to  a  vote  of  the  people  of  the  county, 
nor  unless  a  majority  of  all  the  qualified  voters  of  the  county  or  counties 
thus  affected,  voting  on  the  question,  shall  vote  therefor;  nor  shall  any  new 
county  be  established,  any  line  of  which  shall  run  within  ten  miles  of  the 
then  existing  county  seat  of  any  county.  In  all  cases  of  the  establishment 
of  any  new  county,  the  new  county  shall  be  held  for  and  obliged  to  pay  its 
ratable  proportion  of  all  the  liabilities  then  existing  of  the  county  or  coun- 
ties from  which  said  new  county  shall  be  formed. 

Sec  4.  No  part  of  the  territory  of  any  county  shall  be  stricken  off  and 
added  to  an  adjoining  county,  without  submitting  the  question  to  the  qual- 
ified voters  of  the  counties  immediately  interested,  nor  unless  a  majority  of 
all  the  qualified  voters  of  the  counties  thus  affected,  voting  on  the  question, 
shall  vote  therefor.  When  any  part  of  a  county  is  stricken  off  and  attached 
to  another  county,  the  part  stricken  off  shall  be  holden  for,  and  obliged  to 
pay  its  proportion  of  all  the  liabilities  then  existing  of  the  county  from 
which  it  is  taken. 

Sec  5.  When  any  new  county,  formed  from  contiguous  territory  taken 
from  older  counties,  or  when  any  county  to  which  territory  shall  be  added 
taken  from  an  adjoining  county,  shall  fail  to  pay  the  proportion  of  indebt- 
edness of  such  territory,  to  the  county  or  counties  from  which  it  is  taken, 
then  it  may  be  lawful  for  any  county  from  which  such  territory  has  been 
taken,  to  levy  and  collect,  by  taxation,  the  due  proportion  of  indebtedness 
of  such  territory,  in  the  same  manner  as  if  the  territory  had  not  been 
stricken  off. 

Sec  6.  No  county,  township,  city  or  other  municipality,  shall  here- 
after become  a  subscriber  to  the  capital  stock  of  any  railroad  or  other  cor- 
poration or  association,  or  make  appropriation  or  donation,  or  loan  its  credit 
to,  or  in  aid  of  any  such  corporation  or  association,  or  to  or  in  aid  of  any 
college  or  institution  of  learning,  or  other  institution,  whether  created  for 
or  to  be  controlled  by  the  state  or  others.  All  authority  heretofore  con- 
ferred for  any  of  the  purposes  aforesaid  by  the  general  assembly,  or  by 
the  charter  of  any  corporation,  is  hereby  repealed:  Provided,  however \ 
That  nothing  in  this  constitution  contained  shall  affect  the  right  of  any 
such  municipality  to  make  such  subscription,  where  the  same  has  been  au- 
thorized under  existing  laws  by  a  vote  of  the  people  of  such  municipality 
prior  to  its  adoption,  or  to  prevent  the  issue  of  renewal  bonds  or  the  use  of 
such  other  means  as  are  or  may  be  prescribed  by  law,  for  the  liquidation  or 
payment  of  such  subscription,  or  of  any  existing  indebtedness. 

Sec  7.  The  general  assembly  shall  provide,  by  general  laws,  for  the 
organization  and  classification  of  cities  and  towns.  The  number  of  such 
classes  shall  not  exceed  four;  and  the  power  of  each  class  shall  be  defined 
by  general  laws,  so  that  all  such  municipal  corporations  of  the  same  class 
shall  possess  the  same  powers  and  be  subject  to  the  same  restrictions.  The 
general  assembly  shall  also  make  provisions,  by  general  law,  whereby  any 
city,  town  or  village,  existing  by  virtue  of  any  special  or  local  law,  may 
elect  to  become  subject  to,  and  be  governed  by,  the  general  laws  relating 
to  such  corporations. 


Sec.  8.  The  general  assembly  may  provide,  by  general  law,  for  town- 
ship organization,  under  which  any  county  may  organize  whenever  a  ma- 
jority of  the  legal  voters  of  such  county,  voting  at  any  general  election, 
shall  so  determine ;  and  whenever  any  county  shall  adopt  township  organ- 
ization, so  much  of  this  constitution  as  provides  for  the  management  of 
county  affairs,  and  the  assessment  and  collection  of  the  revenue  by  county 
officers,  in  conflict  with  such  general  law  for  township  organization,  may 
be  dispensed  with,  and  the  business  of  said  county,  and  the  local  concerns 
of  the  several  townships  therein,  may  be  transacted  in  such  manner  as  may 
be  prescribed  by  law :  Provided,  That  the  justices  of  the  county  court  in 
such  case  shall  not  exceed  three  in  number. 

Sec  9.  In  any  county  which  shall  have  adopted  "  Township  Organiz- 
ation," the  question  of  continuing  the  same  may  be  submitted  to  a  vote  of 
the  electors  of  such  county  at  a  general  election,  in  the  manner  that  shall 
be  provided  by  law;  and  if  a  majority  of  all  the  votes  cast  upon  that 
question  shall  be  against  township  organization,  it  shall  cease  in  said 
county;  and  all  laws  in  force  in  relation  to  counties  not  having  township 
organization  shall  immediately  take  effect  and  be  in  force  in  such  county. 

Sec.  10.  There  shall  be  elected  by  the  qualified  voters  in  each  county, 
at  the  time  and  places  of  electing  representatives,  a  sheriff  and  coroner. 
They  shall  serve  for  two  years,  and  until  their  successors  be  duly  elected 
and  qualified,  unless  sooner  removed  for  malfeasance  in  office,  and  shall  be 
eligible  only  four  years  in  any  period  of  six.  Before  entering  on  the  duties 
of  their  office,  they  shall  give  security  in  the  amount  and  in  such  manner 
as  shall  be  prescribed  by  law.  Whenever  a  county  shall  be  hereafter 
established,  the  governor  shall  appoint  a  sheriff  and  a  coroner  therein,  who 
shall  continue  in  office  until  the  next  succeeding  general  election,  and  until 
their  successors  shall  be  duly  elected  and  qualified. 

Sec.  11.  Whenever  a  vacancy  shall  happen  in  the  office  of  sheriff  or 
coroner,  the  same  shall  be  filled  by  the  county  court.  If  such  vacancy  hap- 
pen in  the  office  of  sheriff  more  than  nine  months  prior  to  the  time  of 
holding  a  general  election,  such  county  court  shall  immediately  order  a 
special  election  to  fill  the  same,  and  the  person  by  it  appointed  shall  hold 
office  until  the  person  chosen  at  such  election  shall  be  duly  qualified; 
otherwise,  the  person  appointed  by  such  county  court  shall  hold  office 
until  the  person  chosen  at  such  general  election  shall  be  duly  qualified. 
If  any  vacancy  happen  in  the  office  of  coroner,  the  same  shall  be  filled  for 
the  remainder  of  the  term  by  such  county  court.  No  person  elected  or 
appointed  to  fill  a  vacancy  in  either  of  said  offices  shall  thereby  be  ren- 
dered ineligible  for  the  next  succeeding  term. 

Sec.  12.  The  general  assembly  shall,  by  a  law  uniform  in  its  opera- 
tion, provide  for  and  regulate  the  fees  of  all  county  officers,  and  for  this 
purpose  may  classify  the  counties  by  population. 

Sec.  13.  The  fees  of  no  executive  or  ministerial  officer  of  any  county 
or  municipality,  exclusive  of  the  salaries  actually  paid  to  his  necessary 
deputies,  shall  exceed  the  sum  of  ten  thousand  dollars  for  any  one  year. 
Every  such  officer  shall  make  return,  quarterly,  to  the  county  court  of  all 
fees  by  him  received,  and  of  the  salaries  by  him  actually  paid  to  his  depu- 
ties or  assistants,  stating  the  same  in  detail,  and  verifying  the  same  by  his 
affidavit;  and  for  any  statement  or  omission  in  such  return,  contrary  to 
truth,  such  officer  shall  be  liable  to  the  penalties  of  willful  and  corrupt 


Sec.  14.  Except  as  otherwise  directed  by  this  constitution,  the  general 
assembly  shall  provide  for  the  election  or  appointment  of  such  other 
county,  township  and  municipal  officers,  as  public  convenience  may 
require ;  and  their  terms  of  office  and  duties  shall  be  prescribed  by  law ; 
but  no  term  of  office  shall  exceed  four  years. 

Sec  15.  ,  In  all  counties  having  a  city  therein  containing  over  one  hun- 
dred thousand  inhabitants,  the  city  and  county  government  thereof  may 
be  consolidated  in  such  manner  as  may  be  provided  by  law. 

Sec  16.  Any  city  having  a  population  of  more  than  one  hundred 
thousand  inhabitants,  may  frame  a  charter  for  its  own  government,  con- 
sistent with  and  subject  to  the  constitution  and  laws  of  this  state,  by 
causing  a  board  of  thirteen  freeholders,  who  shall  have  been  for  at  least 
five  years  qualified  voters  thereof,  to  be  elected  by  the  qualified  voters  of 
such  city  at  any  general  or  special  election;  which  board  shall,  within 
ninety  days  after  such  election,  return  to  the  chief  magistrate  of  such  city 
a  draft  of  such  charter,  signed  by  the  members  of  such  board  or  a  majority 
of  them.  Within  thirty  days  thereafter,  such  proposed  charter  shall  be 
submitted  to  the  qualified  voters  of  such  city,  at  a  general  or  special  elec- 
tion, and  if  four-sevenths  of  such  qualified  voters  voting  thereat,  shall  rat- 
ify the  same,  it  shall,  at  the  end  of  thirty  days  thereafter,  become  the  char- 
ter of  such  city,  and  supersede  any  existing  charter  and  amendments 
thereof.  A  duplicate  certificate  shall  be  made,  setting  forth  the  charter 
proposed  and  its  ratification,  which  shall  be  signed  by  the  chief  magistrate 
of  such  city,  and  authenticated  by  its  corporate  seal.  One  of  such  certifi- 
cates shall  be  deposited  in  the  office  of  the  secretary  of  state,  and  the  other, 
after  being  recorded  in  the  office  of  the  recorder  of  deeds  for  the  county 
in  which  such  city  lies,  shall  be  deposited  among  the  archives  of  such  city, 
and  all  courts  shall  take  judicial  notice  thereof.  Such  charter,  so  adopted, 
may  be  amended  by  a  proposal  therefor,  made  by  the  law-making  author- 
ities of  such  city,  published  for  at  least  thirty  days  in  three  newspapers  of 
largest  circulation  in  such  city,  one  of  which  shall  be  a  newspaper  printed 
in  the  German  language,  and  accepted  by  three-fifths  of  the  qualified 
voters  of  such  city,  voting  at  a  general  or  special  election,  and  not  other- 
wise; but  such  charter  shall  always  be  in  harmony  with  and  subject  to  the 
constitution  and  laws  of  the  state. 

Sec  17.  It  shall  be  a  feature  of  all  such  charters  that  they  shall  pro- 
vide, among  other  things,  for  a  mayor  or  chief  magistrate,  and  two  houses 
of  legislation,  one  of  which  at  least  shall  be  elected  by  general  ticket;  and 
in  submitting  any  such  charter  or  amendment  thereto  to  the  qualified 
voters  of  such  city,  any  alternative  section  or  article  may  be  presented  for 
the  choice  of  the  voters,  and  may  be  voted  on  separately,  and  accepted  or 
rejected  separately,  without  prejudice  to  other  articles  or  sections  of  the 
charter  or  any  amendment  thereto. 

Sec  18.  In  cities  or  counties  having  more  than  two  hundred  thousand 
inhabitants,  no  person  shall,  at  the  same  time,  be  a  state  officer  and  an 
officer  of  any  county,  city  or  other  municipality;  and  no  person  shall,  at 
the  same  time,  fill  two  municipal  offices,  either  in  the  same  or  different 
municipalities;  but  this  section  shall  not  apply  to  notaries  public,  justices 
of  the  peace  or  officers  of  the  militia. 

Sec  19.  The  corporate  authorities  of  any  county,  city,  or  other  munic- 
ipal subdivision  of  this  state,  having  more  than  two  hundred  thousand  in- 
habitants, which  has  already  exceeded  the  limit  of  indebtedness  prescribed 


in  section  twelve  of  article  X  of  this  constitution,  may,  in  anticipation  of 
the  customary  annual  revenue  thereof,  appropriate,  during  any  fiscal  year, 
toward  the  general  governmental  expenses  thereof,  a  sum  not  exceeding 
seven-eighths  of  the  entire  revenue  applicable  to  general  governmental 
purposes  (exclusive  of  the  payment  of  the  bonded  debt  of  such  county,  city 
or  municipality)  that  was  actually  raised  by  taxation  alone  during  the  pre- 
ceding fiscal  year;  but  until  such  excess  of  indebtedness  cease,  no  further 
bonded  debt  shall  be  incurred,  except  for  the  renewal  of  other  bonds. 


Sec.  20.  The  city  of  St.  Louis  may  extend  its  limits  so  as  to  embrace 
the  parks  now  without  its  boundaries,  and  other  convenient  and  contiguous 
territory,  and  frame  a  charter  for  the  government  of  the  city  thus  enlarged, 
upon  the  following  conditions,  that  is  to  say:  The  council  of  the  city  and 
county  court  of  the  county  of  St.  Louis,  shall,  at  the  request  of  the  mayor 
of  the  city  of  St.  Louis,  meet  in  joint  session  and  order  an  election,  to  be  held 
as  provided  for  general  elections,  by  the  qualified  voters  of  the  city  and 
county,  of  a  board  of  thirteen  freeholders  of  such  city  or  county,  whose 
duty  shall  be  to  propose  a  scheme  for  the  enlargement  and  definition  of  the 
boundaries  of  the  city,  the  reorganization  of  the  government  of  the  county, 
the  adjustment  of  the  relations  between  the  city  thus  enlarged  and  the 
residue  of  St.  Louis  county  and  the  government  of  the  city  thus  enlarged, 
by  a  charter  in  harmony  with  and  subject  to  the  constitution  and  laws  of 
Missouri,  which  shall,  among  other  things,  provide  for  a  chief  executive 
and  two  houses  of  legislation,  one  of  which  shall  be  elected  by  general 
ticket,  which  scheme  and  charter  shall  be  signed  in  duplicate  by  said  board 
or  a  majority  of  them,  and  one  of  them  returned  to  the  mayor  of  the  city 
and  the  other  to  the  presiding  justice  of  the  county  court  within  ninety 
days  after  the  election  of  such  board.  Within  thirty  days  thereafter  the 
city  council  and  county  court  shall  submit  such  scheme  to  the  qualified 
voters  of  the  whole  county,  and  such  charter  to  the  qualified  voters  of  the 
city  so  enlarged,  at  an  election  to  be  held  not  less  than  twenty  nor  more 
than  thirty  days  after  the  order  therefor;  and  if  a  majority  of  such  qualified 
voters,  voting  at  such  election,  shall  ratify  such  scheme  and  charter,  then 
such  scheme  shall  become  the  organic  law  of  the  county  and  city,  and  such 
charter  the  organic  law  of  the  city,  and  at  the  end  of  sixty  days  thereafter 
shall  take  the  place  of  and  supersede  the  charter  of  St.  Louis,  and  all 
amendments  thereof,  and  all  special  laws  relating  to  St.  Louis  county  in- 
consistent with  such  scheme. 

Sec  21.  A  copy  of  such  scheme  and  charter,  with  a  certificate  thereto 
appended,  signed  by  the  mayor  and  authenticated  by  the  seal  of  the  city, 
and  also  signed  by  the  presiding  justice  of  the  county  court  and  authenti- 
cated by  the  seal  of  the  county,  setting  forth  the  submission  of  such  scheme 
and  charter  to  the  qualified  voters  of  such  county  and  city  and  its  ratifica- 
tion, by  them,  shall  be  made  in  duplicate,  one  of  which  shall  be  deposited 
in  the  office  of  the  secretary  of  state,  and  the  other,  after  being  recorded  in 
the  office  of  the  recorder  of  deeds  of  St.  Louis  county,  shall  be  deposited 
among  the  archives  of  the  city,  and  thereafter  all  courts  shall  take  judicial 
notice  thereof. 

Sec  22.  The  charter  so  ratified  may  be  amended  at  intervals  of  not 
less  than  two  years,  by  proposals"  therefor,  submitted  by  the  law-making 
authorities  of  the  city  to  the  qualified  voters  thereof  at  a  general  or  special 


election,  held  at  least  sixty  days  after  the  publication  of  such  proposals, 
and  accepted  by  at  least  three-fifths  of  the  qualified  voters  voting  thereat. 

Sec.  23.  Such  charter  and  amendments  shall  always  be  in  harmony 
with,  and  subject  to  the  constitution  and  laws  of  Missouri,  except  only, 
that  provision  ma}"  be  made  for  the  graduation  of  the  rate  of  taxation  for 
city  purposes  in  the  portions  of  the  city  which  are  added,  thereto  by  the 
proposed  enlargement  of  its  boundaries.  In  the  adjustment  of  the  rela- 
tions between  city  and  county,  the  city  shall  take  upon  itse.l  *he  entire 
park  tax;  and  in  consideration  of  the  city  becoming  the  propria  cor  of  all 
the  county  buildings  and  property  within  its  enlarged  limits,  it  shall  as- 
sume the  whole  of  the  existing  county  debt,  and  thereafter  the  city  and 
county  of  St.  Louis  shall  be  independent  of  each  other.  The  city  shall  be 
exempted  from  all  county  taxation.  The  judges  of  the  county  court  shall 
be  elected  by  the  qualified  voters  outside  of  the  city.  The  city,  as  en- 
larged, shall  be  entitled  to  the  same  representation  in  the  general  assem- 
bly, collect  the  state  revenue,  and  perform  all  other  functions  in  relation  to 
the  state  in  the  same  manner  as  if  it  were  a  county,  as  in  this  constitution 
defined;  and  the  residue  of  the  county  shall  remain  a  legal  county  of  the 
state  of  Missouri,  under  the  name  of  the  county  of  St.  Louis.  IJntil  the 
next  apportionment  for  senators  and  representatives  in  the  general  assem- 
bly, the  city  shall  have  six  senators  and  fifteen  representatives,  and  the 
county  one  senator  and  two  representatives,  the  same  being  the  number  of 
senators  and  representatives  to  which  the  county  of  St.  Louis,  as  now  or- 
ganized, is  entitled  under  sections  eight  and  eleven,  of  article  IV,  of  this 

Sec.  24.  The  county  and  city  of  St.  Louis,  as  now  existing,  shall  con- 
tinue to  constitute  the  eighth  judicial  circuit,  and  the  jurisdiction  of  all 
courts  of  record,  except  the  county  court,  shall  continue  until  otherwise 
provided  by  law. 

Sec  25.  Notwithstanding  the  provisions  of  this  article,  the  general 
assembly  shall  have  the  same  power  over  the  city  and  county  of  St.  Louis 
that  it  has  over  other  cities  and  counties  of  this  state. 


Section  1.  The  taxing  power  may  be  exercised  by  the  general  as- 
sembly for  state  purposes,  and  by  counties  and  other  municipal  corpora- 
tions, under  authority  granted  to  them  by  the  general  assembly,  for 
county  and  other  corporate  purposes. 

Sec  2.  The  power  to  tax  corporations  and  corporate  property  shall 
not  be  surrendered  or  suspended  by  act  of  the  general  assembly. 

Sec.  3.  Taxes  may  be  levied  and  collected  for  public  purposes  only. 
They  shall  be  uniform  upon  the  same  class  of  subjects  within  the  territorial 
limits  of  the  authority  levying  the  tax;  and  all  taxes  shall  be  levied  and 
collected  by  general  laws. 

Sec.  ±.  All  property  subject  to  taxation  shall  be  taxed  in  proportion 
to  its  value. 

Sec.  5.  All  railroad  corporations  in  this  state,  or  doing  business 
therein,  shall  be  subject  to  taxation  for  state,  county,  school,  municipal  and 
other  purposes,  on  the  real  and  personal  property  owned  or  used  by  them, 
and  on  their  gross  earnings,  their  net  earnings,  their  franchises  and  their 
capital  stock. 

Sec.  6.     The  property,  real  and  personal,  of  the  state,  counties  and 


other  municipal  corporations,  and  cemeteries,  shall  be  exempt  from  taxa- 
tion. Lots  in  incorporated  cities  or  towns,  or  within  one  mile  of  the  limits 
of  any  such  city  or  town,  to  the  extent  of  one  acre,  and  lots  one  mile  or 
more  distant  from  such  cities  or  towns,  to  the  extent  of  five  acres,  with  the 
buildings  thereon,  may  be  exempted  from  taxation,  when  the  same  are 
used  exclusively  for  religious  worship,  for  schools,  or  for  purposes  purely 
charitable;  also,  such  property,  real  or  personal,  as  may  be  used  exclusively 
for  agricultural  or  horticultural  societies:  Provided,  That  such  exemptions 
shall  be  only  by  general  law. 

Sec  7.  All  laws  exempting  property  from  taxation,  other  than  the 
property  above  enumerated,  shall  be  void. 

Sec.  8.  The  state  tax  on  property,  exclusive  of  the  tax  necessary  to 
pay  the  bonded  debt  ot  the  state,  shall  not  exceed  twenty  cents  on  the 
hundred  dollars  valuation ;  and  whenever  the  taxable  property  of  the  state 
shall  amount  to  nine  hundred  million  dollars,  the  rate  shall  not  exceed  fif- 
teen cents. 

Sec  9.  No  county,  city,  town,  or  other  municipal  corporation,  nor  the 
inhabitants  thereof,  nor  the  property  therein,  shall  be  released  or  discharged 
from  their  or  its  proportionate  share  of  taxes  to  be  levied  for  state  pur- 
poses, nor  shall  commutation  for  such  taxes  be  authorized  in  any  form 

Sec  10.  The  general  assembly  shall  not  impose  taxes  upon  counties, 
cities,  towns  or  other  municipal  corporations;  or  upon  the  inhabitants  or 
property  thereof,  for  county,  city,  town  or  other  municipal  purposes;  but 
may,  by  general  laws,  vest  in  the  corporate  authorities  thereof,  the  power 
to  assess  and  collect  taxes  for  such  purposes. 

Sec  11.  Taxes  for  county,  city,  town  and  school  purposes,  may  be 
levied  on  all  subjects  and  objects  of  taxation ;  but  the  valuation  of  property 
therefor  shall  not  exceed  the  valuation  of  the  same  property  in  such  town, 
city  or  school  district  for  state  and  county  purposes.  For  county  purposes 
the  annual  rate  on  property,  in  counties  having  six  million  dollars  or  less, 
shall  not,  in  the  aggregate,  exceed  fifty  cents  on  the  hundred  dollars  valua- 
tion; in  counties  having  six  million  dollars  and  under  ten  million  dollars, 
said  rate  shall  not  exceed  forty  cents  on  the  hundred  dollars  valuation ;  in 
counties  having  ten  million  dollars  and  under  thirty  million  dollars,  said 
rate  shall  not  exceed  fifty  cents  on  the  hundred  dollars  valuation;  and  in 
counties  having  thirty  million  dollars  or  more,  said  rate  shall  not  exceed 
thirty-five  cents  on  the  hundred  dollars  valuation.  For  city  and  town  pur- 
poses the  annual  rate  on  property  in  cities  and  towns  having  thirty  thou- 
sand inhabitants  or  more,  shall  not,  in  the  aggregate,  exceed  one  hundred 
cents  on  the  hundred  dollars  valuation;  in  cities  and  towns  having  less 
than  thirty  thousand  and  over  ten  thousand  inhabitants,  said  .rate  shall 
not  exceed  sixty  cents  on  the  hundred  dollars  valuation;  in  cities  and 
towns  having  less  than  ten  thousand  and  more  than  one  thousand  inhabi- 
tants, said  rate  shall  not  exceed  fifty  cents  on  the  hundred  dollars  valuation; 
and  in  towns  having  one  thousand  inhabitants  or  less,  said  rate  shall  not 
exceed  twenty-five  cents  on  the  hundred  valuation.  For  school  purposes  in 
districts,  the  annual  rate  on  property  shall  not  exceed  forty  cents  on  the 
hundred  dollars  valuation:  Provided,  The  aforesaid  annual  rates  for  school 
purposes  may  be  increased,  in  districts  formed  of  cities  and  towns,  to  an 
amount  not  to  exceed  one  dollar  on  the  hundred  dollars  valuation ;  and  in 
other  districts  to  an  amount  not  to  exceed  sixty-five  cents  on  the  hundred 


dollars  valuation,  on  the  condition  that  a  majority  of  the  voters  who  are 
tax-payers,  voting  at  an  election  held  to  decide  the  question,  vote  for  said 
increase.  For  the  purpose  of  erecting  public  buildings  in  counties,  cities 
or  school  districts,  the  rates  of  taxation  herein  limited  may  be  increased 
when  the  rate  of  such  increase  and  the  purpose  for  which  it  is  intended 
shall  have  been  submitted  to  a  vote  of  the  people,  and  two-thirds  of  the 
qualified  voters  of  such  county,  city,  or  school  district,  voting  at  such  elec- 
tion shall  vote  therefor.  The  rate  herein  allowed  to  each  county  shall  be 
ascertained  by  the  amount  of  taxable  property  therein,  according  to  the 
last  assessment  for  state  and  county  purposes,  and  the  rate  allowed  to  each 
city  or  town  by  the  number  of  inhabitants,  according  to  the  last  census 
taken  under  the  authority  of  the  state,  or  of  the  United  States;  said  re- 
strictions, as  to  rates,  shall  apply  to  taxes  of  every  kind  and  description, 
whether  general  or  special,  except  taxes  to  pay  valid  indebtedness  now  ex- 
isting or  bonds  which  may  be  issued  in  renewal  of  such  indebtedness. 

Sec.  12.  No  county,  city,  town,  township,  school  district  or  other  polit- 
ical corporation  or  subdivision  of  the  state,  shall  be  allowed  to  become 
indebted  in  any  manner  or  for  any  purpose  to  an  amount  exceeding  in  any 
year  the  income  and  revenue  provided  for  such  year,  without  the  assent  of 
two-thirds  the  voters  thereof,  voting  at  an  election  to  be  held  for  that 
purpose;  nor  in  cases  requiring  such  assent  shall  any  indebtedness  be 
allowed  to  be  incurred  to  an  amount  including  existing  indebtedness,  in 
the  aggregate,  exceeding  five  per  centum  on  the  value  of  the  taxable  prop- 
erty therein,  to  be  ascertained  by  the  assessment  next  before  the  last  as- 
sessment for  state  and  county,  purposes,  previous  to  the  incurring  of  such 
indebtedness:  Provided,  That  with  such  assent  any  county  may  be  allowed 
to  become  indebted  to  a  larger  amount  for  the  erection  of  a  court  house  or 
jail:  And  -provided  further,  That  any  county,  city,  town,  township,  school 
district  or  other  political  corporation,  or  subdivision  of  the  state,  incurring 
any  indebtedness,  requiring  the  assent  of  the  voters  as  aforesaid,  shall,  be- 
fore or  at  the  time  of  doing  so,  provide  for  the  collection  of  an  annual  tax, 
sufficient  to  pay  the  interest  on  such  indebtedness  as  it  falls  due,  and  also 
to  constitute  a  sinking  fund  for  payment  of  the  principal  thereof,  within 
twenty  years  from  the  time  of  contracting  the  same. 

Sec  13.  Private  property  shall  not  be  taken  or  sold  for  the  payment 
of  the  corporate  debt  of  a  municipal  corporation. 

Sec.  14.  The  tax  authorized  by  the  sixth  section  of  the  ordinance 
adopted  June  sixth,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  sixty-five,  is  hereby 
abolished,  and  hereafter  there  shall  be  levied  and  collected  an  annual  tax 
sufficient  to  pay  the  accruing  interest  upon  the  bonded  debt  of  the  state, 
and  to  reduce  the  principal  thereof  each  year  by  a  sum  not  less  than  two 
hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars;  the  proceeds  of  which  tax  shall  be  paid 
into  the  state  treasury,  and  appropriated  and  paid  out  for  the  purposes 
expressed  in  the  first  and  second  subdivisions  of  section  forty-three  of  arti- 
cle IV  of  this  constitution.  The  funds  and  resources  now  in  the  state  in- 
terest and  state  sinking  funds  shall  be  appropriated  to  the  same  purposes; 
and  whenever  said  bonded  debt  is  extinguished,  or  a  sum  sufficient  there- 
for has  been  raised,  the  tax  provided  for  in  this  section  shall  cease  to  be 

Sec  15.  All  moneys  now,  or  at  any  time  hereafter,  in  the  state  treas- 
ury, belonging  to  the  state,  shall,  immediately  on  receipt  thereof,  be 
deposited  by  the  treasurer  to  the  credit  of  the  state  for  the  benefit  of  the 


funds  to  which  they  respectively  belong,  in  such  bank  or  banks  as  he  may, 
from  time  to  time,  with  the  approval  of  the  governor  and  attorney  gen- 
eral, select;  the  said  bank  or  banks  giving  security,  satisfactory  to  the  gov- 
ernor and  attorney  general,  for  the  safe  keeping  and  payment  of  such 
deposit,  when  demanded  by  the  state  treasurer  on  his  checks;  such  bank 
to  pay  a  bonus  for  the  use  of  such  deposits  not  less  than  the  bonus  paid  by 
other  banks  for  similar  deposits;  and  the  same,  together  with  such  interest 
and  profits  as  may  accrue  thereon,  shall  be  disbursed  by  said  treasurer  for 
the  purposes  of  the  state,  according  to  Jaw,  upon  warrants  drawn  by  the 
state  auditor,  and  not  otherwise. 

Sec.  16.  The  treasurer  shall  keep  a  separate  account  of  the  funds,  and 
the  number  and  amount  of  warrants  received,'  and  from  whom;  and  shall 
publish,  in  such  manner  as  the  governor  may  designate,  quarterly  state- 
ments, showing  the  amount  of  state  moneys,  and  where  the  same  are  kept 
or  deposited. 

Sec.  17.  The  making  of  profit  out  of  state,  county,  city,  town  or  school 
district  money,  or  using  the  same  for  an}7  purpose  not  authorized  by  law, 
by  any  public  officer,  shall  be  deemed  a  felony,  and  shall  be  punished  as 
provided  by  law. 

Sec.  IS.  There  shall  be  a  state  board  of  equalization,  consisting  of  the 
governor,  state  auditor,  state  treasurer,  secretary  of  state  and  attorney 
general.  The  duty  of  said  board  shall  be  to  adjust  and  equalize  the  valu- 
ation of  real  and  personal  property  among  the  several  counties  in  the  state,. 
and  it  shall  perform  such  other  duties  as  are  or  may  be  prescribed  bylaw. 

Sec.  19.  No  moneys  shall  ever  be  paid  out  of  the  treasury  of  this 
state,  or  any  of  the  funds  under  its  management,  except  in  pursuance  of 
an  appropriation  by  law ;  nor  unless  such  payment  be  made,  or  a  warrant 
shall  have  issued  therefor,  within  two  years  after  the  passage  of  such  ap- 
propriation act;  and  every  such  law,  making  a  new  appropriation,  or  con- 
tinuing or  reviving  an  appropriation,  shall  distinctly  specify  the  sum  appro- 
priated, and  the  object  to  which  it  is  to  be  applied ;  and  it  shall  not  be  suffi- 
cient to  refer  to  any  other  law  to  fix  such  sum  or  object.  A  regular  state- 
ment and  account  of  the  receipts  and  expenditures  of  all  public  money 
shall  be  published  from  time  to  time. 

Sec.  20.  The  moneys  arising  from  any  loan,  debt  or  liability,  con- 
tracted by  the  state,  or  any  county,  city,  town,  or  other  municipal  corpora- 
tion, shall  be  applied  to  the  purposes  for  which  they  w7ere  obtained,  or  to 
the  repayment  of  such- debt  or  liability,  and  not  otherwise. 

Sec.  21.  No  corporation,  company  or  association,  other  than  those 
formed  for  benevolent,  religious,  scientific,  or  educational  purposes,  shall  be 
created  or  organized  under  the  laws  of  this  state,  unless  the  persons  named 
as  corporators  shall,  at  or  before  the  filing  of  the  articles  of  association  or 
incorporation,  pay  into  the  state  treasury  fifty  dollars  for  the  first  fifty 
thousand  dollars  or  less  of  capital  stock,  and  a  further  sum  of  five  dollars 
for  every  additional  ten  thousand  dollars  of  its  capital  stock.  And  no  such 
corporation,  company  or  association  shall  increase  its  capital  stock  without 
first  paying  into  the  treasury  five  dollars  for  every  ten  thousand  dollars  of 
increase:  Provided,  That  nothing  contained  in  this  section  shall  be  con- 
strued to  prohibit  the  general  assembly  from  levying  a  further  tax  on  the 
franchises  of  such  corporation. 


ARTICLE  XL— education 

Section  1.  A  general  diffusion  of  knowledge  and  intelligence  being 
essential  to  the  preservation  of  the  rights  and  liberties  of  the  people,  the 
general  assembly  shall  establish  and  maintain  free  public  schools  for  the 
gratuitous  instruction  of  all  persons  in  this  state  between  the  ages  of  six 
and  twenty  years. 

Sec.  2.  The  income  of  all  the  funds  provided  by  the  state  for  the  sup- 
port of  free  public  schools,  shall  be  paid  annually  to  the  several  county 
treasurers,  to  be  disbursed  according  to  law;  but  no  school  district,  in 
which  a  free  public  school  has  not  been  maintained  at  least  three  months 
during  the  year  for  which  the  distribution  is  made,  shall  be  entitled  to 
receive  anv  portion  of  such  funds. 

Sec.  3.  Separate  free  public  schools  shall  be  established  for  the  educa- 
tion of  children  of  African  descent. 

Sec.  4.  The  supervision  of  instruction  in  the  public  schools  shall  be 
vested  in  a  "  board  of  education,"  whose  powers  and  duties  shall  be  pre- 
scribed by  law.  The  superintendent  of  public  schools  shall  be  president 
of  the  board.  The  governor,  secretary  of  state  and  attorney-general  shall 
be  ex-officio  members,  and  with  the  superintendent,  compose  said  board 
of  education. 

Sec.  5.  The  general  assembly  shall,  whenever  the  public  school  fund 
will  permit,  and  the  actual  necessity  of  the  same  may  require,  aid  and 
maintain  the  state  university,  now  established,  with  its  present  depart- 
ments. The  government  of  the  state  university  shall  be  vested  in  a  board 
of  curators,  to  consist  of  nine  members,  to  be  appointed  by  the  governor, 
by  and  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  senate. 

Sec.  6.  The  proceeds  of  all  lands  that  have  been,  or  hereafter  may  be 
granted  by  the  United  States  to  this  state,  and  not  otherwise  appropriated 
by  this  state  or  the  United  States;  also,  all  moneys,  stocks,  bonds,  lands 
and  other  property  now  belonging  to  any  state  fund  for  purposes  of  educa- 
tion; also,  the  net  proceeds  of  all  sales  of  lands,  and  other  property  and 
effects  that  may  accrue  to  the  state  by  escheat,  from  unclaimed  dividends 
and  distributive  shares  of  the  estates  of  deceased  persons;  also,  any  pro- 
ceeds of  the  sales  of  the  public  lands  which  may  have  been  or  hereafter 
may  be  paid  over  to  this  state,  (if  congress  will  consent  to  such  appropria- 
tion); also,  all  other  grants,  gifts  or  devises  that  have  been,  or  hereafter 
may  be,  made  to  this  state,  and  not  otherwise  appropriated  by  the  state  or 
the  terms  of  the  grant,  gift  or  devise,  shall  be  paid  into  the  state  treasury, 
and  securely  invested  and  sacredly  preserved  as  a  public  school  fund;  the 
annual  income  of  which  fund,  together  with  so  much  of  the  ordinary  reve- 
nue of  the  state  as  may  be  by  law  set  apart  for  that  purpose,  shall  be  faith- 
fully appropriated  for  establishing  and  maintaining  the  free  public  schools 
and  the  state  university  in  this  article  provided  for,  and  for  no  other  uses 
or  purposes  whatsoever. 

Sec.  7.  In  case  the  public  school  fund  now  provided  and  set  apart  by 
law,  for  the  support  of  free  public  schools,  shall  be  insufficient  to  sustain  a 
free  school  at  least  four  months  in  every  year  in  each  school  district  in  this 
state,  the  general  assembly  may  provide  for  such  deficiency  in  accordance 
with  section  eleven  of  the  article  on  revenue  and  taxation ;  but  in  no  case 
shall  there  be  set  apart  less  than  twenty-five  per  cent,  of  the  state  revenue 
exclusive  of  the  interest  and  sinking  fund,  to  be  applied  annually  to  the 
support  of  the  public  schools. 


Sec.  8.  All  moneys,  stocks,  bonds,  lands  and  other  property  belonging 
to  a  county  school  fund;  also,  the  net  proceeds  from  the  sale  of  estrays; 
also,  the  clear  proceeds  of  all  penalties  and  forfeitures,  and  of  all  fines 
collected  in  the  several  counties  for  any  breach  of  the  penal  or  mili- 
tary laws  of  the  state,  and  all  moneys  which  shall  be  paid  by  persons  as 
an  equivalent  for  exemption  from  military  duty,  shall  belong  to  and  be 
securely  invested,  and  sacredly  preserved  in  the  several  counties,  as  a 
county  public  school  fund;  the  income  of  which  fund  shall  be  faithfully 
appropriated  for  establishing  and  maintaining  free  public  schools  in  the 
several  counties  of  this  state. 

Sec.  9.  No  part  of  the  public  school  fund  of  the  state  shall  ever  be 
invested  in  the  stock  or  bonds,  or  other  obligations  of  any  other  state,  or 
of  any  county,  city,  town  or  corporation ;  and  the  proceeds  of  the  sales  of 
any  lands  or  other  property  which  now  belong,  or  may  hereafter  belong, 
to  said  school  fund,  shall  be  invested  in  the  bonds  of  the  state  of  Missouri, 
or  of  the  United  States. 

Sec.  10.  All  county  school  funds  shall  be  loaned  only  upon  unincum- 
bered real  estate  security,  of  double  the  valve  of  the  loan,  with  personal 
security  in  addition  thereto. 

Sec.  11.  Neither  the  general  assembly,  nor  any -county,  city,  town, 
township,  school  district  or  other  municipal  corporation,  shall  ever  make 
an  appropriation,  or  pay  from  any  public  fund  whatever  anything  in  aid  of 
any  religious  creed,  church  or  sectarian  purpose;  or  to  help  to  support  or 
sustain  any  private  or  public  school,  academy,  seminary,  college,  univers- 
ity or  other  institution  of  learning,  controlled  by  any  religious  creed, 
church  or  sectarian  denomination  whatever;  nor  shall  any  grant  or 
donation  of  personal  property  or  real  estate  ever  be  made  by  the  state,  or 
any  county,  city,  town  or  other  municipal  corporation,  for  any  religious 
creed,  church  or  sectarian  purpose  whatever. 


Section  1.  All  existing  charters,  or  grants  of  special  or  exclusive  priv- 
ileges, under  which  a  bona  fide  organization  shall  not  have  taken  place, 
and  business  been  commenced  in  good  faith,  at  the  adoption  of  this  con- 
stitution, shall  thereafter  have  no  validity. 

Sec.  2.  No  corporation,  after  the  adoption  of  this  constitution,  shall  be 
created  by  special  laws;  nor  shall  any  existing  charter  be  extended, 
changed  or  amended  by  special  laws,  except  those  for  charitable,  penal  or 
reformatory  purposes,  "which  are  under  the  patronage  and  control  of  the 

Sec.  3.  The  general  assembly  shall  not  remit  the  forfeiture  of  the 
charter  of  any  corporation  now  existing,  or  alter  or  amend  such  forfeited 
charter,  or  pass  any  other  general  or  special  laws  for  the  benefit  of  such 

Sec.  4.  The  exercise  of  the  power  and  right  of  eminent  domain,  shall 
never  be  so  construed  or  abridged  as  to  prevent  the  taking,  by  the  general 
assembly,  of  the  property  and  franchises  of  incorporated  companies  already 
organized,  or  that  may  be  hereafter  organized,  and  subjecting  them  to  the 
public  use,  the  same  as  that  of  individuals.  The  right  of  trial  by  jury 
shall  be  held  inviolate  in  all  trials  of  claims  for  compensation,  when  in  the 
exercise  of  said  right  of  eminent  domain,  any  incorporated  company  shall 
be  interested  either  for  or  against  the  exercise  of  said  right. 


Sec.  5.  The  exercise  of  the  police  power  of  the  state  shall  never  be 
abridged,  or  so  construed  as  to  permit  corporations  to  conduct  their  busi- 
ness in  such  manner  as  to  infringe  the  equal  rights  of  individuals,  or  the 
general  well-being  of  the  state. 

Sec.  6.  In  all  elections  for  directors  or  managers  of  any  incorporated 
companv,  each  shareholder  shall  have  the  right  to  cast  as  many  votes  in 
the  aggregate  as  shall  equal  the  number  of  shares  so  held  by  him  or  her 
in  said  company,  multiplied  by  the  number  of  directors  or  managers  to  be 
elected  at  such  election;  and  each  shareholder  may  cast  the  whole  number 
of  votes,  either  in  person  or  by  proxy  for  one  candidate,  or  distribute  such 
votes  among  two  or  more  candidates ;  and  such  directors  or  managers  shall 
not  be  elected  in  any  other  manner. 

Sec.  7.  No  corporation  shall  engage  in  business,  other  than  that  ex- 
pressly authorized  in  its  charter  or  the  law  under  which  it  may  have  been 
or  hereafter  may  be  organized,  nor  shall  it  hold  any  real  estate  for  any 
period  longer  than  six  years,  except  such  as  may  be  necessary  and  proper 
for  carrying  on  its  legitimate  business. 

Sec.  8.  No  corporation  shall  issue  stock  or  bonds,  except  for  money 
paid,  labor  done  or  property  actually  received,  and  all  fictitious  increase  of 
stock  or  indebtedness  shall  be  void.  The  stock  and  bonded  indebtedness 
of  corporations  shall  not  be  increased,  except  in  pursuance  of  general  law, 
nor  without  the  consent  of  the  persons  holding  the  larger  amount  in  value 
of  the  stock  first  obtained  at  a  meeting  called  for  the  purpose,  first  giving 
sixty  days  public  notice,  as  may  be  provided  by  law. 

Sec.  9.  Dues  from  private  corporations  shall  be  secured  by  such  means 
as  may  be  prescribed  by  law,  but  in  no  case  shall  any  stockholder  be  indi- 
vidually liable  in  any  amount  over  or  above  the  amount  of  stock  owned 
by  him  or  her. 

Sec.  10.  No  corporation  shall  issue  preferred  stock  without  the  con- 
sent of  all  the  stockholders. 

Sec.  11.  The  term  "corporation,"  as  used  in  this  article,  shall  be  con- 
strued to  include  all  joint  stock  companies  or  associations  having  any  pow- 
ers or  privileges  not  possessed  by  individuals  or  partnerships. 


Sec.  12.  It  shall  not  be  lawful  in  this  state  for  any  railway  company 
to  charge  for  freight  or  passengers  a  greater  amount,  for  the  transportation 
of  the  same,  for  a  less  distance  than  the  amount  charged  for  any  greater 
distance,  and  suitable  laws  shall  be  passed  by  the  general  assembly  to  en- 
force this  provision;  but  excursion  and  commutation  tickets  maybe  issued 
at  special  rates. 

Sec.  13.  Any  railroad  corporation  or  association,  organized  for  the 
purpose,  shall  have  the  right  to  construct  and  operate  a  railroad  between 
any  points  within  this  state,  and  to  connect  at  the  state  line  with  railroads 
of  other  states.  Every  railroad  company  shall  have  the  right,  with  its 
road,  to  intersect,  connect  with,  or  cross  any  other  railroad,  and  shall  receive 
and  transport  each  the  other's  passengers,  tonnage  and  cars,  loaded  or 
empty,  without  delay  or  discrimination. 

Sec.  14.  Railways  heretofore  constructed,  or  that  may  hereafter  be 
constructed  in  this  state  are  hereby  declared  public  highways,  and  railroad 
companies  common  carriers.  The  general  assembly  shall  pass  laws  tc 
correct  abuses  and  prevent  unjust  discrimination  and  extortion  in  the  rates 


of  freight  and  passenger  tariffs  on  the  different  railroads  in  this  state;  and 
shall,  from  time  to  time,  pass  laws  establishing  reasonable  maximum  rates 
of  charges  for  the  transportation  of  passengers  and  freight  on  said  railroads, 
and  enforce  all  such  laws  by  adequate  penalties. 

Sec.  15.  Every  railroad  or  other  corporation,  organized  or  doing  busi- 
ness in  this  state  under  the  laws  or  authority  thereof,  shall  have  and  main- 
tain a  public  office  or  place  in  this  state  for  the  transaction  of  its  business, 
where  transfers  of  stock  shall  be  made,  and  where  shall  be  kept,  for  public 
inspection,  books  in  which  shall  be  recorded  the  amount  of  capital  stock 
subscribed,  the  names  of  the  owners  of  the  stock,  the  amounts  owned  by 
them  respectively,  the  amount  of  stock  paid,  and  by  whom,  the  transfer  of 
said  stock,  with  the  date  of  transfer,  the  amount  of  its  assets  and  liabilities, 
and  the  names  and  places  of  residence  of  its  officers.  The  directors  of 
every  railroad  company  shall  hold  one  meeting  annually  in  this  state,  pub- 
lic notice  of  which  shall  be  given  thirty  days  previously,  and  shall  report 
annually,  under  oath,  to  the  state  auditor,  or  some  officer  designated  by 
law,  all  of  their  acts  and  doings,  which  report  shall  include  such  matters 
relating  to  railroads  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law.  The  general  assembly 
shall  pass  laws  enforcing,  by  suitable  penalties,  the  provisions  of  this  sec- 

Sec.  16.  The  rolling  stock  and  all  other  movable  property  belonging 
to  any  railroad  company  or  corporation  in  this  state,  shall  be  considered 
personal  property,  and  shall  be  liable  to  execution  and  sale  in  the  same 
manner  as  the  personal  property  of  individuals;  and  the  general  assembly 
shall  pass  no  law  exempting  any  such  property  from  execution  and  sale. 

Sec.  17.  No  railroad  or  other  corporation,  or  the  lessees,  purchasers  or 
managers  of  any  railroad  corporation,  shall  consolidate  the  stock,  property 
or  franchises  ot  such  corporation,  with,  or  lease  or  purchase  the  works  or 
franchises  of,  or  in  any  way  control  any  railroad  corporation  owning  or  hav- 
ing under  its  control  a  parallel  or  competing  line;  nor  shall  anv  officer  of 
such  railroad  corporation  act  as  an  officer  of  any  other  railroad  corporation 
owning  or  having  the  control  of  a  parallel  or  competing  line.  The  ques- 
tion whether  railroads  are  parallel  or  competing  lines  shall,  when  demanded, 
be  decided  by  a  jury,  as  in  other  civil  issues. 

Sec.  18.  If  any  railroad  company  organized  under  the  laws  of  this 
state  shall  consolidate,  by  sale  or  otherwise,  with  any  railroad  company 
organized  under  the  laws  of  any  other  state,  or  of  the  United  States,  the 
same  shall  not  thereby  become  a  foreign  corporation ;  but  the  courts  of  this 
state  shall  retain  jurisdiction  in  all  matters  which  may  arise,  as  if  said  con- 
solidation had  not  taken  place.  In  no  case  shall  any  consolidation  take 
place,  except  upon  public  notice  of  at  least  sixty  days  to  all  stockholders, 
in  such  manner  as  mav  be  provided  by  law. 

Sec.  19.  The  general  assembly  shall  pass  no  law  for  the  benefit  of  a 
railroad  or  other  corporations,  or  any  individual  or  association  of  individ- 
uals, retrospective  in  its  operation,  or  which  imposes  on  the  people  of  any 
county  or  municipal  subdivision  of  the  state,  a  new  liability  in  respecc  to 
transactions  or  considerations  already  past. 

Sec.  20.  No  law  shall  be  passed  by  the  general  assembly  granting  the 
right  to  construct  and  operate  a  street  railroad  within  any  city,  town,  vil- 
lage, or  on  any  public  highway,  without  first  acquiring  the  consent  of  the 
local  authorities  having  control  of  the  street  or  highway  proposed  to  be 


occupied  by  such  street  railroad;  and  the  franchises  so  granted  shall  not 
be  transferred  without  similar  assent  first  obtained. 

Sec.  21.  No  railroad  corporation  in  existence  at  the  time  of  the  adop- 
tion of  this  constitution  shall  have  the  benefit  of  any  future  legislation, 
except  on  condition  of  complete  acceptance  of  all  the  provisions  of  this 
constitution  applicable  to  railroads. 

Sec.  22.  No  president,  director,  officer,  agent,  or  employe  of  any  rail- 
road company  shall  be  interested,  directly,  or  indirectly,  in  furnishing  ma- 
terial or  supplies  to  such  company,  or  in  the  business  of  transportation  as 
a  common  carrier  of  freight  or  passengers  over  the  works  owned,  leased, 
controlled  or  worked  by  such  company. 

Sec.  23.  No  discrimination  in  charges  or  facilities  in  transportation" 
shall  be  made  between  transportation  companies  and  individuals,  or  in 
favor  of  either,  by  abatement,  drawback  or  otherwise ;  and  no  railroad  com- 
pany, or  any  lessee,  manager  or  employee  thereof,  shall  make  any  prefer- 
ence in  furnishing  cars  or  motive  power. 

Sec.  24.  No  railroad  or  other  transportation  company  shall  grant  free 
passes  or  tickets,  or  passes  or  tickets  at  a  discount,  to  members  of  the  gen- 
eral assembly,  or  members  cf  the  board  of  equalization,  or  any  state,  or 
county,  or  municipal  officers ;  and  the  acceptance  of  such  pass  or  ticket,  by 
a  member  of  the  general  assembly,  or  any  such  officer,  shall  be  a  forfeiture 
of  his  office. 


Sec.  25.  No  state  bank  shall  hereafter  be  created,  nor  shall  the  state 
own  or  be  liable  for  any  stock  in  any  corporation,  or  joint  stock  company, 
or  association  for  banking  purposes,  now  created  or  hereafter  to  be  cre- 

Sec.  26.  No  act  of  the  general  assembly  authorizing  or  creating  cor- 
porations or  associations  with  banking  powers  (except  banks  of  deposit 
or  discount,)  nor  amendments  thereto,  shall  go  into  effect,  or  in  any  man- 
ner be  enforced,  unless  the  same  shall  be  submitted  to  a  vote  of  the  quali- 
fied voters  of  the  state,  at  the  general  election  next  succeeding  the  pass- 
age of  the  same,  and  be  approved  by  a  majority  of  the  votes  cast  at  such 

Sec.  27.  It  shall  be  a  crime,  the  nature  and  punishment  of  which  shall 
be  prescribed  by  law,  for  any  president,  director,  manager,  cashier  or  other 
officer  of  any  banking  institution,  to  assent  to  the  reception  of  deposits,  or 
the  creation  of  debts  by  such  banking  institution,  after  he  shall  have  had 
knowledge  of  the  fact  that  it  is  insolvent,  or  in  failing  circumstances ;  and 
any  such  officer,  agent  or  manager,  shall  be  individually  responsible  for 
such  deposits  so  received,  and  all  such  debts  so  created  with  his  assent. 

ARTICLE  XIII.— militia. 

Section  1.  All  able-bodied  male  inhabitants  of  this  state  between  the 
ages  of  eighteen  and  forty-five  years,  who  are  citizens  of  the  United  States, 
or  have  declared  their  intention  of  become  such  citizens,  shall  be  liable  to 
military  duty  in  the  militia  of  this  state:  Provided,  That  no  person  who  is 
religiously  scrupulous  of  bearing  arms,  can  be  compelled  to  do  so,  but  may 
be  compelled  to  pay  an  equivalent  for  military  service,  in  such  manner  as 
shall  be  prescribed  by  law. 

Sec.  2.      The  general   assembly,  in  providing  for   the   organization, 


equipment  and  discipline  of  the  militia,  shall  conform,  as  nearly  as  practi- 
cable, to  the  regulations  for  the  government  of  the  armies  of  the  United 

Sec.  3.  Each  company  and  regiment  shall  elect  its  own  company  and 
regimental  officers;  but  if  any  company  or  regiment  shall  neglect  to  elect 
such  officers  within  the  time  prescribed  by  law,  or  by  the  order  of  the  gov- 
ernor, they  may  be  appointed  by  the  governor. 

Sec.  4.  Volunteer  companies  of  infantry,  cavalry  and  artillery,  may 
be  formed  in  such  manner  and  under  such  restrictions  as  may  be  provided 
by  law. 

Sec.  5.  The  volunteer  and  militia  forces  shall  in  all  cases,  except  trea- 
son, felony  and  breach  of  the  peace,  be  privileged  from  arrest  during  their 
attendance  at  musters,  parades  and  elections,  and  in  going  to  and  returning 
from  the  same. 

Sec.  6.  The  governor  shall  appoint  the  adjutant  general,  quarter- 
master general  and  his  other  staff  officers.  He  shall  also,  with  the  advice 
and  consent  of  the  senate,  appoint  all  major  generals  and  brigadier  generals. 

Sec.  7.  The  general  assembly  shall  provide  for  the  safe  keeping  of 
the  public  arms,  military  records,  banners  and  relics  of  the  state. 


Section  1.  The  general  assembly  of  this  state  shall  never  interfere 
with  the  primary  disposal  of  the  soil  by  the  United  States,  nor  with  any 
regulation  which  congress  may  tind  necessary  for  securing  the  title  in  such 
soil  to  bona  -fide  purchasers.  No  tax  shall  be  imposed  on  lands  the  prop- 
erty of  the  "United  States;  nor  shall  lands  belonging  to  persons  residing 
out  of  the  limits  of  this  state  ever  be  taxed  at  a  higher  rate  than  the  lands.  « 
belonging  to  persons  residing  within  the  state. 

Sec.  2.  No  person  shall  be  prosecuted  in  any  civil  action  or  criminal, 
proceeding  for  or  on  account  of  any  act  by  him  done,  performed  or  exe- 
cuted between  the  first  day  of  January,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
sixty-one,  and  the  twentieth  day  of  August,  one  thousand  eight  hundred 
and  sixty-six,  by  virtue  of  military  authority  vested  in  him,  or  in  pursu- 
ance of  orders  from  any  person  vested  with  such  authority  by  the  govern- 
ment of  the  United  States,  or  of  this  state,  or  of  the  late  Confederate 
states,  or  any  of  them,  to  do  such  act.  And  if  any  action  or  proceedings 
shall  have  been,  or  shall  hereafter  be  instituted  against  any  person  for  the 
doing  of  any  such  act,  the  defendant  may  plead  this  section  in  bar  thereof. 

Sec.  3.  No  person  who  shall  hereafter  fight  a  duel,  or  assist  in  the 
same  as  a  second,  or  send,  accept,  or  knowingly  carry  a  challenge  therefor, 
or  agree  to  go  out  of  this  state  to  right  a  duel,  shall  hold  any  office  in  this 

Sec.  4.  No  person  holding  an  office  of  profit  under  the  United  States, 
shall,  during  his  continuance  in  such  office,  hold  any  office  of  profit  ui:  aaot 
this  state. 

Sec.  5.  In  the  absence  of  any  contrary  provision,  all  officers  noW  or 
nereafter  elected  or  appointed,  subject  to  the  right  of  resignation,  shall 
hold  office  during  their  official  terms,  and  until  their  successors  shall  be 
duly  elected  or  appointed  and  qualified. 

Sec.  6.     All  officers,  both  civil  and  military,  under  the  authority  of  this 
state,  shall,  before  entering  on  the  duties  of  their  respective  offices,  take 
and  subscribe  an  oath^or  affirmation,  to  support  the  constitution  of  the 


United  States  and  of  this  state,  and  to  demean  themselves  faithfully  in 

Sec.  7.  The  general  assembly  shall,  in  addition  to  other  penalties, 
provide  for  the  removal  from  office  of  county,  city,  town  and  township 
officers,  on  conviction  of  willful,  corrupt  or  fraudulent  violation  or  neglect 
of  official  duty. 

Sec  8.  The  compensation  or  fees  of  no  state,  county  or  municipal 
officer  shall  be  increased  during  his  term  of  office;  nor  shall  the  term  of 
any  office  be  extended  for  a  longer  period  than  that  for  which  such  officer 
was  elected  or  appointed. 

Sec  9.  The  appointment  of  all  officers  not  otherwise  directed  by  this 
constitution,  shall  be  made  in  such  manner  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law. 

Sec  10.  The  general  assembly  shall  have  no  power  to  authorize  lot- 
teries or  gift  enterprises  for  any  purpose,  and  shall  pass  laws  to  prohibit  the 
sale  of  lottery  or  gift  enterprise  tickets,  or  tickets  in  anjr  scheme  in  the 
nature  of  a  lottery,  in  this  state;  and  all  acts  or  parts  of  acts  heretofore 
passed  by  the  legislature  of  this  state,  authorizing  a  lottery  or  lotteries, 
and  all  acts  amendatory  thereof,  or  supplemental  thereto,  are  hereby 

Sec  11.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  grand  jury  in  each  county,  at  least 
once  a  year,  to  investigate  the  official  acts  of  all  officers  having  charge  of 
public  funds,  and  report  the  result  of  their  investigations  in  writing  to  the 

Sec  12.  Senators  and  representatives  shall,  in  all  cases,  except  trea- 
son, felony,  or  breach  of  the  peace,  be  privileged  from  arrest  during  the 
session  of  the  general  assembly,  and  for  fifteen  days  next  before  the  com- 
mencement and  after  the  termination  of  each  session ;  and  for  any  speech 
or  debate  in  either  house  they  shall  not  be  questioned  in  any  other  place. 

ARTICLE  XV. — mode  of  amending  the  constitution. 

Section  1.  This  constitution  may  be  amended  and  revised  only  in 
pursuance  of  the  provisions  of  this  article. 

Sec.  2.  The  general  assembly  may,  at  any  time,  propose  such  amend- 
ments to  this  constitution  as  a  majority  of  the  members  elected  to  each 
house  shall  deem  expedient;  and  the  vote  thereon  shall  betaken  by  yeas 
and  nays,  and  entered  in  full  on  the  journals.  The  proposed  amendments 
shall  be  published  with  the  laws  of  that  session,  and  also  shall  be  published 
weekly  in  some  newspaper,  if  such  there  be,  within  each  county  in  the 
state,  for  four  consecutive  weeks  next  preceding  the  general  election  then 
next  ensuing.  The  proposed  amendments  shall  be  submitted  to  a  vote  of 
the  people,  each  amendment  separately,  at  the  next  general  election  there- 
after, in  such  manner  as  the  general  assembly  may  provide.  If  a  major- 
ity of  the  qualified  voters  of  the  state,  voting  for  and  against  any  one  of 
saic1  amendments,  shall  vote  for  such  amendment,  the  same  shall  be  deemed 
and  taken  to  have  been  ratified  by  the  people,  and  shall  be  valid  and 
binding,  to  all  intents  and  purposes,  as  a  part  of  this  constitution. 

Sec  3.  The  general  assembly  may  at  any  time  authorize,  by  law  a 
vote  of  the  people  to  be  taken  upon  the  question  whether  a  convention 
shall  be  held  for  the  purpose  of  revising  and  amending  the  constitution  of 
this  state;  and  if  at  such  election  a  majority  of  the  votes  on  the  question 
be  in  favor  of  a  convention,  the  governor  shall  issue  writs  to  the  sheriffs  of 
the  different  counties,  ordering  the  election  of  delegates  to  such  a  conven- 


tion,  on  a  day  not  less  than  three  and  within  six  months  after  that  on  which 
the  said  question  shall  have  been  voted  on.  At  such  election  each  senato- 
rial district  shall  elect  two  delegates  for  each  senator  to  which  it  may  then 
be  entitled  in  the  general  assembly,  and  every  such  delegate  shall  have 
the  qualifications  of  a  state  senator.  The  election  shall  be  conducted  in 
conformity  with  the  laws  regulating  the  election  of  senators.  The  dele- 
gates so  elected  shall  meet  at  such  time  and  place  as  provided  by 
law,  and  organize  themselves  into  a  convention,  and  proceed  to  revise  and 
amend  the  constitution;  and  the  constitution  when  so  revised  and  amend- 
ed, shall,  on  a  day  to  be  therein  fixed,  not  less  than  sixty  days  or  more  than 
six  months  after  that  on  which  it  shall  have  been  adopted  by  the  conven- 
tion, be  submitted  to  a  vote  of  the  people  for  and  against  it,  at  an  election 
to  be  held  for  that  purpose ;  and,  if  a  majority  of  all  the  votes  given  be  in 
favor  of  such  constitution,  it  shall,  at  the  end  of  thirty  days  after  such  elec- 
tion became  the  constitution  of  this  state.  The  result  of  such  elec- 
tion shall -be  made  known  by  proclamation  by  the  governor.  The  general 
assembly  shall  have  no  power,  otherwise  than  in  this  section  specified,  to 
authorize  a  convention  for  revising  and  amending  the  constitution. 


That  no  inconvenience  may  arise  from  the  alteration  and  amendments 
in  the  constitution  of  this  state,  and  to  carry  the  same  into  complete  effect, 
it  is  hereby  ordained  and  declared: 

Section  1 .  That  all  laws  in  force  at  the  adoption  of  this  constitution, 
not  inconsistent  therewith,  shall  remain  in  full  force  until  altered  or  re- 
pealed by  the  general  assembly;  and,  all  rights,  actions,  prosecutions, 
claims  and  contracts  of  the  state,  counties,  individuals  or  bodies  corporate 
not  inconsistent  therewith,  shall  continue  to  be  as  valid  as  if  this  constitution 
had  not  been  adopted.  The  provisions  of  all  laws  which  are  inconsistent 
with  this  constitution,  shall  cease  upon  its  adoption,  except  that  all  laws 
which  are  inconsistent  with  such  provision  of  this  constitution,  as  require 
legislation  to  enforce  them,  shall  remain  in  force  until  the  first  day  of  July, 
one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-seven,  unless  sooner  amended  or 
repealed  by  the  general  assembly. 

Sec.  2.  That  all  recognizances,  obligations  and  all  other  instruments, 
entered  into  or  executed  before  the  adoption  of  this  constitution,  to  this 
state  or  to  any  subdivision  thereof,  or  any  municipality  therein :  and  all 
fines,  taxes,  penalties  and  forfeitures,  due  or  owing  to  this  state,  or  any 
such  subdivision  or  municipality;  and  all  writs,  prosecutions,  actions  and 
causes  of  action,  except  as  herein  otherwise  provided,  shall  continue  and 
remain  unaffected  by  the  adoption  of  this  constitution.  All  indictments 
which  shall  have  been  found  or  may  hereafter  be  found,  for  any  crime  or 
offense  committed  before  this  constitution  takes  effect,  may  be  proceeded 
upon  as  if  no  change  had  taken  place,  except  as  otherwise  provided  in 
this  constitution. 

Sec.  3.  All  county  and  probate  courts,  as  now  constituted  and  organ- 
ized, shall  continue  with  their  jurisdiction,  until  the  general  assembly 
shall  by  law  conform  them  in  their  organization  to  the  requirements  of  this 

Sec.  4.  All  criminal  courts  organized  and  existing  under  the  laws  of 
this  state,  and  not  specially  provided  for  in  this  constitution,  shall  continue 
to  exist  until  otherwise  provided  by  law. 

Sec.  5.     All  courts  of  common  pleas  existing  and  organized  in  cities 


and  towns  having  a  population  exceeding  three  thousand  five  hundred  in- 
habitants, and  such  as  by  the  law  of  their  creation  are  presided  over  by  a 
judge  of  a  circuit  court,  shall  continue  to  exist  and  exercise  their  present 
jurisdiction,  until  otherwise  provided  by  law.  All  other  courts  of  common 
pleas  shall  cease  to  exist  at  the  expiration  of  the  present  terms  of  office  of 
the  several  judges  thereof. 

Sec.  6.  All  persons  now  filling  any  office  or  appointment  in  this  state, 
shall  continue  in  the  exercise  of  the  duties  thereof,  according  to  their  re- 
spective commissions  or  appointments,  unless  otherwise  provided  by  law. 

Sec.  7.  Upon  the  adoption  of  this  constitution,  all  appeals  to,  and 
writs  of  error  from  the  supreme  court,  shall  be  returnable  to  the  supreme 
court  at  the  city  of  Jefferson. 

Sec.  8.  Until  the  general  assembly  shall  make  provision  for  the  pay- 
ment of  the  state  and  railroad  indebtedness  of  this  state,  in  pursuance  of 
section  fourteen  of  article  ten  of  this  constitution,  there  shall  be  levied 
and  collected  an  annual  tax  of  one-fifth  of  one  per  centum  on  all  real  estate 
and  other  property  and  effects  subject  to  taxation,  the  proceeds  of  which 
shall  be  applied  to  the  payment  of  the  interest  on  the  bonded  debt  of  this 
state  as  it  matures,  and  the  surplus,  if  any,  shall  be  paid  into  the  sinking 
fund  and  thereafter  applied  to  the  payment  of  such  indebtedness,  and  to 
no  other  purpose. 

Sec.  9.  This  constitution  shall  be  submitted  to  the  people  of  this  state 
for  adoption  or  rejection,  at  an  election  to  be  held  for  that  purpose  only,  on 
Saturday,  the  thirtieth  day  of  October,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
seventv-five.  Every  person  entitled  to  vote  under  the  constitution  and 
laws  of  this  state  shall  be  entitled  to  vote  for  the  adoption  or  rejection  of 
this  constitution.  Said  election  shall  be  held,  and  said  qualified  electors 
shall  vote  at  the  usual  places  of  voting  in  the  several  counties  of  this  state ; 
and  said  election  shall  be  conducted,  and  returns  thereof  made,  according 
to  the  laws  now  in  force  regulating  general  elections. 

Sec.  10.  The  clerks  of  the  several  county  courts  in  this  state,  shall,  at 
least  five  days  before  said  election,  cause  to  be  delivered  to  the  judges  of 
election  in  each  election  district  or  precinct,  in  their  respective  counties, 
suitable  blank  poll  books,  forms  of  return  and  five  times  the  number  of 
properly  prepared  printed  ballots  for  said  election,  that  there  are  voters  in 
said  respective  districts,  the  expense  whereof  shall  be  allowed  and  paid  by 
the  several  county  courts,  as  other  county  expenditures  are  allowed  and 

Sec.  11.  At  said  election  the  ballots  shall  be  in  the  following  form: 
New  constitution  ticket,  {erase  the  clause  you  do  not  favor.)  New  consti- 
tution, —  Yes.  New  constitution,  —  No.  Each  of  said  ticket  sshall  be 
counted  as  a  vote  for  or  against  this  constitution,  as  the  one  clause  or  the 
other  may  be  canceled  with  ink  or  pencil  by  the  voter,  and  returns  thereof 
shall  be  made  accordingly.  If  both  clauses  of  the  ticket  be  erased,  or  if 
neither  be  erased,  the  ticket  shall  not  be  counted. 

Sec.  12.  The  returns  of  the  whole  vote  cast  for  the  adoption  and 
against  the  adoption  of  this  constitution  shall  be  made  by  the  several 
clerks,  as  now  provided  by  law  in  case  of  the  election  of  state  officers,  to 
the  secretary  of  state,  within  twenty  days  after  the  election ;  and  the  re- 
turns of  said  votes  shall,  within  ten  days  thereafter,  be  examined  and 
canvassed  by  the  state  auditor,  state  treasurer  and  secretary  of  state,  or 
any  two  of  them,  in  the  presence  of  the  governor,  and  proclamation  shall 
be  made  by  the  governor  forthwith  of  the  result  of  the  canvass. 


Sec.  13.  If,  upon  such  canvass,  it  shall  appear  that  a  majority  of  the 
votes  polled  were  in  favor  of  the  new  constitution,  then  this  constitution 
shall,  on  and  after  the  thirtieth  day  of  November,  one  thousand  eight  hun- 
dred and  seventy-five,  be  the  supreme  law  of  the  state  of  Missouri,  and  the 
present  existing  constitution  shall  thereupon  cease  in  all  its  provisions; 
but  if  it  shall  appear  that  a  majority  of  the  votes  polled  were  against  the 
new  constitution,  then  this  constitution  shall  be  null  and  void,  and  the 
existing  constitution  shall  continue  in  force. 

Sec.  14.  The  provisions  of  this  schedule  required  to  be  executed  prior 
to  the  adoption  or  rejection  of  this  constitution,  shall  take  effect  and  be  in 
force  immediately. 

Sec.  15.  The  general  assembly  shall  pass  all  such  laws  as  may  be 
necessary  to  carry  this  constitution  into  full  effect. 

Sec.  16.  The  present  secretary  of  state,  state  auditor,  attorney-general, 
and  superintendent  of  public  schools,  shall,  during  the  remainder  of  their 
terms  of  office,  unless  otherwise  directed  by  law,  receive  the  same  com- 
pensation and  fees  as  is  now  provided  by  law ;  and  the  present  state  treas- 
urer shall,  during  the  remainder  of  the  term  of  his  office,  continue  to  be 
governed  by  existing  law,  in  the  custod}'  and  disposition  of  the  state 
funds,  unless  otherwise  directed  by  law. 

Sec  17.  Section  twelve  of  [the]  bill  of  rights  shall  not  be  so  construed 
as  to  prevent  arrests  and  preliminary  examination  in  any  criminal  case. 

Done  in  convention,  at  tne  capitol,  in  the  city  of  Jefferson,  on  the  second  day  of  August, 
in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-five,  and  of  the  inde- 
pendence of  the  United  States  the  one  hundredth. 

WALDO  P.  JOHNSON,  President,  St.  Clair  county. 
N.  W.  WATKINS,  Vice  President,  Scott  county. 
Adams,  Washington,  Cooper.  Letcher,  Wm.  H.,  Saline. 

Allen,  DeWitt  O,  Clay.  Lay,  Alfred  M.,  Cole. 

Alexander,  A.  M.,  Monroe.  '         Mabret,  Pinckney,  Ripley. 

Black,  Francis  IV!.,  Jackson.  Massey,  B.  F ,  Newton. 

Boone,  Henry,  DeKalb.  Maxey,  James  Harvey,  Howell, 

Bradfield,  George  W.,  Laclede.  McAfee,  Charles  B.,  Greene. 

Broadhead,  James  O.,  St.  Louis.  McKee,  Archibald  V\,  Lincoln. 

Brokmeyer,  Henhy  C,  St.  Louis.  McCabe,  Edward,  Marion. 

Carleton,  George  W,  Pemiscot.  McKillop,  Malcomb,  Atchison. 

Chrisman,  William,  Jackson.  Mortell,  Nicholas  A.,  St.  Louis. 

Conway,  Edmund  V.,  St.  Francois.  Mudd,  Henry  Thomas,  St.  Louis. 

Cottey,  Louis  F.,  Knox.  Nickerson,  Edmund  A.,  Johnson. 

Crews,  T.  W.  B.,  Franklin.  Norton,  Elijah  Hise,  Platte. 

Crockett,  Samuel  R.,  Vernon.  Pipkin,  Philip,  Jefferson. 

Davis,  Lowndey  Henry,  Cape  Girardeau.        Priest,  William,  Platte. 
Dryden,  Leonidas  J.,  Warren  Pulitzer,  Joseph,  St.  Louis. 

Dysart,  Benjamin  Robert,  Macon.  Ray,  John,  Barry. 

Edwards,  John  F.  T.,  Iron.  Rider,  J.  H.,  Bollinger. 

Edwards,  James  C,  St.  Louis.  Ripey,  J.  R.,  Schuyler. 

Eitzen,  Charles  D.,  Gasconade.  Roberts,  James  C,  Buchanan. 

F  arris,  Jamss  L.,  Ray.  Ross,  J.  P.,  Morgan. 

Fyan,  Robert  VV.  Webster.  Ross,  John  W.,  Polk. 

Gantt,  Thomas  Tasker,  St.  Louis.  Rucker,  John  Fleming,  Boone. 

Gottschalk,  Louis,  St.  Louis.  Shackelford,  Thomas,  Howard*. 

Hale,  John  B.,  Carroll.  Shanklin,  John  H.,  Grundy. 

Halliburton,  W.,  Sullivan.  Shields,  George  H.,  St.  Louis. 

Hammond,  Charles,  Chariton.  Spaundorst,  Henry  J  ,  St.  Louis. 

Hardin,  Neil  Cameron,  Pike.  Switzler,  William  F.,  Boone. 

Holliday,  J.  A.,  Caldwell.  Taylor,  John  H.,  Jasper 

Hyer,  John,  Dent,  Taylor,  Amos  Riley,  St.  Louis. 

Johnson,  Horace  B.,  Cole.  Todd,  Albert,  St.  Louis. 

Johnston,  T.  J.,  Nodoway.  Wagner,  L.  J  ,  Scotland. 

Lackland,  Henry  Clay,  St.  Charles.  Wallace,  Henry  C,  Lafayette. 

Attkt-  G.  N.  NOLAN,  Secretary. 

J.  Boyle  Adams,  Assistant  Secretary 

Abstract  of  Missouri  State  Laws. 


A  bill  of  exchange  is  a  written  order  from  one  person  to  another,  direct- 
ing the  person  to  whom  it  is  addressed  to  pay  to  a  third  person  a  certain 
sum  of  money  therein  named. 

The  person  making  the  bill  is  called  the  maker.  The  person  to  whom 
it  is  directed  is  called  the  drawee,  and  the  person  in  whose  favor  the  bill 
of  exchange  is  made  payable,  is  called  the  payee,  and  the  person  who 
acceepts  a  bill  of  exchange,  is  called  the  acceptor. 

A  bill  of  exchange  may  be  negotiable  or  non-negotiable ;  if  negotiable,  it 
may  be  transferred  either  before  or  after  acceptance.  To  make  it  negotia- 
ble it  must  be  payable  to  the  order  of  the  payee,  or  to  the  bearer,  or  must 
contain  other  equivalent  or  operative  words  of  transfer. 

Bills  of  exchange  containing  no  words  of  transfer,  are  non-negotiable. 

The  usual  form  of  accepting  bills  of  exchange,  is  by  writing  "accepted'* 
across  the  bill,  and  signing  the  acceptor's  name. 

After  such  acceptance  the  acceptor  becomes  liable  for  the  payment  of 
the  bill  upon  its  maturity. 

No  person  within  this  state  shall  be  charged  as  an  acceptor  of  a  bill  of 
exchange  unless  his  acceptance  shall  be  in  writing  signed  by  himself,  or 
his  lawful  agent. 

If  such  acceptance  be  written  on  a  paper  other  than  the  bill,  it  shall  not 
bind  the  acceptor.  Except  in  favor  of  a  person  to  whom  such  acceptance 
shall  have  been  shown,  and  who  upon  the  faith  thereof  shall  have  received 
the  bill  for  a  valuable  consideration. 

An  unconditional  promise  in  writing  to  accept  a  bill  before  it  is 
drawn,  will  be  binding  upon  the  acceptor  in  favor  of  any  person  who 
upon  the  faith  of  such  written  promise  shall  have  received  the  bill  for  a 
valuable  consideration. 

Every  holder  of  a  bill  presenting  the  same  for  acceptance,  may  require 
that  the  acceptance  be  written  on  the  bill,  and  a  refusal  to  comply  with 
such  request,  shall  be  deemed  a  refusal  to  accept,  and  the  bill  may  be  pro- 
tested for  non-acceptance. 

Every  person  upon  whom  a  bill  of  exchange  ma)'  be  drawn,  and  to 
whom  the  same  shall  be  delivered  for  acceptance,  who  shall  destroy  such 
bill  or  refuse  within  twenty-four  hours  after  such  delivery,  or  within  such 
period  as  the  holder  may  allow  to  return  the  bill  accepted  or  non-accepted 
to  the  holders,  shall  be  deemed  to  have  accepted  the  same. 


When  any  bill  of  exchange  expressed  to  be  for  value  received,  drawn 
or  negotiated  within  this  state,  shall  be  duly  presented  for  acceptance  or 
payment,  and  protested  for  non-acceptance  or  non-payment,  there  shall  be 
allowed  and  paid  to  the  holders  by  the  drawer  and  endorsers  having  due 
notice  of  the  dishonor  of  the  bill,  damages  in  the  following  cases:  First, 
if  the  bill  shall  have  been  drawn  bv  an}'  person,  at  any  place  within  this 
state,  at  the  rate  of  four  per  centum  on  the  principal  sum  specified  in  the 
bill.  Second,  if  the  bill  shall  have  been  drawn  on  any  person,  at  any 
place  out  of  this  state,  but  within  the  United  States  or  territories  thereof, 
at  the  rate  of  two  per  centum  on  the  principal  sum  specified  in  the  bill. 
Third,  if  the  bill  shall  have  been  drawn  on  any  person,  at  any  part  or 
place  without  the  United  States  and  their  territories,  at  the  rate  of 
twenty  per  centum  on  the  principal  sum  specified  in  the  bill. 

If  any  bill  of  exchange  expressed  to  be  for  value  received,  shall  be 
drawn  on  any  person,  at  any  place  within  this  state,  and  accepted,  and 
payment  shall  not  be  duly  made  by  the  acceptor,  there  shall  be  allowed 
and  paid  to  the  holder,  by  the  acceptor,  damages  in  the  following  cases: 
First,  if  the  bill  be  drawn  by  any  person,  at  any  place  within  this  state, 
at  the  rate  of  four  per  centum  on  the  principal  sum  therein  specified. 
Second,  if  the  bill  be  drawn  by  any  person,  at  any  place  without  this 
state,  but  within  the  United  States  or  territories,  at  the  rate  of  ten  per 
centum  on  the  principal  sum  therein  specified.     / 

The  damages  herein  allowed  shall  be  recovered  only  by  the  holder  ot 
a  bill,  who  shall  have  purchased  the  bill  or  acquired  some  interest  therein, 
for  valuable  consideration.  In  cases  of  non-acceptance  or  non-payment 
of  a  bill,  drawn  at  any  place  within  this  state,  on  any  person  at  a  place 
within  the  same,  no  damages  shall  be  recovered,  if  payment  of  the  prin- 
cipal sum,  with  interest  and  charges  of  protest,  be  paid  within  twenty 
days  after  demand,  or  notice  of  the  dishonor  of  the  bill. 

If  the  contents  of  a  bill  be  expressed  in  the  money  of  account  of  the 
United  States,  the  amount  due  and  the  damages  therein,  shall  be  ascer- 
tained and  determined  without  any  reference  to  the  rate  of  exchange 
existing  between  this  state  and  the  place  on  which  the  bill  shall  have  been 
drawn,  at  the  time  of  demand  of  payment  or  notice  of  the  dishonor  of  the 

If  the  contents  of  such  bill  be  expressed  in  the  money  of  account  or 
currency  of  any  foreign  country,  then  the  amount  due,  exclusive  of  dam- 
ages, shall  be  ascertained  and  determined  by  the  rate  of  exchange,  or  the 
value  of  such  foreign  currency  at  the  time  of  payment. 

Every  bill  of  ex  "hange,  draft  or  order  drawn  either  within  this  state  or 
elsewhere  upon  any  person  residing  within  this  state,  payable  on  its  face 
at  sight,  or  on  demand,  shall  be  deemed  and  considered  to  be  due  and 
payable  on  the  day  it  is  presented,  or  demanded,  any.  usage  or  custom 


here  or  elsewhere  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding,  and  if  not  so  paid, 
may  be  protested  for  non-payment.  i 

If  in  any  suit  founded  upon  any  negotiable  promissory  note  or  bill  of 
exchange,  or  in  which  such  bill  or  note  is  produced,  might  be  allowed  in 
the  defense  of  any  suit,  it  appear  on  the  trial  that  such  note  or  bill  was 
lost  while  it  belonged  to  the  party  claiming  the  amount  due  thereon, 
parol  or  other  evidence  of  the  contents  thereof,  may  be  given  on  such 
trial,  and  such  party  shall  be  entitled  to  recover  the  amount  due  thereon 
as  if  such  note  or  bill  had  been  produced. 

To  entitle  a  part}'  to  such  recovery,  he  or  some  responsible  person  for 
him,  shall  execute  a  bond  to  the  adverse  party  in  a  penalty  at  least  double 
the  amount  of  such  note  or  bill,  with  two  sufficient  securities,  to  be 
approved  by  the  court  in  which  the  trial  shall  be  had,  conditioned  to 
indemnify  the  adverse  party  against  all  claims  by  any  other  person  on 
account  of  such  note  or  bill,  and  against  all  costs  and  expenses  by  reason 
of  such  claim. 


A  promissory  note  is  a  written  promise  to  pay  a  certain  sum  of  money 
at  a  future  time,  unconditionally. 

The  person  to  whom  the  money  is  payable  is  called  the  payee. 

The  maker  is  the  one  who  promises  to  pay  the  money  when  the  note 
becomes  due. 

A  note  payable  to  bearer  is  negotiated  or  transferred  by  mere  delivery, 
and  the  possession  of  the  note  is  frima facie  proof  of  title. 

A  note  payable  to  the  order  of  a  particular  person  is  transferred  or 
negotiated  by  writing  the  name  of  the  person  upon  the  back  of  the  note, 
which  is  called  an  endorsement.  The  person  making  the  endorsement 
is  called  the  endorser.  The  person  for  whose  benefit  it  is  made  is  called 
the  endorsee. 

Every  promissory  note  for  the  payment  of  money  to  the  payee  therein 
named,  or  order  or  bearer,  and  expressed  to  be  for  value  received,  shall  be 
due  and  payable  as  therein  expressed  and  shall  have  the  same  effect  and 
be  negotiable  in  like  manner  as  inland  bills  of  exchange. 

The  payee  and  endorsers  of  every  such  negotiable  note  payable  to  them 
or  order,  and  the  holder  of  every  such  note  payable  to  bearer  may  main- 
tain actions  for  the  sums  of  monev  therein  mentioned,  against  the  makers 
and  endorsers  of  them  in  like  manner  as  in  cases  of  inland  bills  of  exchange, 
and  not  otherwise. 

Such  negotiable  promissory  note  made  payable  to  the  order  of  the 
maker  thereof,  or  to  the  order  of  a  fictitious  person  shall,  if  negotiated  by 
the  maker,  have  the  same  effect  and  be  of  the  same  validity  as  against  the 
maker,  and  all  persons  having  knowledge  of  the  facts,  as  if  payable  to 


bearer.  Provided,  That  negotiable  note  in  the  hands  of  the  purchaser  of 
the  same  from  the  makers  by  way  of  discount  or  investment  if  protested 
for  non-payment  at  maturity,  shall  not  be  subjected  to  damages. 

When  the  day  of  payment  of  any  bond,  bill  of  exchange,  or  promissory 
note,  shall  according  to  its  terms,  be  a  Sunday,  Christmas  day,  Thanks- 
giving day  (State  or  National),  New  Years  day,  or  a  Fourth  of  July,  its 
payment  shall  be  deemed  due  and  be  demandable  on  such  day  next  before 
its  day  of  payment,  according  to  its  terms,  as  shall  not  be  one  of  the  days 
above  specified. 

A  notarial  protest  is  evidence  of  a  demand  and  refusal  to  pay  a  bill  of 
exchange  or  negotiable  promissory  note,  at  the  time  and  in  the  manner 
stated  in  such  protest. 


$1,000.  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  Aug.  1,  1869. 

Thirty  days  after  date,  I  promise  to  pay  Richard  Roe,  or  order, 
One  Thousand  Dollars,  value  received,  with  interest  after  due  at  the  rate 
of  ten  per  cent  per  annum.  Louis  Roy. 


$100.00.  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  Aug,  1,  1869. 

Thirty  days  after  date,  I  promise  to  pay  Richard  Roe, 
One  Hundred  Dollars,  value  received,  with  interest  from  date,  at  the  rate 
of  ten  per  cent  per  annum.  Louis  Roy. 


The  legal  rate  of  interest  is  six  per  cent. 

Parties  may  agree  in  writing  for  the  payment  of  interest  not  exceeding 
ten  per  cent. 

Money  due  upon  judgments  or  order  of  court,  shall  draw  interest  from 
the  day  of  rendering  the  same.  All  such  judgments  and  orders  for  money 
upon  contracts,  bearing  more  than  six  per  cent.,  shall  bear  the  same  inter- 
est borne  by  such  contracts.  All  other  judgments  and  orders  for  money 
shall  draw  six  per  cent. 

If  a  greater  rate  of  interest  than  ten  per  cent,  is  contracted  for,  and  suit 
brought  upon  the  same,  judgment  will  be  entered  for  six  per  cent.,  and 
the  whole  interest  shall  be  set  apart  for,  and  become  a  part  of  the  com- 
mon school  fund. 

Parties  may  contract  in  writing  for  the  payment  of  interest  upon  inter- 
est; but  interest  shall  not  be  compounded  oftener  than  once  a  year. 
Where  a  different  rate  is  not  expressed,  interest  upon  interest  shall  be  at 
the  same  rate  as  interest  on  the  principal  debt. 



Property  in  this  state  shall  be  distributed  in  the  following  course,  sub- 
ject to  the  payment  of  debts  and  the  widow's  dower: 

First.     To  the  children  or  their  descendants  in  equal  parts. 

Second.  If  there  be  no  children  or  their  descendants,  then  to  the  father, 
mother,  brothers  and  sisters,  and  their  descendants,  in  equal  parts. 

Third.  If  there  be  no  children,  or  their  descendants,  father,  mother, 
brother  or  sister,  or  their  descendants,  then  to  the  husband  or  wife. 
If  there  be  no  husband  or  wife,  then  to  the  grandfather,  grandmother, 
uncles  and  aunts,  and  their  descendants,  in  equal  parts. 

Fourth.  If  there  be  no  children  or  their  descendants,  father,  mother, 
sister,  brother  or  their  descendants,  husband  or  wife,  grandfather,  grand- 
mother, uncles,  aunts,  nor.  their  descendants,  then  to  the  great-grandfather, 
great-grandmother,  and  their  descendants,  in  equal  parts,  and  so  on  in 
other  cases  without  end,  passing  to  the  nearest  lineal  ancestors  and  their 
children,  and  their  descendants,  in  equal  parts. 

Posthumous  children,  or  descendants  of  the  intestate,  shall  inherit  in 
like  manner  as  if  born  in  the  lifetime  of  the  intestate.  This  does  not 
aPPty  to  anyone  other  than  the  children  or.  descendants  of  the  intestate 
unless  they  are  in  being  and  capable  in  law  to  take  as  heirs  at  the  time  of 
the  intestate's  death. 

If  there  be  no  children  or  their  descendants,  father,  mother,  brother  or 
sister,  nor  their  descendants,  husband  or  wife,  nor  any  paternal  or  mater- 
nal kindred  capable  of  inheriting,  the  whole  shall  go  to  the  kindred  of  the 
wife  or  husband  of  the  intestate  in  the  like  course  as  if  such  wife  or  hus- 
band had  survived  the  intestate  and  then  died  entitled  to  the  estate. 

If  any  of  the  children  receive  anv  real  or  personal  estate  in  the  lifetime 
of  the  intestate  by  way  of  advancement,  shall  choose  to  come  into  par- 
tition with  the  other  heirs,  such  advancement  shall  be  brought  into 
hatchpot  with  the  estate  descended. 

Maintaining,  educating,  or  giving  money  to  a  child  under  majority 
without  any  view  to  a  portion  or  settlement,  shall  not  be  deemed  an 

Bastards  shall  inherit  and  be  capable  of  transmitting  inheritance  on  the 
part  of  their  mother,  and  such  mother  may  inherit  from  her  bastard 
child  or  children  in  like  manner  as  if  they  had  been  lawfully  begotten  of 

The  issues  of  all  marriages  decreed  null  in  law  or  dissolved  by  divorce 
shall  be  legitimate. 

Persons  of  color  shall  inherit  as  above  set  forth,  providing  it  shall 
appear  to  the  court  that  they  are  residents  of  this  state,  or  if  residents  of 
some  other  state,  are  free  persons. 

The  children  of  all  parents  who  were  slaves,  and  who  were  living 


together  in  good  faith  as  man  and  wife  at  the  time  of  the  birth  of  such 
children,  shall  be  deemed  to  be  the  legitimate  children  of  such  parents. 
All  children  of  any  one  mother  who  was  a  slave  at  the  time  of  her  birth 
shall  be  deemed  lawful  brothers  and  sisters  for  the  purposes  of  this 


The  term  will,  or  last  will  and  testament,  means  the  disposition  of  one's 
property,  to  take  effect  after  death.  No  exact  form  of  words  is  neces- 
sary in  order  to  make  a  will  good  at  law. 

Every  person  of  twenty-one  years  of  age  and  upward,  of  sound  mind, 
may,  by  last  will,  devise  all  his  estate,  real,  personal  and  mixed,  and  all 
interest  therein,  saving  the  widow  her  dower.  Every  person  over  the 
age  of  eighteen  years,  of  sound  mind,  may  by  last  will,  dispose  of  his 
goods  and  chatties.  Every  will  must  be  in  writing,  signed  by  the  testator 
or  by  some  person  by  his  direction,  in  his  presence,  and  shall  be  attested 
by  two  or  more  competent  witnesses,  subscribing  their  names  to  the  will 
in  the  presence  of  the  testator. 

No  will  in  writing,  except  in  cases  hereinafter  mentioned,  nor  any  part 
thereof,  shall  be  revoked,  except  by  a  subsequent  will  in  writing,  or  by 
burning,  canceling,  tearing  or  obliterating  the  same  by  the  testator,  or  in 
his  presence,  and  by  his  consent  and  direction. 

If,  after  making  a  will  disposing  of  the  whole  estate  of  the  testator, 
such  testator  shall  marry,  and  die,  leaving  issue  by  such  marriage  living 
at  the  time  of  his  death,  or  shall  leave  issue  of  such  marriage  born  to 
him  after  his  death,  such  will  shall  be  deemed  revoked,  unless  provisions 
shall  have  been  made  for  such  issue  by  some  settlement,  or  unless  such 
issue  shall  be  provided  for  in  the  will,  and  no  evidence  shall  be  received  to 
rebut  the  presumption  of  such  revocation. 

A  will  executed  by  an  unmarried  woman  shall  be  deemed  revoked  by 
her  subsequent  marriage. 

If  a  person  make  his  will  and  die  leaving  children  not  provided  for, 
although  born  after  making  the  will,  he  shall  be  deemed  to  die  intestate, 
and  such  children  shall  be  entitled  to  such  proportion  as  if  he  had  died 
intestate.     All  other  heirs  or  legatees  must  refund  their  proportionate  part. 

The  county  court  or  clerk  thereof  in  vacation  subject  to  the  confirma- 
tion or  rejection  of  the  court,  shall  take  the  proof  of  the  last  will  of  the 


I,  Richard  Johnson,  of  Carroll  county,  in  the  state  of  Missouri,  being 
of  sound  mind  and  memory,  and  of  full  age,  do  hereby  make  and  publish 
this,  my  last  will  and  testament,  hereby  revoking  all  former  wills  by  me 


First.  I  direct  the  payment  of  all  lawful  claims  against  my  estate,  to 
be  made  out  of  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  of  my  personal  property. 

Second.  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  to  my  eldest  son,  John  B.  Johnson, 
the  sum  of  five  thousand  dollars  of  bank  stock,  in  the  First  National 
Bank  of  Lexington,  Missouri,  and  the  farm  owned  by  myself  in  the  town- 
ship of  ,  in  the  county  of  Saline,  consisting  of  100  acres,  with  all 

the  houses,  tenements  and  improvements  thereunto  belonging,  to  have 
and  to  hold  unto  my  said  son,  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever. 

Third.  I  give,  devise,  and  bequeath  to  each  of  my  daughters,  Mary  E. 
Johnson  and  Clara  B.  Johnson,  each  five  thousand  dollars  in  bank  stock,. 
in  the  First  National  Bank,  of  Lexington,  Missouri;  and  also,  each  one 

quarter  section  of  land  owned  by  myself,  situated  in  the  township  of 

Ray  county,  Missouri. 

Fourth.  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  to  my  son,  Frank  R.  Johnson,  the 
farm  owned  by  myself,  situated  in  Chariton  county,  Missouri,  consisting 
of  six  hundred  and  forty  acres,  together  with  all  stock,  houses,  anc 
improvements,  thereunto  belonging. 

Fifth.  I  give  to  my  wife,  Elizabeth  Johnson,  all  my  household  furni- 
ture, goods,  chattels  and  personal  property  about  my  house,  not  hitherto 
disposed  of,  including  six  thousand  dollars  of  bank  stock,  in  the  First 
National  Bank  of  Lexington,  Missouri,  and  the  free  and  unrestricted  use, 
possession  and  benefit  of  the  home  farm,  so  long  as  she  may  live — saic 
farm  being  my  present  place  of  residence. 

Sixth.  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  mother,  Martha  Johnson,  the  income 
from  rents  of  my  store  building,  at  No.  905  Pine  street,  St.  Louis,  Mis- 
souri, during  the  term  of  her  natural  life,  said  building  and  land  therewith 
to  revert  to  my  sons  and  daughters,  in  equal  proportions,  upon  the  demise 
of  my  said  mother. 

Seventh.  It  is  also  my  will  and  desire  that  at  the  death  of  my  wife,  Eliz- 
abeth Johnson,  that  the  above,  mentioned  homestead  may  revert  to  m; 
above  named  children,  or  to  the  lawful  heirs  of  each. 

Eighth.  I  appoint  as  my  executors  of  this,  my  last  will  and  testament, 
my  wife,  Elizabeth  Johnson,  and  my  eldest  son  John  B.  Johnson. 

In  witness  whereof,  I,  Richard  Johnson,  to  this,  my  last  will  and  testa- 
ment, have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seal,  this  fourth  day  of  June 
eighteen  hundred  and  seventy-five.  Richard  Johnson. 

Signed  and  declared  by  Richard  Richard  Johnson,  as  and  for  his  last 
will  and  testament,  in  the  presence  of  each  other,  have  subscribed  our 
names  hereunto,  as  witnesses  thereof. 

Edward  Davison,  Sedaliay  Missouri. 
Frederick  Jones,  Marshall,  Missouri. 



Whereas,  I,  Richard  Johnson,  did,  on  the  fourth  day  of  June,  one 
thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-five,  make  my  last  will  and  testa- 
ment, I  do  now,  by  this  writing  add  this  codicil  to  my  said  will,  to  be 
taken  as  part  thereof. 

Whereas,  By  the  dispensation  of  Providence,  my  daughter,  Clara  B. 
Johnson,  has  deceased,  March  the  first,  eighteen  hundred  and  seventy- 
six;  and  -whereas,  a.  son  has  been  born  to  me,  which  son  is  now  christened 
David  S.  Johnson,  I  give  and  bequeath  unto  him  my  gold  watch,  and  all 
right,  interest  and  title  in  lands  and  bank  stock,  and  chattels  bequeathed 
to  my  deceased  daughter,  Clara  B.,  in  the  body  of  this  will. 

In  witness  whereof,  I  hereunto  place  my  hand  and  seal,  this  tenth  day 
of  March,  eighteen  hundred  and  seventy-seven.         Richard  Johnson. 

Signed,  sealed,  published  and  declared  to  us,  by  the  testator,  Richard 
Johnson,  as  and  for  a  codicil,  to  be  annexed  to  his  will  and  testament;  and 
we,  at  his  request  and  in  his  presence,  and  in  the  presence  of  each  other 
have  subscribed  our  names  as  witnesses  thereto,  at  the  date  hereof. 

Peter  Brown,  Lexington,  Missouri. 
Robert   Burr,  Richmond,  Missouri. 


For  the  support  of  the  government  of  the  state,  the  payment  of  the 
public  debt,  and  the  advancement  of  the  public  interest,  taxes  shall  be 
levied  on  all  property,  real  and  personal,  except  as  stated  below : 

No  tax  shall  be  assessed  for  or  imposed  by  any  city,  county,  or  other 
municipal  corporation,  or  for  their  use  upon  the  following  property:  All 
houses,  necessary  furniture  and  equipments  thereof,  used  exclusively  for 
public  worship,  and  the  lot  of  ground  on  which  the  same  may  be  erected. 
All  orphan  or  other  asylums,  for  the  relief  of  the  sick  or  needy,  with  their 
furniture  and  equipments,  and  the  lands  on  which  they  are  erected  and 
used  therewith,  so  long  as  the  same  shall  be  held  and  used  for  that  pur- 
pose only ;  all  universities,  colleges,  academies,  schools,  and  all  other  sem- 
inaries of  learning,  with  the  furniture  and  equipments,  and  land  thereto, 
belonging  or  used  immediately  therewith,  and  their  endowment  fund, 
when  not  invested  in  real  estate,  so  long  as  the  same  shall  be  employed 
for  that  purpose  only.  Provided,  That  the  land  hereby  exempted  from 
taxation,  belonging  to  any  of  the  last  named  institutions,  in  any  city  or 
town,  shall  not  exceed  two  acres,  and  in  the  county,  not  exceed  five  acres. 
And  further  provided,  That  such  property,  so  exempted,  shall  not  be 
under  rent  to  any  person,  corporation,  or  society,  and  shall  not,  in  any 
way  or  manner,  be  paying  or  yielding  any  rent  or  profit.  Cemeteries 
and  graveyards  set  apart  and  used  for  that  purpose  only.  All  real  estate 
and  other  property  belonging  to  any  incorporated  agricultural  society,  so 


long  as  the  same  shall  be  employed  for  the  use  of  such  society  and  none 
other.  All  libraries  and  their  furniture  and  equipments,  belonging  to  any 
library  association  or  society.  Nothing  in  this  section  shall  be  construed 
as  to  exempt  from  municipal  or  local  taxation  any  description  of  property, 
when  the  same  is  held  for  the  purpose  of  pecuniary  profit  or  speculation. 

Lots  in  incorporated  cities  or  towns,  or  within  one  mile  of  the  limits  of 
such  city  or  town,  to  the  extent  of  one  acre,  and  lots,  one  mile  distant 
from  such  cities  or  towns,  to  the  extent  of  five  acres,  with  the  buildings 
thereon,  when  the  same  are  used  exclusively  for  religious  worship,  for 
schools,  or  for  purposes  purely  charitable,  shall  be  exempt  from  taxatior 
for  state,  county,  or  local  purposes. 

There  shall  be  annually  assessed  and  collected  on  the  assessed  value  oi 
all  the  real  estate  and  personal  property  subject  by  law  to  taxation  in  the 
state  one-fifth  of  one  per  centum  for  state  revenue  and  one-fifth  of  one 
per  centum  for  the  payment  of  all  state  indebtedness. 

The  assessor  or  his  deputy  or  deputies  shall,   between  the  first  days  ol 
August  and  January,  and  after  being  furnished  with  the  necessary  books 
and  blanks  by  the  county  clerk,  at  the  expense  of  the  county,  proceed  to  take 
a  list  of  the  taxable  personal  property  in  his  county,  town,  or  district,  anc 
assess  the  value  thereof  in  the  manner  following,  to-wit:      He  shall  call  at 
the  office,  place  of  doing  business,  or  residence  of  each  person  requirec 
by  this  act  to  list  property,  and  shall  require  such  person  to  make  a  cor- 
rect statement  of  all  taxable  property  owned  by  such   person,  or  under 
the  care,  charge,  or  management  of  such  person,  except  merchandise 
which  may  be  required  to  pay  a  license  tax,  being  in  any  county  in  this 
state,  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  this  act,  and  the  person  listin| 
the  property  shall  enter  a  true  and  correct  statement  of  such  property  ii 
a  printed  or  written  blank  prepared  for  that   purpose,*  which  statement 
after  being  filled  out,  shall  be  signed  and  sworn  to,  to  the  extent  required 
by  this  act,  by  the  person  listing  the  property,  and  delivered  to   the 
assessor,  and  such  assessor's  book  shall  be  arranged  and  divided  into  two 
parts:     The  "land  list"  and  the  "personal  property  list."     If  any  tax- 
payer shall  fail  or  neglect  to  pay  such  collector  his  taxes  at  the  time  and 
place  required  by  such  notices,  then  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  collector 
after  the  first  day  of  January  then  next,  to  collect  and  account  for  as 
other  taxes,  an  additional  tax,  as  a  penalty,  of  one  per  cent  per  month 
upon  all  taxes  collected  by  him  after  the  first  day  of  January,  as  afore- 
said, and  in  computing  said  additional  tax  or  penalty  a  fractional  part  of 
a  month  shall  not  be  counted  as  a  whole  month.     Collectors  shall  on  the 
day  of  their  annual  settlement  with  the  county  court,  file  with  said  court  a 
statement  under  oath  of  the  amount  so  received,  and  from  whom  received, 
and  settle  with  the  court  therefor;  -provided,  however,  that  said  interest 
shall  not  be  chargeable  against  persons  who  are  absent  from  their  homes 


and  engaged  in  the  military  service  of  this  state,  or  of  the  United  States, 
or  against  any  tax  payer  who  shall  pay  his  taxes  to  the  collector  at  any 
time  before  the  first  day  of  January  in  each  year;  provided,  that  the 
provisions  of  this  section  shall  apply  to  the  city  of  St.  Louis  so  far  as  the 
same  relates  to  the  addition  of  said  interest  which  in  said  city  shall  be 
collected  and  accounted  for  by  the  collector  as  other  taxes,  for  which  he 
shall  receive  no  compensation. 

Every  county  collector  shall  on  or  before  the  fifteenth  day  of  each 
month  pay  to  the  state  treasurer  all  taxes  or  licenses  received  by  him 
prior  to  the  first  day  of  the  month. 

The  sheriff's  deed  executed  to  the  purchaser  of  real  estate  under  a  sale 
for  delinquent  taxes,  which  shall  be  acknowledged  before  the  circuit  court 
of  the  county  or  city  as  in  ordinary  cases;  shall  conyey  a  title  in  fee  to 
such  purchaser  of  the  real  estate  therein  named,  and  shall  be  -prima  facie 
evidence  of  title,  and  the  matters  and  things  therein  stated  are  true. 



At  the  general  election  in  the  year  eighteen  hundred  and  eighty,  and 
every  two  years  thereafter,  there  shall  be  elected  one  judge  of  the 
supreme  court,  who  shall  hold  his  office  for  a  term  of  ten  years  from  the 
first  day  of  January  next  after  his  election,  and  until  his  successor  is  duly 
elected  and  qualified.  The  majority  of  the  judges  may  order  special 


At  the  general  election  in  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
eighty,  and  at  the  general  election  every  sixth  year  thereafter,  except  as 
otherwise  provided  by  law,  all  the  circuit  judges  shall  be  elected,  and 
shall  enter  upon  their  offices  on  the  first  Monday  in  January  next  ensuing. 
Circuit  courts  in  the  respective  counties  in  which  they  may  be  held  shall 
have  power  and  jurisdiction  as  follows :  First,  as  courts  of  law  in  all 
criminal  cases  which  shall  not  be  otherwise  provided  for  by  law.  Second, 
exclusive  original  jurisdiction  in  all  civil  cases  which  shall  not  be  cogniz- 
able before  the  county  courts,  probate  courts,  and  justices  of  the  peace 
and  not  otherwise  provided  by  law.  Third,  concurrent  original  jurisdic- 
tion with  justices  of  the  peace  in  all  civil  actions  and  proceedings  for  the 
recovery  of  money,  whether  such  action  be  founded  upon  contract  or 
trust  or  upon  a" bond  or  undertaking  given  in  pursuance  of  law  in  any 
civil  action  or  proceeding,  or  for  a  penalty  or  forfeiture  given  by  any 
statute  of  this  state  when  the  sum  demanded,  exclusive  of  interest  and 
cost,  shall  exceed  fifty  dollars  and  does  not  exceed  one  hundred  and  fifty 
dollars,  and  of  all  actions  against  any  railroad  company  in  this  state  to 
recover  damages  for  the  killing  or  injuring  of  horses,  mules,  cattle  or 


other  animals,  without  regard  to  the  value  of  such  animals  or  the  amount 
claimed  for  killing  or  injury,  the  same  in  all  counties  or  cities  having  over 
fifty  thousand  inhabitants;  concurrent  original  jurisdiction  with  justices 
of  the  peace  of  all  actions  and  proceedings  for  the  recovery  of  money, 
whether  such  actions  be  founded  upon  contract  or  tort  or  upon  a  bond 
or  undertaking  given  in  any  civil  action  or  proceeding,  or  for  a  penalty  or 
forfeiture  given  by  any  statute  of  this  state  when  the  sum  demanded, 
exclusive  of  interest  and  cost,  shall  exceed  fifty  dollars  and  not  exceed 
two  hundred  and  fifty  dollars,  and  of  all  actions  against  any  railroad  com- 
pany in  this  state  to  recover  damages  for  the  killing  or  injuring  horses, 
mules,  cattle  or  other  animals,  without  regard  to  the  value  of  such  ani- 
mals or  the  amount  of  damages  claimed  for  killing  or  injuring  the  same. 
Fourth,  appellate  jurisdiction  from  the  judgments  and  orders  of  the  coun- 
ty court,  probate  court,  and  justices  of  the  peace  in  all  cases  not  expressly 
prohibited  by  law,  and  shall  possess  the  superintending  control  over  them. 
Fifth,  the  general  control  over  executors,  administrators,  guardians,  cura- 
tors, minors,  idiots,  lunatics,  and  persons  of  unsound  mind. 


The  county  court  shall  be  composed  of  three  members,  to  be  styled  the 
judges  of  the  county  court;  and  each  county  shall  be  districted  by  the 
county  court  thereof  into  two  districts  of  contiguous  territory,  as  near 
equal  in  population  as  practicable,  without  dividing  municipal  townships. 
Judges  of  this  court  shall  be  elected  for  a  term  of  two  years.  At  the 
general  election  of  1882,  they  shall  be  elected  for  four  years.  Four  terms 
of  the  county  court  shall  be  held  in  each  county  annually,  at  the  place  of 
holding  courts  therein,  commencing  on  the  first  Monday  in  February, 
May,  August,  and  November,  and  shall  also  have  power  to  order  special 
terms.  This  court  has  control  of  county  property,  settling  with  county 
treasurers,  etc. 


A  probate  court  which  shall  be  a  court  of  record  and  consist  of  one 
judge  is  hereby  established  in  the  city  of  St.  Louis  and  in  every  county  in 
this  state. 

Jurisdiction — Said  court  shall  have  jurisdiction  over  all  matters  per- 
taining to  probate  business,  to  granting  letters  testimentary  and  of  adminis- 
tration, the  appointment  of  guardians  and  curators  of  minors  and  per- 
sons of  unsound  mind,  settling  the  accounts  of  executors,  administrators, 
curators  and  guardians,  and  the  sale  or  leasing  of  lands  by  administrators, 
curators  and  guardians,  and  over  all  matters  relating  to  apprentices,  and 
such  judges  shall  have  the  power  to  solemnize  marriages. 

Judges  of  this  court  shall  be  elected  in  the  year  eighteen  hundred  and 
seventy-eight,  and  every  four  years  thereafter.  Said  judge  shall  be  com- 
missioned by  the  governor  and  shall  hold  his  office  for  four  years. 



The  qualified  voters  of  the  counties  of  the  city  of  St.  Louis,  the  counties 
of  St.  Louis,  St.  Charles,  Lincoln  and  Warren,  shall  elect  a  judge  of  the 
St.  Louis  court  of  appeals,  who  shall  be  a  resident  of  district  composed  of 
said  counties,  and  who  shall  hold  offices  for  a  term  of  twelve  years.  The 
St.  Louis  court  of  appeals  shall  consist  of  three  judges,  who  shall  possess 
the  same  qualifications  as  judges  of  the  supreme  court.  The  court  shall 
have  a  marshal,  janitor  and  reporter. 



Offenses  punishable  with  death  or  imprisonment  in  the  penitentiary  dur- 
ing life,  may  be  prosecuted  at  any  time  after  the  offense  shall  have  been 

For  felonies  other  than  above  mentioned,  within  three  years  after  the 
commission  of  the  offense. 

For  any  offense  other  than  felony  or  fine  or  forfeiture,  within  one  year 
after  the  commission  of  the  offense. 

Actions  and  suits  upon  statute  for  penalty  or  forfeiture  given  in  whole 
or  part,  to  any  person  who  will  prosecute  within  one  year  after  the  com- 
missions of  the  offense. 

When  penalty  is  given  in  whole  or  in  part  to  the  state,  or  county  or 
city  or  the  treasurer  of  the  same,  suit  must  be  brought  within  two  years. 

Actions  upon  any  statute  for  any  penalty  or  forfeiture  given  in  whole  or 
in  part  to  the  party  aggrieved  within  three  years. 

Actions  against  moneyed  corporations,  or  against  the  directors  or  stock- 
holders of  the  same,  shall  be  brought  within  six  years  of  the  discovery. 


Civil  actions  other  than  those  for  the  recovery  of  real  propery,  must 
be  commenced  within  the  periods  here  prescribed. 

Actions  upon  any  writing,  whether  sealed  or  unsealed,  for  the  payment 
of  money  or  property,  within  ten  years. 

Actions  brought  on  any  covenant  of  warranty  in  deed,  or  conveyance  of 
land;  within  ten  years. 

Actions  on  any  covenant  of  seizure  contained  in  any  such  deed,  within 
ten  years. 

Actions  upon  contracts,  obligations,  or  liabilities — express  or  implied, 
except  as  above  mentioned,  and  except  upon  judgments  or  decrees  of  a 
court  of  record,  within  five  years. 


Actions  upon  liability  created  by  statute,  other  than  penalty  or  forfeiture, 
five  years. 

Actions  for  trespass  on  real  estate,  five  years. 

Actions  for  taking,  detaining,  or  injuring  any  goods  or  chattels,  includ- 
ing actions  for  the  recovery  of  specific  personal  property,  or  for  any  other 
injury  to  the  person  or  rights  of  another  not  arising  on  contract  and  not 
otherwise  enumerated,  five  years. 

Actions  for  relief  on  the  ground  of  fraud,  five  years. 

Actions  against  a  sheriff,  coroner,  or  other  public  officer  upon  a  liability 
incurred  by  doing  an  act  in  his  official  capacity,  or  the  omission  of  an 
official  duty,  non-payment  of  money  collected,  etc.,  three  years. 

Actions  upon  a  statute  for  a  penalty  or  forfeiture  where  the  action  is 
given  to  the  party  aggrieved,  or  to  such  party  and  the  state,  three  years. 

Actions  for  libel,  slander,  assault  and  battery,  false  imprisonment,  or 
•criminal  conversation,  two  years. 


Actions  for  the  recovery  of  any  lands,  tenements,  or  hereditaments,  or 
for  the  recovery  of  the  possession  thereof,  shall  be  commenced  by  any 
person  whether  citizen,  denizen,  alien,  resident  or  non-resident,  unless 
his  ancestor,  predecessor,  grantor,  or  other  person  under  whom  he  claims 
was  seized  or  possessed  of  the  premises  in  question,  within  ten  years 
before  the  commencement  of  such  actions,  except  in  case  of  military  bounty 
lands,  which  must  be  brought  within  two  years.  » 

No  entry  upon  any  lands,  tenements  or  hereditaments  shall  be  valid  as  a 
claim,  unless  the  action  be  commenced  thereon  within  one  year  after  the 
making  of  such  entry,  and  within  ten  years  from  the  time  when  the  right 
to  make  such  entry  accrued. 

If  anv  person  entitled  to  bring  an  action  as  above  stated,  shall  be  under 
twenty-one  years  of  age,  or  imprisoned  for  less  than  life,  or  insane,  or  a 
married  woman,  the  time  during  such  disability  shall  continue,  shall  not  be 
deemed  any  portion  of  the  time  limited  for  the  com^nencement  of  such 
action  or  the  making  of  such  entry  after  the  time  so  limited,  and  may  b 
brought  in  three  years  after  the  disability  is  removed. 

If  an}'  person  having  the  right  to  bring  such  action  or  make  such  entr 
die  during  the   disability  mentioned,   and   no  determination  be  had  of  the 
right,  tide,  or  action  to  him  accrued,  his  heirs«or  any  one  claiming  under 
him,  may  commence  such  action  within  three  years.  # 



A  grand  jury  shall  consist  of  twelve  men,  and,  unless  otherwise  ordere 
as  hereinafter  provided,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  sheriff  of  each  count 
in  the  state  to  summon  within  the  time  prescribed  by  law  a  panel  of 



grand  jurors,  consisting  of  twelve  good  and  lawful  men,  selected  from 
the  different  townships  of  his  county,  as  near  as  may  be  in  proportion  to 
the  number  of  male  citizens  in  each,  to  be  returned  to  each  regular  term 
of  the  courts  in  his  county  having  criminal  jurisdiction. 

Every  juror,  grand  and  petit,  shall  be  a  male  citizen  of  the  state, 
resident  in  the  county,  sober  and  intelligent,  of  good  reputation,  over 
twenty-one  years  of  age,  and  otherwise  qualified. 

In  all  counties  having  a  population  less  than  twenty  thousand  inhabit- 
ants, every  juror,  grand  and  petit,  shall  be  a  male  citizen  of  the  state, 
resident  in  the  county,  sober  and  intelligent,  of  good  reputation,  over 
twenty-one  years  of  age,  and  otherwise  qualified. 

No  exception  to  a  juror  on  account  of  his  citizenship,  non-residence, 
state,  or  age,  or  other  legal  disability,  shall  be  allowed  after  the  jury  is 

No  person  being  a  member  of  any  volunteer  fire  department  duly 
organized  and  ready  for  active  service ;  no  person  employed  in  any  paid 
fire  department,  and  no  person  exercising  the  functions  of  a  clergyman, 
practitioner  of  medicine,  or  attorney-at-law,  clerk  or  other  officer  of  any 
court,  ferry-keeper,  postmaster,  overseer  of  roads,  coroner,  constable, 
miller,  professor  or  other  teacher  in  any  school  or  institution  of  learning, 
judge  of  a  court  of  record,  or  any  person  over  the  age  of  sixty-five  years 
shall  be  compelled  to  serve  on  any  jury. 

No  person  shall  be  summoned  to  serve  at  more  than  one  term  of  court, 
either  as  grand  or  petit  juror,  within  the  period  of  one  year  in  any  court 
of  record.  Each  person  summoned  under  this  act  shall  receive  one  dollar 
and  fifty  cents  per  day  for  every  day  he  shall  serve  as  such,  and  five  cents 
for  every  mile  he  may  necessarily  travel  in  going  from  his  place  of  resi- 
dence to  the  court  house  and  returning  to  the  same,  to  be  paid  out  of  the 
county  treasury. 

All  persons  duly  summoned  as  grand  or  petit  jurors  may  be  attached 
for  non-attendance,  and  fined  by  the  court  for  contempt  in  any  sum  not 
exceeding  fifty  dollars,  in  the  discretion  of  the  court. 

In  all  suits  which  hereafter  may  be  pending  in  any  court  of  record  in 
this  state  the  clerk  shall,  if  a  jury  be  sworn  to  try  the  same,  tax  up  as 
other  costs  against  the  unsuccessful  party  a  jury  fee  of  six  dollars,  which 
shall  be  collected  by  the  sheriff,  and  paid  into  the  hands  of  the  county 
treasurer,  who  shall  keep  an  account  thereof,  in  a  separate  book  to  be 
provided  for  that  purpose,  and  the  money  so  collected  and  paid  in  shall 
constitute  a  jury  fund. 

Grand  jurors  shall  not  be  compelled  to  serve  on  a  petit  jury  during  the 
same  term. 

In  all  civil  cases  in  courts  of  record,  where  "a.  jury  is  demanded,  there 
shall  be  summoned  and  returned  eighteen  qualified  jurors;  but  in  appeal 


cases  the  number  shall  be  the  same  as  allowed  by  law  in  the  courts  from 
which  the  appeals  are  taken,  and  the  number  of  peremptory  challenges  in 

In  the  trial  of  civil  causes,  each  party  shall  be  entitled  to  challenge  per- 
emptorily three  jurors. 


The  homestead  of  every  housekeeper  or  head  of  a  family,  consisting  of 
a  dwelling-house  and  appurtenances,  and  the  land  used  in  connection  there- 
with, which  shall  be  used  by  such  housekeeper  or  head  of  a  family  as  such 
homestead,  shall  be  exempt  from  attachment  and  execution.  'Such  home- 
stead in  the  country  shall  not  include  more  than  160  acres  of  land  or  exceed 
the  total  value  of  $1,500 ;  and  in  cities  having  a  population  of  40,000  or 
more  such  homestead  shall  not  include  more  than  eighteen  square  rods  of 
ground,  or  exceed  the  total  value  of  three  thousand  dollars;  and  in  cities 
or  incorporated  towns  and  villages  having  a  less  population  than  40,000, 
such  homestead  shall  not  include  more  than  thirty  square  rods  of  ground, 
or  exceed  the  total  value  of  $1,500.  After  the  filing  by  the  wife  of  her 
claim  upon  the  homestead  as  such,  the  husband  shall  be  debarred  from 
and  incapable  of  selling,  mortgaging  or  alienating  the  homestead  in  any 
manner  whatever. 

A  husband  and  wife  may  convev  the  real  estate  of  the  wife,  and  the 
wife  may  relinquish  her  dower  in  the  real  estate  of  her  husband,  by  their 
joint  deed,  acknowledged  and  certified  as  herein  provided,  but  no  covenant 
expressed  or  implied  in  such  deed  shall  bind  the  wife  or  the  heirs  except 
so  far  as  may  be  necessary  effectually  to  convey  from  her  or  her  heirs  all 
her  right,  title  and  interest  expressed  to  be  conveyed  therein. 

A  married  woman  may  convey  her  real  estate  or  relinquish  her  dower 
in  the  real  estate  of  her  husband  by  a  power  of  attorney  authorizing  its 
conveyance,  executed  and  acknowledged  by  her  jointly  with  her  husband, 
as  deeds  conveying  real  estate  by  them  are  required  to  be  executed  and 

If  any  married  woman  shall  hold  real  estate  in  her  own  right,  and  her 
husband,  by  criminal  conduct  towardaher,  or  by  ill  usage,  shall  give  such 
married  woman  cause  to  live  separate  and  apart  from  her  husband,  such 
woman  may  by  her  next  friend  petition  the  circuit  court,  setting  forth  such 
facts,  and  therein  pray  that  such  estate  may  be  enjoyed  by  her  for  her 
sole  use  and  benefit. 

Any  personal  property,  including  rights  in  action,  belonging  to  any 
woman  at  her  marriage,  or  which  may  have  come  to  her  during  coverture 
by  gift,  bequest  or  inheritance,  or  by  purchase  with  her  separate  money 
or  means,  or  be  due  as  the  wages  of  her  separate  labor,  or  have  grown 
out  of  any  violation  of  her  personal  rights,  shall,  together  with  all  income, 
increase   and   profits   thereof,   be  and  remain  her  separate  property,  and 


under  her  sole  control,  and  shall  not  be  liable  to  be  taken  by  any  process 
of  law  for  the  debts  of  her  husband. 

Whenever  the  personal  property  of  any  homestead  or  head  of  a  family 
shall  be  attached  or  taken  in  execution,  the  debtor  therein  shall  claim  that 
the  same,  or  any  part  thereof,  is  the  product  of  such  homestead,  the  officer 
taking  the  same  shall  cause  appraisers  to  be  appointed  and  sworn,  as  in 
the  case  of  the  levy  of  execution  on  real  estate,  and  such  appraisers  shall 
decide  upon  such  claim  and  settle  the  products  of  such  homestead  to  such 
debtor  accordingly,  and  the  proceedings  therein  shall  be  stated  by  such 
officer  in  his  return. 

Any  policy  of  insurance  heretofore  or  hereafter  made  by  any  insurance 
company  on  the  life  of  any  person,  expressed  to  be  for  the  benefit  of  any 
married  woman,  whether  the  same  be  effected  by  herself  or  by  her  hus- 
band, or  by  any  third  person  in  her  behalf,  shall  inure  to  her  separate  use 
and  benefit  and  that  of  her  children,  if  any,  independently  of  her  husband 
and  of  his  creditors  and  representatives,  and  also  independently  of  such 
third  person  effecting  the  same  in  his  behalf,  his  creditors  and  representa- 

The  following  property  only  shall  be  exempt  from  attachment  and  exe- 
cution when  owned  by  any  person  other  than  the  head  of  a  family:  First, 
the  wearing  apparel  of  all  persons.  Second,  the  necessary  tools  and 
implements  of  trade  of  any  mechanic  while  carrying  on  his  trade. 

The  following  property,  when  owned  by  the  head  of  a  family,  shall  be 
exempt  from  attachment  and  execution.  First,  ten  head  of  choice  hogs, 
ten  head  of  choice  sheep,  or  the  product  thereof,  in  wool,  yarn  or  cloth; 
two  cows  and  calves,  two  plows,  one  axe,  one  hoe  and  one  set  of  plow 
gears  and  all  necessary  farm  implements  for  the  use  of  one  man.  Second, 
wording  animals  of  the  value  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars.  Third, 
the  spinning  wheel  and  cards,  one  loom  and  apparatus  necessary  for  man- 
ufacturing cloth  in  a  private  family.  Fourth,  all  the  spun  yarn,  thread 
and  cloth,  manufactured  for  family  use.  Fifth,  any  quantity  of  hemp,  flax 
and  wool  not  exceeding  twenty-five  pounds  each.  Sixth,  all  wearing 
apparel  of  the  family,  four  beds  with  their  usual  bedding,  and  such  other 
household  and  kitchen  furniture  not  exceeding  the  value  of  one  hundred 
dollars,  as  may  be  necessary  for  the  family,  agreeably  to  an  inventory 
thereof  to  be  returned  on  oath,  with  the  execution,  by  the  officer  whose 
duty  it  may  be  to  levy  the  same.  Seventh,  the  necessary  tools  and  imple- 
ments of  trade  of  any  mechanic,  while  carrying  on  his  trade.  Eighth, 
all  arms  and  equipments  required  by  law  to  be  kept.  Ninth,  all  such 
provisions  as  may  be  found  on  hand  for  family  use,  not  exceeding  one 
hundred  dollars  in  value.      Tenth,  the  bibles  and  other  books  used  in  a 


family,  lettered  grave  stones,  and  one  pew  in  a  house  of  worship. 
Eleventh^  all  lawyers,  physicians  and  ministers  of  the  gospel  shall  have 
the  privilege  of  selecting  such  books  as  may  be  necessary  in  their  profes- 
sion, in  the  place  of  other  property  herein  allowed  at  their  option ;  that 
doctors  of  medicine  in  lieu  of  the  property  exempt  from  execution, 
may  be  allowed  to  select  their  medicines.  In  all  cases  of  the  sale  of  per- 
sonal property,  the  same  shall  be  subject  to  execution  against  the  pur- 
chaser on  a  judgment  for  the  purchase  price  thereof,  and  shall  in  no  case 
be  exempt  from  such  judgment  and  execution  for  the  purchase  price  as 
between  the  vendor,  his  assignee,  heir  or  legal  representative  and  pur- 
chaser. « 


All  fields  and  inclosures  shall  be  inclosed  by  hedge,  or  with  a  fence 
sufficiently  close,  composed  of  posts  and  rails,  posts  and  palings,  posts  and 
planks,  posts  and  wires,  palisades  or  rails  alone,  laid  up  in  the  manner  com- 
monly called  a  worm  fence,  or  of  turf  with  ditches  on  each  side,  or  of 
stone  or  brick. 

All  hedges  shall  be  at  least  four  feet  high,  and  all  fences  composed  of 
posts  and  rails,  posts  and  palings,  posts  and  wire,  posts  and  planks  or  pal- 
isades shall  be  at  least  four  and  a  half  feet  high;  those  composed  of  turf 
shall  be  at  least  four  feet  high  and  with  ditches  on  either  side,  at  least 
three  feet  wide  at  the  top  and  three  feet  deep;  and  what  is  commonly 
called  a  worm  fence  shall  be  at  least  five  feet  high  to  the  top  of  the  rider, 
or  if  not  ridered  shall  be  five  feet  to  the  top  of  the  top  rail  or  pole  and 
shall  be  locked  with  strong  rails,  poles  or  stakes;  those  composed  of  stone 
or  brick  shall  be  at  least  four  and  a  half  feet  high. 

Wherever  the  fence  of  any  owner  of  real  estate  now  erected  or  con- 
structed, serves  to  enlose  the  lands  of  another,  or  which  shall  become  a 
part  of  the  fence  enclosing  the  land  of  another,  on  demand  made  by  ..the 
person  owning  such  fence,  such  other  person  shall  pay  the  owner  one- 
half  the  value  of  so  much  thereof  as  serves  to  enclose  his  land;  and  upon 
such  payment  shall  own  an  undivided  half  of  such  fence. 

Provided,  The  person  thus  benefitted  shall  have  the  option  to  build 
within  eight  months  from  date  of  such  demand,  a  lawful  fence  half  the 
distance  along  the  line  covered  by  the  above  mentioned  fence.  The 
demand  shall  be  made  in  writing  and  served  on  the  party  interested,  his 
agent  or  attorney,  or  left  with  some  member  of  the  family  over  fourteen 
years  of  age,  at  his  usual  place  of  abode.  If  the  party  notified  fails  to 
comply  with  the  demand  within  the  specified  time,  the  party  making  the 
demand  may,  at  his  option,  proceed  to  enforce  the  collection  of  one-half 
the  value  of  such  fence,  or  remove  his  fence  without  any  other  or  further 

Every  person  owning  a  part  of  a  division  fence,  shall  keep  the  same 

:  in 


good  repair,  according  to  the  requirements  of  the  act,  and  upon  neglect 
or  refusal  to  do  so,  shall  be  liable  in  double  damages  to  the  party  injured 

If  the  parties  interested  shall  fail  to  agree  as  to  the  value  of  one-half 
of  such  fence,  the  owner  of  the  fence  may  apply  to  a  justice  of  the  peace 
of  the  township,  who  shall,  without  delay,  issue  an  order  to  three  disinter- 
ested householders  of  the  township,  not  of  kin  to  either  party,  reciting  the 
complaint,  and  requiring  them  to  view  the  fence,  estimate  the  value 
thereof,  and  make  return  under  oath  to  the  justice  on  the  day  named  in 
the  order. 

If  the  person  thus  assessed  or  charged  with  the  value  of  one-half  of 
any  fence,  shall  neglect  or  refuse  to  pay  over  to  the  owner  of  such  fence 
the  amount  so  awarded,  the  same  may  be  recovered  before  a  justice  of  the 
peace  or  other  court  of  competent  jurisdiction. 


The  overseers  of  highways  in  each  road  district  in  each  township,  shall 
have  care  and  superintendence  of  all  highways  and  bridges  therein,  and 
it  shall  be  their  duty  to  have  all  highways  and  bridges  kept  in  good  repair, 
and  to  cause  to  be  built  all  such  bridges  as  public  necessity  may  require, 
said  bridges  to  be  built  b}'  contract,  let  to  the  lowest  responsible  bidder, 
and  to  be  paid  for  out  of  any  money  in  the  overseer's  hands,  or  in  the 
treasury  for  road  or  bridge  purposes.  But  in  no  case  shall  the  overseer* 
take  such  contract,  either  for  himself  or  by  his  agent. 

It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  overseer  of  highways  to  name  all  residents 
of  the  district  against  whom  a  land  or  personal  tax  is  assessed,  giving 
them  two  days  notice  to  work  out  the  same  upon  the  highways,  and  he 
shall  receive  such  tax  in  labor  from  every  able  bodied  man,  or  his  or  her 
substitute,  at  the  rate  of  $1.50  per  day,  and  in  proportion  for  a  less 
amount,  provided  that  any  person  may  pay  such  tax  in  money.  The 
township  board  of  directors  shall  have  the  power  to  assess  upon  all  real 
estate  and  personal  property  in  their  township  made  taxable  by  law  for 
state  and  county  purposes,  a  sufficient  tax  to  keep  the  roads  and  highways 
of  the  various  road  districts  in  their  township  in  good  repair,  which  tax 
shall  be  levied  as  follows:  for  every  one  mill  tax  upon  the  dollar  levied 
upon  real  and  personal  property,  as  valued  on  the  assessor's  roll  of  the 
previous  year,  the  township  board  of  directors  shall  require  one  day's 
work  of  each  person  subject  to  work  on  roads  and  highways,  and  no 

Poor  persons  shall  be  relieved,  maintained  and  supported  by  the  county 
of  which  they  are  inhabitants. 

Aged,  infirm,  lame,  blind,  or  sick  persons   who  are  unable  to  support 


themselves,  and  where  there  are  no  other  persons  required  by  law  and 
able  to  maintain  them,  shall  be  deemed  poor  persons. 

No  person  shall  be  deemed  an  inhabitant  within  the  meaning  of  this 
chapter,  who  has  not  resided  for  the  space  of  twelve  months  next  preced- 
ing the  time  of  any  order  being  made  respecting  such  person  in  the  county, 
or  who  shall  have  removed  from  another  county  for  the  purpose  of  impos- 
ing the  burden  or  keeping  such  person  on  the  county  where  he  or  she  last 
resided  for  the  time  aforesaid. 


Every  landlord  shall  have  a  lien  on  the  crops  grown  on  the  demised 
premises  in  any  year  for  the  rent  that  shall  accrue  for  such  year;  and  such 
lien  shall  continue  for  eight  months  after  such  rent  shall  become  due  and 
payable,  and  no  longer.  When  the  demised  premises  or  any  portion 
thereof  are  used  for  the  purpose  of  growing  nursery  stock,  the  lien  shall 
exist  and  continue  in  such  stock  until  the  same  shall  have  been  removed 
from  the  premises  and  sold. 

No  tenant  for  a  term,  not  exceeding  two  years,  or  at  will,  or  by  suffer- 
ance, shall  assign  or  transfer  his  term,  or  interest,  or  any  part  thereof  to 
another,  without  the  written  assent  of  the  landlord,  or  person  holding 
under  him. 

Either  party  may  terminate  a  tenancy  from  year  to  year,  by  giving 
notice  in  writing  of  his  intention  to  terminate  the  same,  of  not  less  than 
three  months  next  before  the  end  of  the  year. 

A  tenancy  at  will,  or  by  sufferance,  or  for  less  than  one  year,  may  be 
terminated  by  the  person  entitled  to  the  possession,  by  giving  one  month's 
notice,  in  writing  to  the  person  in  possession,  requiring  him  to  remove. 
All  contracts  or  agreements  for  the  leasing,  renting,  or  occupation  of  stores, 
shops,  houses,  tenements,  or  other  buildings  in  cities,  towns,  or  villages/not 
made  in  writing,  signed  by  the  parties  thereto,  or  their  agents,  shall  be 
held  and  taken  to  be  tenancies  from  month  to  month;  and  all  such  tenan- 
cies may  be  terminated  by  either  party  thereto,  or  his  agent,  giving  to  the 
other  party  or  his  agent  one  month's  notice  in  writing,  of  his  intention  to 
terminate  such  tenancy. 

No  notice  to  quit  shall  be  necessary  from  or  to  a  tenant  whose  time  is 
to  end  at  a  certain  time,  or  where  by  special  agreement,  notice  is  dis- 
pensed with. 

A  landlord  may  recover  a  reasonable  satisfaction  for  the  use  and  occu- 
pation of  any  lands  or  tenements,  held  by  any  person  under  an  agreement 
not  made  by  deed. 

Property  exempt  from  execution  shall  be  also  exempt  from  attachment 
for  rent,  except  the  crops  grown  on  the  demised  premises  on  which  the 
rent  claimed  is  due. 


If  any  tenant  for  life  or  years,  shall  commit  waste  during  his  estate  or 
term,  of  any  thing  belonging  to  the  tenement  so  held,  without  special 
license  in  writing,  so  to  do,  he  shall  be  subject  to  a  civil  action  for  such 
waste  and  shall  lose  the  thing  so  wasted  and  pay  treble  the  amount  at 
which  the  waste  shall  be  assessed. 

A  bill  of  sale  is  a  written  agreement  to  another  party  for  a  considera- 
tion to  convey  his  right  and  interest  in  the  personal  property.     The  pur- 
chaser must  take  actual  possession 'of  the  property,  or  the  bill  of  sale 
must  be  acknowledged  and  recorded. 


Know  all  men  by  these  -presents,  That  I,  David  Franklin,  of  Lexington, 
Missouri,  of  the  first  part,  for  and  in  consideration  of  three  hundred'dollars, 
to  me  in  hand  paid  by  Albert  Brown,  of  the  same  place,  of  the  second 
part,  the  receipt  whereof  is  hereby  acknowledged,  have  sold,  and  by  this 
instrument  do  convey  unto  the  said  Brown,  party  of  the  second  part,  his 
executors,  administrators  and  assigns,  my  undivided  half  of  forty  acres  of 
corn  now  growing  on  the  farm  of  William  Mason,  in  the  township  of  Jackson, 
Lafayette  county,  Missouri;  one  pair  of  horses,  twenty  head  of  hogs,  and  six 
cows  belonging  to  me  and  in  my  possession  at  the  farm  aforesaid ;  to  have  and 
to  hold  the  same  unto  the  party  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs,  executors,  and 
assigns,  forever.  And  I  do  for  myself  and  legal  representatives  agree 
with  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  and  bis  legal  representatives,  to 
warrant  and  defend  the  sale  of  the  aforementioned  property  and  chattels, 
unto  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  and  his  legal  representatives, 
against  all  and  every  person  whatsoever. 

In  witness  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  affixed  my  hand  this  first  day  of 
June,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-six. 

David  Franklin. 


Any  lodge  of  Free  Masons,  or  Odd  Fellows,  division  of  Sons  of  Tem- 
perance or  any  other  association  organized  for  benevolent  or  charitable 
purposes,  or  any  library  company,  school,  college,  or  other  association, 
organized  for  the  promotion  of  literature,  science,  or  art,  or  any  gymnastic 
or  other  association,  organized  for  the  purpose  of  promoting  bodily  or 
mental  health,  and  all  societies,  organized  for  the  purpose  of  promoting 
either  of  the  objects  above  named,  and  for  all  similar  purposes,  by  what- 
evername  they  may  be  known,  consisting  of  not  less  than  three  persons, 
may  be  constituted  and  declared  a  body  politic  and  corporate,  with  all  the 
privileges,  and  subject  to  all  the  liabilities  and  restrictions  contained  in  this 
act.    Acts  1868,  page  28. 


All  associations  incorporated  under  the  provisions  of  the  above  law  shall 
file  a  copy  of  all  amendments  to  their  articles  of  association,  certified  as 
such  under  their  seal,  with  the  clerk  of  the  circuit  court,  within  sixty  days 
after  their  passage. 

Any  number  of  persons,  not  less  than  three  in  number,  may  become  an 
incorporated  church,  religious  society,  or  congregation,  by  complying 
with  the  provisions  of  this  chapter,  except  that  it  will  be  sufficient  if  the 
petition  be  signed  by  all  the  persons  making  the  application,  and  when  so 
incorporated,  such  persons  and  their  ( associates  and  successors  shall  be 
known  by  the  corporate  name  specified  in  the  certificate  of  incorporation, 
and  shall  be  entitled  to  all  the  privileges,  and  capable  of  exercising  all  the 
powers  conferred,  or  authorized  to  be  conferred  by  the  constitution  of  this 
state  upon  such  corporation.     Acts  1871-2,  P.  16,  Sec.  1. 

Anv  such  corporation  shall  have  power  to  raise  money  in  any  manner 
agreed  upon  in  the  articles  of  association. 


A  dramshop-keeper  is  a  person  permitted  by  law  to  sell  intoxicating 
liquors  in  any  quantity  not  exceeding  ten  gallons. 

No  person  shall  directly  or  indirectly  sell  intoxicating  liquors  in  any 
quantity  less  than  one  gallon  without  taking  out  a  license  as  a  dramshop- 

Application  for  a  license  as  a  dramshop-keeper  shall  be  made  in  writing 
to  the  county  court,  and  shall  state  where  the  dramshop  is  to  be  kept,  and 
if  the  court  shall  be  of  opinion  that  the  applicant  is  a  person  of  good 
character,  the  court  may  grant  a  license  for  six  months. 

Any  sale,  gift  or  other  disposition  of  intoxicating  liquors  made  to  any 
minor  without  the  permission  or  consent  herein  required,  or  to  any  hab- 
itual drunkard,  by  any  clerk,  agent,  or  other  person  acting  for  any  dram- 
shop-keeper, druggist,  merchant,  or  other  person,  shall  be  deemed  and 
taken  to  be  as  the  act  of  such  dramshop-keeper,  druggist,  merchant,  or 
other  person. 

Intoxicating  liquors  may  be  sold  in  any  quantity  not  less  than  a  quart 
at  the  place  where  made,  but  the  maker  or  seller  shall  not  permit  or  suffer 
the  same  to  be  drank  at  the  place  of  sale,  nor  at  any  place  under  the 
control  of  either  or  both.  Any  person  convicted  of  a  violation  of  the 
provisions  of  this  section  shall  be  fined  a  sum  not  less  than  $40  nor  more 
than  $200.  Provided,  that  nothing  herein  contained  shall  be  so  con- 
strued as  to  affect  the  right  of  any  person  having  a  wine  and  beer  house 
license  to  sell  wine  and  beer  in  any  quantity  not  exceeding  ten  gallons  at 
any  place.  * 

Any  dramshop-keeper,  druggist,  or  merchant  selling,  giving  away  or 
otherwise  disposing  of  any  intoxicating  liquors  to  any  habitual  drunkard, 


after  such  dramshop-keeper,  druggist,  or  merchant  shall  have  been  noti- 
fied by  the  wife,  father,  mother,  brother,  sister,  or  guardian  of  such  per- 
son not  to  sell,  give  away  or  furnish  to  such  person  any  intoxicating 
liquors,  shall  be  deemed  guilty  of  a  misdemeanor,  and  upon  conviction 
thereof,  shall  be  fined  in  any  sum  not  less  than  $40  nor  more  than  $200, 
and  upon  conviction  of  any  dramshop-keeper  it  shall  work  a  forfeiture  of 
his  license  to  keep  a  dramshop,  and  also  debar  him  from  again  obtaining 
a  license  for  that  purpose. 


This  Indenture,  made  on  the ....  day  of . . . .  A.  D.  one  thousand  eight 

hundred  and ,  by  and  between . . . .  of . . . .  part ....  of  the  first  part,  and 

....  of  the . . . .  of . . . . ,  in  the  state  of ... .  part . .  of  the  second  part. 

Witnesseth,  That  the  said  part . .  of  the  first  part,  in  consideration  of 
the  sum  of  ....  ^dollars,  to ... .  paid  by  the  said  part . .  of  the  second 
part,  the  receipt  of  which  is  hereby  acknowledged,  do . .  by  these  pres- 
ents, grant,  bargain,  and  sell,  convey,  and  confirm,  unto  the  said  part . .  of 
the  second  part, ....  heirs  and  assigns,  the  following  described  lots,  tracts, 
or  parcels  of  land,  lying,  being  and  situated  in  the. . .  .of. . .  .and  state  of 

. . . .,  to-wit: 

[Give  description  of  property.] 

To  have  and  to  hold  the  premises  aforesaid,  with  all  and  singular,  the 
rights,  privileges,  appurtenances,  immunities,  and  improvements  thereto 
belonging,  or  in  any  wise  appertaining  unto  the  said  part,  .of  the  second 
part,  and  unto ....  heirs  and  assigns,  forever;  the  said hereby  cov- 
enanting that....  will  warrant  and  defend  the  title  to  the  said  premises 

unto  the  said  part . .  of  the  second  part  and  unto heirs  and  assigns 

forever,  against  the  lawful  claims  and  demands  of  all   persons  whom- 

In  witness  whereof,  the  said  part,  .of  the  first  part  ha.  .hereunto  set. . 
hand . .  and  seal . .  the  day  and  year  first  above  written. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  in  presence  of  us. 



state  of  missouri, 

of ... .  [  Be  it  remembered,  that  on  this .... 

day  of A.  D.  18 ,  before  the  undersigned,  a within  and  for  the 

of and  state  of ... .  personally  came ....  who  are  personally  known 

to  me  to  be  the  same  persons  whose  names  are  subscribed  to  the  fore- 
going instrument  of  writing  as  parties  thereto,  and  they  acknowledged 
the  same  to  be  their  act  and  deed  for  the  purposes  therein  mentioned. 
And  the  said ....  being  by  me  first  made  acquainted  with  the  contents  of 
said  instrument,  upon  an  examination  separate  and  apart  from ....  hus- 
band   ,  acknowledged  that executed  the  same,  and  relinquishes 


dower,  in  the  real  estate  therein  mentioned,  freely  and  without  fear, 

compulsion  or  undue  influence  on  the  part  of . . . . said  husband. . . . ;  and 

I  certify  that  my  term  of  office  as  a  notary  public  will  expire  18 

In  testimony  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  affixed  my 
official  seal,  at  my  office  in ... .  this  day  and  year  first  above  written. 


This  indenture,  made  on  the day  of ,  A.  D.  one  thousand  eight 

hundred  and ,  by  and  between ,  of  the  county  of ,  and  state  of 

,  part     of  the  first  part,  and ,  of  the  county  of ,  and  state  of 

,  part     of  the  second  part, 

Witnesseth,  That  the  said  part     of  the  first  part,  in  consideration  of  the 

sum  of   Too  dollars,  to paid  by  the  said  part     of  the  second  part, 

the  receipt  of  which  is  hereby  acknowledged,  do  by  these  presents, 
remise,  release,  and  forever  quit-claim  unto  the  said  part  of  the  second 
part,  the  following  described  lots,  tracts,  or  parcels  of  land,  lying,  being 
and  situate  in  the  county  of  . . . .,  and  state  of  . . . .,  to  wit:  [Give  descrip- 
tion of  propert}'-.] 

*  [This  deed  of  quit-claim  being  made  in  release  of,  and  satisfaction  for 
a  certain  deed dated  the  . .  day  of . . . .,  18 . . ;  recorded  in  the  recor- 
der's office,  within  and  for  the  county  of aforesaid,  in  deed  book  . . , 

at  pages  . . . .] 

To  have  and  to  hold  the  same,  with  all  the  rights,  immunities,  privileges 
and  appurtenances  thereto  belonging,  unto  the  said  part     of  the  second 
part,  and  ....  heirs  and  assigns,  forever ;  so  that  neither  the  said  part 
of  the  first  part  nor  ....  heirs,  nor  any  other  person  or  persons  for  .... 

or  in name  or  behalf,  shall  or  will  hereafter  claim  or  demand  any 

right  or  title  to  the  aforesaid  premises,  or  any  part  thereof,  but  they  and 
every  of  them  shall,  by  these  presents,  be  excluded  and  forever  barred. 

In  witness  whereof,  That  said  part  of  the  first  part  ha  hereunto  set 
hand    and  seal  ,  the  day  and  year  first  above  written. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  in  presence  of  us. 



[Acknowledgment  same  as  in  General  Warranty  Deed.] 


Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that, of  the  county  of ,  in  the 

state  of for  and  in  consideration  of  the  sum  of dollars,  *o  the  said 

in  hand  paid  by ....  of  the  county  of in  the   state   of ha . . 

*  Omit  this  clause  in  case  this  deed  is  not  made  in  release  of  some  other  instrument. 


granted,  bargained  and  sold,  and  by  these  presents  do . .  grant,  bargain 

and   sell,  unto  the   said the   following   described ....  situated  in  the 

county  of in  the  state  of . . .  .that  is  to  say: 

[Give  description  of  property.] 
To  have  and  to  hold  the  property  and  premises  hereby  conveyed,  with 
all  the  rights,  privileges  and  appurtenances  thereunto  belonging,  or  in 
anywise  appertaining,  unto  said. . .  .heirs  and  assigns  forever;  upon  this 
express  condition,  whereas,  the  said ....  on  the ....  day  of ....  A.  D.  one 
thousand  eight  hundred  and ....  made,  executed  and  delivered  to  the  said 
. . .  .certain . . .  .described  as  follows,  to- wit: 

[Give  description  of  notes,  time  of  payment,  etc.] 

Now,  if  the  said ....  executor  or  administrator,  shall  pay  the  sum  di 
money  specified  in  said ....  and  all  the  interest  that  may  be  due  thereon, 

according  to  the  tenor  and  effect  of  said then  this  conveyance  shall  be 

void,  otherwise  it  shall  remain  in  full  force  and  virtue  in  law. 

In  witness  whereof, . . . . ,  the  said  grantor ....  and  mortgagor ....  ha . . 

hereunto  subscribed . . .  .name ....  and  affixed ....  seal this ....  day  of 

.   ..,  A.D.18... 



[Acknowledgment  same  as  General  Warranty  Deed.] 


Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  That of  the.  county  of ,  and 

state  of . . . . ,  in  consideration  of  the  sum  of . . . .  foo  dollars,  to ... .  paid  by 

....  of  the  county  of . . . .  and  state  of do  sell  and  convey  to  said .... 

the  following  goods  *and   chattels,  to-wit: 

[Here  describe  goods.] 

Warranted  free  of  incumbrances,  and  against  any  adverse  claims: 

Upon  condition,  That pay  to  the  said the  sum  of Too  dollars, 

and  interest,  agreeably  to note . .  dated  on  the day  of ,  18 . . , 

and  made  payable  to  the  said as  follows,  to-wit : then  this  deed 

shall  be  void,  otherwise  it  shall  remain  in  full  force  and  effect. 

The  parties  hereto  agree  That,  until  condition  broken,  said  property 

may  remain  in  possession  of but  after  condition  broken,  the  said .... 

may  at pleasure  take  and  remove  the  same,  and  may  enter  into  any 

building  or  premises  of  the  said ....  for  that  purpose. 

Witness  our  hands  and  seals,  this day  of  . . .  A.  D.  18. . 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  in 
presence  of  us.  [seal.] 

.  [seal.] 

State  of  Missouri,   ) 
County  of f ss* 

Be  it  remembered,  That  on  the day  of A.  D.  18 . . ,  before  the 

undersigned,  a within  and  for  the  county  aforesaid,  personally  came 


....who personally  known  to  me  to  be  the  same  person whose 

name subscribed  to   the   foregoing    chattel    mortgage   as    part .... 

thereto,  and  acknowledged  the  same  to  be act  and  deed  for  the  uses 

and  purposes  therein  mentioned. 

In  testimony  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  subscribed  my  name  and  affixed 
my seal,  at  my  office  in ....  in  said  county,  the  day  and  year  afore- 
said. My  term  of  office  as  notary  public  will  expire  on  the  . . .  day  of 

This  article  of  agreement  witnesseth,  That ....  ha . .  this  day  rented  to 

in  the  present  condition   thereof,  the. . .  .for  the  period   of. . .  .from 

the day 18. .,  on  the  following  terms  and  conditions,  to-wit: 

For  the  use  and  rent  thereof,  the  said ....  hereby  promise . .  to  pay  said 

or  to ... .  order ....  dollars,  per ....  for  the  whole  time  above  stated, 

and  to  pay  the    same at  the of  each ;     that will  not 

sub-let  or  allow  any  other  tenant  to  come  in  with  or  under. . .  .without 

the  written  consent  of  said ;  that will  repair  all  injuries  or  dam-  ' 

ages  done  to  the  premises  by  him  or  them  during. . .  .occupancy,  or  pay 

for  the  same;  that  all  of property,  whether  subject  to  legal  exemption 

or  not,  shall  be  bound,  and  subject  to  the  payment  of  rents  and  damages 

thereof;  that will  take  good  care  of  the  buildings  and  premises  and 

keep  them  free  from  filth,  from  danger  of  fire  or  any  nuisance  and  from 
all  uses  forbidden  in  any  fire  insurance  policy  issued  thereon, ....  and  pro- 
tect, defend  and  indemnify  the  said ....  from  all  damages ....  and  charges 
for  such,  that  the  houses  and  premises  shall  be  kepf  clean,  fairly  treated 
and  left  so;  that  in  default  of  the  payment  of  any. . .  .installment  of  rent 
for ....  day ..  after  the  same  becomes  due,.  ...will,  at  the  request  of  the 
said ....  quit  and  render  to ....  the  peaceable  possession  thereof;  but,  for 
this  cause,  the  obligation  to  pay  shall  not  cease,  and,  finally  at  the  end  of 
....  term ....  will  surrender  to  said ....  heirs  or  assigns,  the  peaceable 
possession  of  the  said  house  and  premises,  with  all  the  keys,  bolts,  latches 
and  repairs,  if  any,  in  as  good  condition  as ... .  received  the  same,  the 
usual  wear  and  use  and  providential  destruction  or  destruction  by  fire 

In    witness  whereof,  the  parties  have  set hand and  seal to 

cop . .  hereof  to  be  retained  by ... . 

Dated  this day  of 18.. 


Every  mechanic  or  other  person  who  shall  do  or  perform  any  work  or 
labor  upon,  or  furnish  any  materials,  fixtures,  engine,  boiler  or  machinery 
for  any  building,  erection  or  improvements  upon  land,  or  for  repairing  the 


same  under  or  by  virtue  of  any  contract  with  the  owner  or  proprietor,  or 
his  agent,  trustee,  contractor  or  sub-contractor,  shall  be  entitled  to  a  lien 
upon  such  building,  erection,  or  improvement,  and  upon  the  land  belong- 
ing to  such  owner  or  proprietor  on  which  the  same  are  situated.  The 
original  contractor  must  within  six  months,  and  ever)-  journeyman  and 
day  laborer  within  thirty  days,  and  of  every  other  person  seeking  to 
obtain  the  benefit  of  the  provisions  of  this  chapter,  within  four  months 
after  the  indebtedness  shall  have  accrued,  file  with  the  clerk  of  the  cir- 
cuit court  of  the  proper  county,  a  just  and  true  account  of  the  demand  due 
him  or  them,  after  all  just  credits  have  been  given,  which  is  to  be  a  lien 
upon  such  building  or  improvement,  and  a  true  description  of  the  property 
or  so  near  as  to  identify  the  same  upon  which  the  lien  is  intended  to  apply, 
with  the  name  of  the  owner  or  contractor,  or  both,  if  known  to  be  the 
person  filing  the  lien  which  shall  in  all  cases  be  verified  by  the  oath  of 
himself  or  some  credible  person  for  him. 

Every  person  except  the  original  contractor,  who  may  wish  to  avail 
himself  of  the  benefits  of  the  provisions  of  this  chapter,  shall  give  ten  days 
notice  before  filing  of  the  lien  as  herein  required,  to  the  owner,  owners,  or 
agent,  or  either  of  them,  that  he  or  they  hold  a  claim  against  such  build- 
ing or  improvements,  setting  forth  the  amount  and  from  whom  the  same  is 

All  mechanics'  lien  holders  shall  stand  on  equal  footing,  without  refer- 
ence to  date  of  filing,  and  upon  sale  of  property  they  shall  take  pro  rata 
on  the  respective  liens. 

We  only  attempt  to  give  an  outline  of  the  law  of  mechanics'  liens  to  aid 
the  general  business  man.  Should  any  complicated  questions  arise,  it  is 
best  to  consult  an  attorney  in  regard  to  the  same. 


Now,  at  this  day,  come and  with  a  view  to  avail ....  of  the  benefit 

of  the  statute  relating  to  mechanics'  liens,  file . .  the  account  below  set 

forth  for  work  and  labor  done,  and  materials  furnished  by under 

contract  with upon,  to  and   for  the   buildings   and  improvements 

described  as  follows,  to- wit: 

(Give  description  of  buildings.) 
and  situated  on  the  following  described  premises,  to- wit: 

(Give  description  of  the  property  upon  which  the  building  is  erected.) 
said   premise,    buildings,    and   improvements,  belonging  to    and   being 

owned  by which  said  account,  the  same  being  hereby  filed,  in  order 

that  it  may  constitute  a  lien  upon  the  buildings,  improvements,  and  prem- 
ises above  described,  is  as  follows: 

[Set  the  account  out  in  full.] 

State  of  Missouri,  county  of  . . . . ,  ss., being  duly  sworn,  on  his 

oath  says  that  the  foregoing  is  a  just  and  true  account  of  the  demand  due 


....  for  work  and  labor  done,  and  materials  furnished  by  ....  upon,  to 
and  for  the  buildings  and  improvements  hereinbefore  described,  after  all 
just  credits  have  been  given;  that  said  work  and  labor  were  done,  and 
said  materials  furnished  upon,  to  and  for  said  buildings  and  improvements 

by  ....  at  the  instance  and  request  of,  and  under  contract  with that 

the  foregoing  description  is  a  true  description  of  the  property  upon,  to  and 
for  which  said  materials  were  furnished,  and  said  work  and  labor  done, 
and  to  which  this  lien  is  intended  to  apply,  or  so  near  as  to  identify  the 
same ;  that  said  demand  accrued  within  ....  months  prior  to  the  filing  of 

this  lien,  and  that  on  the day  of ,  18 . . ,  and  at  least  ten  days 

prior  to  the  filing  of  this  lien  ....  gave  notice  to  ....  of  his  claim  against 
the  amount  .thereof,  from  whom  due,  and  of  ... .  intention  to  file  a  lien 
therefor;  that  said  ....  as  affiant  is  informed  and  believes,  the  owner., 
of  the  above  described  premises,  and  the  buildings  and  improvements 
thereon,  which  said  premises,  buildings,  and  improvements  are  intended 
to  be  charged  with  this  lien.  • 

Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before  me  this day  of ,  18 . . 


Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that of for  and  in  considera- 
tion of  the  sum  of dollars  to  . .  in  hand  paid  by of the 

receipt  whereof  . .  do  hereby  acknowledge,  by  these  presents  do  bargain 
and  sell  unto  the  said  ....  all  the  goods,  household  stuff,  implements  and 
furniture,  and  all  other  goods  and  chattels  whatsoever  mentioned  in  the 
schedule  hereunto  annexed:  To  have  and  to  hold  all  and  singular  the 
said  goods,  household  stuff,  and  furniture,  and  other  premises  above  bar- 
gained and  sold  or  intended  so  to  be,  to  the  said and  . .  assigns  for- 
ever.    And  ....  the  said for and  . .  heirs,  all  and  singular,  the 

goods   and  chattels  of  whatever  description,  unto   the  said and  . . 

assigns  against the  said and  against  all  and  every  other  person 

and  persons  whomsoever,  shall  and  will  warrant  and  forever  defend 
by  these  presents.  Of  all  and  singular  which  said  goods,  chattels, 
and  property,  ....  the  said  have  put  the  said  in  full  pos- 
session by  delivery  to  . .,  the  said one at  the  sealing  and  delivery 

of  these  presents,  in  the  name  of  the  whole  premises  hereby    bargained 

and  sold,  or  mentioned,  or  intended  so  to  be  unto  . . ,  the  said as 


In  witness  whereof,  . .  have  hereunto  set  . .  hand  . .  and  affixed  . .  seal 
this day A.  D.  18.. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  in  presence  of        [l.  s.] 

Note. — If  the  bill  of  sale  is  to  be  recorded  in  the  county  recorder's  office,  it  must  be 
acknowledged  before  some  officer  authorized- to  take  acknowledgment  of  deeds — other- 
wise not. 

abstract  of  missouri  state  laws.  193 

State  of  Missouri,      ) 

Count}-  of ) 

Be  it  remembered,  that  on  this day  of ,  A.  D.  18. .,  before  the 

undersigned,  a within  and  for  the  county  of and  state  of  Mis- 
souri, personally  came  ....  who  . .  personally  known  to  me  to  be  the 
same  person .  .  whose  name .  .  subscribed  to  the  foregoing  instrument 
of  writing,  as  part .  .  thereto,  and  acknowledged  the  same  to  be 
voluntary  act  and  deed  for  the  purposes  therein  mentioned. 

In  testimony  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  affixed  my 
official  seal,  at  my  office  in  ....  the  day  and  year  above  written. 


$ means  dollars,  being  a  contraction  of  U.  S.,  which  was  formerly 

placed  before  any  denomination  of  money,  and  meant,  as  it  means  now, 
United  States  currency. 

£ means  pounds,  English  monev. 

@  stands  for  at  or  to;  ft  for  pounds,  and  bbl.  for  barrels',  $  for  per 
or  by  the.     Thus,  butter  sells  at  20  @  30c  $   ft,  and  flour  at  $8@12  $  bbl. 

°0  for  per  cent.,  and  jj  for  number. 

May  1.  Wheat  seils  at  $1.20@$1.25,  "seller  June."  Seller  June 
means  that  the  person  who  sells  the  wheat  has  the  privilege  of  delivering 
it  at  any  time  during  the  month  of  June. 

Selling  short,  is  contracting  to  deliver  a  certain  amount  of  grain  or 
stock,  at  a  fixed  price,  within  a  certain  length  of  time,  when  the  seller  has 
not  the  stock  on  hand.  It  is  for  the  interest  of  the  person  selling  "  short" 
to  depress  the  market  as  much  as  possible,  in  order  that  he  mav  buv  and 
fill  his  contract  at  a  profit.     Hence  the  "  shorts"  are  called  "  bears." 

Buying  long,  is  to  contract  to  purchase  a  certain  amount  of  grain  or 
shares  of  stock  at  a  fixed  price,  deliverable  within  a  stipulated  time, 
expecting  to  make  a  profit  by  the  rise  in  prices.  The  "longs"  are  termed 
"  bulls,"  as  it  is  for  their  interest  to  "  operate  "  so  as  to  "  toss  "  the  prices 
upward  as  much  as  possible. 


Orders  should  be  worded  simply,  thus: 
Mr.  F.  H.  Coats:  St.  Louis,  Sept.  15,  1876. 

Please  pay  to  H.  Birdsall  twenty-five  dollars,  and  charge  to 

F.  D.  Silva. 

Receipts  should  always  state  when  received  and  what  for.  thus: 


$100.  St.  Louis,  Sept.  15, 1876. 

Reeived  of  J.  W.  Davis,  one  hundred  dollars,  for  services 
rendered  in  grading  his  lot  in  Sedalia,  on  account. 

Thomas  Brady. 
If  receipt  is  in  full,  it  should  be  so  stated. 


W.  N.  Mason,  Marshall,  Missouri,  Sept.  18, 1876. 

Bought  of  A.  A.  Graham. 

4  Bushels  of  Seed  Wheat,  at  $1.50 $6  00 

2  Seamless  Sacks  "         30 60 

Received  payment,  $6  60 

A.  A.  Graham. 


An  agreement  is  where  one  party  promises  to  another  to  do  a  certain 
thing  in  a  certain  time  for  a  stipulated  sum.  Good  business  men  always 
reduce  an  agreement  to  writing,  which  nearly  always  saves  misunder- 
standings and  trouble.  No  particular  form  is  necessary,  but  the  facts  must 
be  clearly  and  explicitly  stated,  and  there  must,  to  make  it  valid,  be  a 
reasonable  consideration. 


This  agreement,  made  the  second  day  of  June,  1878,  between  John 
Jones,  of  Marshall,  county  of  Saline,  state  of  Missouri,  of  the  first  part, 
and  Thomas  Whitesides,  of  the  same  place,  of  the  second  part — 

WitnesSeth,  That  the  said  John  Jones,  in  consideration  of  the  agree- 
ment of  the  party  of  the  second  part,  hereinafter  contained,  contracts  and 
agrees  to  and  with  the  said  Thomas  Whiteside,  that  he  will  deliver  in  good 
and  marketable  condition,  at  the  village  of  Slater,  Missouri,  during  the  month 
of  November,  of  this  year,  one  hundred  tons  of  prairie  hay,  in  the  fol- 
lowing lots,  and  at  the  following  specified  times,  namely:  Twenty-five 
tons  by  the  seventh  of  November,  twenty-five  tons  additional  by  the 
fourteenth  of  the  month,  twenty-five  tons  more  by  the  twenty-first,  and 
the  entire  one  hundred  tons  to  be  all  delivered  by  the  thirtieth  of  November. 

And  the  said  Thomas  Whitsides,  in  consideration  of  the  prompt  fulfill- 
ment of  this  contract,  on  the  part  of  the  party  of  the  first  part,  contracts 
to  and  agrees  with  the  said  John  Jones,  to  pay  for  said  hay  five  dollars  per 
ton,  for  each  ton  as  soon  as  delivered. 

In  case  of  failure  of  agreement  by  either  of  the  parties  hereto,  it  is 
hereby  stipulated  and  agreed  that  the  party  so  failing  shall  pay  to  the 
other,  one  hundred  dollars,  as  fixed  and  settled  damages. 

In  witness  whereof,  we  have  hereunto  set  our  hands,  the  day  and  year 
first  above  written.  John  Jones. 

Thomas  Whiteside. 



This  agreement,  made  the  first  day  of  May,  one  thousand  eight  hun- 
dred and  seventy-eight,  between  Reuben  Stone,  of  Marshall,  county  of 
Saline,  State  of  Missouri,  part)'-  of  the  first  part,  and  George  Barclay,  of 
Sedalia,  county-  of  Pettis,  state  of  Missouri,  party  of  the  second  part — 

Witnesseth,  That  said  George  Barclay  agrees  faithfully  and  diligently- 
to  work  as  clerk  and  salesman  for  the  said  Reuben  Stone,  for  and  during 
the  space  of  one  year  from  the  date  hereof,  should  both  live  such  length  of 
time,  without  absenting  himself  from  his  occupation;  during  which  time  he, 
the  said  Barclay,  in  the  store  of  said  Stone,  of  Marshall,  will  carefully  and 
honestly  attend,  doing  and  performing  all  duties  as  clerk  and  salesman 
aforesaid,  in  accordance  and  in  all  respects  as  directed  and  desired  by  the 
said  Stone. 

In  consideration  of  which  services,  so  to  be  rendered  by  the  said  Bar- 
clay, the  said  Stone  agrees  to  pay  to  said  Barclay  the  annual  sum  of  one 
thousand  dollars,  payable  in  twelve  equal  monthly  payments,  each  upon 
the  last  day  of  each  month :  provided  that  all  dues  for  days  of  absence 
from  business  by  said  Barclay,  shall  be  deducted  from  the  sum  otherwise 
by  the  agreement  due  and  payable  by  the  said  Stone  to  the  said  Barclay. 
Witness  our  hands:  Reuben  Stone. 

George  Barclay. 

Practical  Rules  for  Every  Day  Use. 

How  to  find  the  gain  or  loss  -per  cent,  when  tlie  cost  and  selling  price  are 

Rule. — Find  the  difference  between  the  cost  and  selling  price,  which 

will  be  the  gain  or  loss. 

Annex  two  ciphers  to  the  gain  or  loss,  and  divide  it  by  the  cost  price; 
the  result  will  be  the  gain  or  loss  per  cent. 

How  to  change  gold  into  currency. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  given  sum  of  gold  by  the  price  of  gold. 

How  to  change  currency  into  gold. 

Divide  the  amount  of  currency  by  the  price  of  gold. 
.   How  to  find  each  partner 's  share  of the  gain  or  loss  in  a  copartnership 

Rule. — Divide  the  whole  gain  or  loss  by  the  entire  stock,  the  quotient 
will  be  the  gain  or  loss  per  cent. 

Multiply  each  partner's  stock  by  this  per  cent.,  the  result  will  be  each 
one's  share  of  the  gain  or  loss. 

How  to  find  gross  and  net  weight  and  price  of  hogs. 

A  short  and  simple  met/iod  for  finding  the  net  weighty  or  price  of  hogst 
when  the  gross  weight  or  price  is  given,  and  vice  versa. 

Note. — It  is  generally  assumed  that  the  gross  weight  of  hogs  diminished  by  1-5  or  20 
per  cent,  of  itself  gives  the  net  weight,  and  the  net  weight  increased  by  }£  or  25  per  cent  Of 
itself  equals  the  gross  weight. 

To  find  the  net  weight  or  gross  -price. 

Multiply  the  given  number  by  .8  (tenths.) 

To  find  the  or  oss  weight  or  net  price. 

Divide  the  given  number  by  .8  (tenths.) 

How  to  find  the  capacity  of  a  granary,  bin,  or  wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply  (by  short  method)  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by  6308, 
and  point  off  one  decimal  place  -the  result  will  be  the  correct  answer  in 
bushels  and  tenths  of  a  bushel. 

For  only  an  approximate  answer,  multiply  the  cubic  feet  by  8,  and  point 
off  one  decimal  place. 

How  to  find  the  contents  of  a  corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by  54,  short  method,  or 
by  4r^  ordinary  method,  and  point  off  one  decimal  place — the  result  will 
be  the  answer  in  bushels. 

Note  — In  estimating  corn  in  the  ear,  quality  and  the  time  it  lias  been  cribbed  must  be 
taken  into  consideration,  since  corn  will  shrink  considerably  during  the  winter  and  spring. 
This  rule  generally  holds  good  for  corn  measured  at  the  time  it  is  cribbed,  provided  it  is 
Bound  and  clean. 


How  to  find  the  contents  of  a  cistern  or  tank. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  square  of  the  mean  diameter  by  the  depth  (all  in 
feet)  and  this  product  by  5681  (short  method),  and  point  off  one  decimal 
jplace — the  result  will  be  the  contents  in  barrels  of  31f  gallons. 

How  to  find  the  contents  of  a  barrel  or  cask. 

Rule. — Under  the  square  of  the  mean  diameter,  write  the  length  (all 
in  inches)  in  reversed  order,  so  that  its  units  will  fall  under  the  tens; 
multiply  by  short  method,  and  this  product  again  by  430;  point  oft  one 
decimal  place,  and  the  result  will  be  the  answer  in  wine  gallons. 

How  to  measure  boards. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  length  (in  feet)  by  the  width  (in  inches)  and  divide 
the  product  by  12 — the  result  will  be  the  contents  in  square  feet. 

How  to  measure  scantlings,  joists,  planks,  sills,  etc. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  width,  the  thickness,  and  the  length  together,  (the 
width  and  thickness  in  inches,  and  the  length  in  feet),  and  divide  the 
product  by  12 — the  result  will  be  square  feet. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  acres  in  a  body  of  land. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  length  by  the  width  (in  rods)  and  divide  the  pror 
duct  by  160  (carrying  the  division  to  2  decimal  places  if  there  is  a  remain- 
der); the  result  will  be  the  answer  in  acres  and  hundredths. 

When  the  opposite  sides  of  a  piece  of  land  are  of  unequal  length,  add 
them  together  and  take  one-half  for  the  mean  length  or  width. 

How  to  find  the  nmnber  of  square  yards  in  afioor  or  wall. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  length  by  the  width  or  height  (in  feet),  and  divide 
the  product  by  9,  the  result  will  be  square  yards. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  bricks  required  in  a  building: 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by  22£. 

The  number  of  cubic  feet  is  found  by  multiplying  the  length,  height 
and  thickness  (in  feet)  together. 

Bricks  are  usually  made  8  inches  long,  4  inches  wide,  and  two  inches 
thick;  hence,  it  requires  27  bricks  to  make  a  cubic  foot  without  mortar, 
but  it  is  generally  assumed  that  the  mortar  fills  1-6  of  the  space. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  shingles  required  in  a  roof. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  square  feet  in  the  roof  by  8,  if  the 
shingles  are  exposed  4^  inches,  or  by  7  1-5  if  exposed  5  inches . 

To  find  the  number  of  square  feet,  multiply  the  length  of  the  roof  by 
twice  the  length  of  the  rafters. 

To  find  the  length  of  the  rafters,  at  one-fourth  pitch,  multiply  the 
width  of  the  building  by  .56  (hundredths);  at  one-third  pitch  by  .6 
(tenths);  at  two-fifths  pitch,  by  .64  (hundredths);  at  one-half  pitch, 
by  .71  (hundredths).  This  gives  the  length  of  the  rafters  from  the  apex 
to  the  end  of  the  wall,  and  whatever  they  are  to  project  must  be  taken 
into  consideration. 


Note. — By  }£  or  %  pitch  is  meant  that  the  apex  or  comb  of  the  roof  is  to  be  j^  or  Jf 
the  width  of  the  building  higher  than  the  walls  or  base  of  the  rafters. 

How  to  reckon  the  cost  of  hay. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  pounds  by  half  the  price  per  ton,  and 
remove  the  decimal  point  three  places  to  the  left. 

How  to  measure  gram. 

Rule. — Level  the  grain;  ascertain  the  space  it  occupies  in  cubic 
feet;  multiply  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by  8,  and  point  off  one  place  to 

the  left. 

Note. — Exactness  requires  the  addition,  to  every  three  hundred  bushels,  of  one  extra 

The  foregoing  rule  may  be  used  for  finding  the  number  of  gallons,  by 
multiplying  the  number  of  bushels  by  8. 

If  the  corn  in  the  box  is  in  the  ear,  divide  the  answer  by  2  to  find  the 
number  of  bushels  of  shelled  corn,  because  it  requires  2  bushels  of  ear 
corn  to  make  1  of  shelled  corn. 

Rapid  rules  for  measuring  land  without  instruments. 

In  measuring  land,  the  first  thing  to  ascertain  is  the  contents  of  any 
given  plot  in  square  yards ;  then,  given  the  number  of  yards,  find  out  the 
number  of  rods  and  acres. 

The  most  ancient  and  simplest  measure  of  distance  is  a  step.  Now,  an 
ordinary-sized  man  can  train  himself  to  cover  one  yard  at  a  stride,  on  the 
average,  with  sufficient  accuracy  for  ordinary  purposes. 

To  make  use  of  this  means  of  measuring  distances,  it  is  essential  to 
walk  in  a  straight  line;  to  do  this,  fix  the  eye  on  two  objects  in  a  line 
stright  ahead,  one  comparatively  near,  the  other  remote;  and,  in  walking, 
keep  these  objects  constantly  in  line. 

Farmers  and  others  by  adopting  the  following  simple  and  ingenious  con- 
trivance^ may  always  carry  with  them  the  scale  to  construct  a  correct  yard 

Take  a  foot  rule,  and  commencing  at  the  base  of  the  little  finger  of  the 
left  hand,  mark  the  quarters  of  the  foot  on  the  outer  borders  of  the  left 
arm,  pricking  in  the  marks  with  indelible  ink. 

To  find  how  many  rods  in  length  will  make  an  acre,  the  width  being 

Rule. — Divide  160  by  the  width,  and  the  quotient  will  be  the  answer. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  acres  in  any  foot  of  land,  the  number  of  rods 
being  given. 

Rule. — Divide  the  number  of  rods  by  8,  multiply  the  quotient  by  5, 
and  remove  the  decimal  point  two  places  to  the  left. 

The  diameter  being  given,  to  find  the  circumference. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  diameter  by  3  1-7. 

How  to  find  the  diameter  when  the  circumference  is  given. 

Rule. — Divide  the  circumference  by  3  1-7. 


To  find  how  many  solid  feet  a  round  stick  of  timber  of  the  same  thick 
ness  throughout  will  contain  when  squared. 

Rule. — Square  half  the  diameter  in  inches,  multiply  by  2,  multiply  by 
the  length  in  feet,  and  divide  the  product  by  144. 

General  rule  for  measuring  limber,  to  find  the  solid  contents  in  feet. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  depth  in  inches  by  the  breadth  in  inches,  and  then 
multiply  by  the  length  in  feet,  and  divide  by  144. 

To  find  the  number  of  feet  of  timber  in  trees  with  the  bark  on. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  square  of  one-fifth  of  the  circumference  in  inches 
by  twice  the  length  in  feet,  and  divide  by  144.  Deduct  1.10  to  1.15 
according  to  the  thickness  of  the  bark. 

Howard's  new  rule  for  commuting  interest. 

Rule. — The  reciprocal  of  the  rate  is  the  time  for  which  the  interest  on , 
any  sum  of  money  will  be  shown  by   simply  removing  the  decimal  point 
two  places  to  the  left;  for  ten  times  that  time,  remove  the  point  one  place 
to  the  left ;  for  1-10  of  the  same  time,  remove  the  point  three  places  to  the 

Increase  or  diminish  the  results  to  suit  the  time  given. 

Note. — The  reciprocal  of  the  rate  is  found  by  inverting  the  rate;  thus  3  per  cent,  per 

month,  inverted,  becomes  %  of  a  month,  or  ten  days. 

When  the  rate  is  expressed  by  one  figure,  always  write  it  thus:  3-1, 
three  ones. 

Rule  for  converting  English  into  American  currency. 

Multiply  the  pounds,  with  the  shillings  and  pence  stated  in  decimals,  by 
400  plus  the  premium  in  fourths,  and  divide  the  product  by  90. 


A  township — 36  sections  each  a  mile  square. 
A  section — 640  acres. 

A  quarter  section,  half  a  mile  square — 160  acres. 

An  eight  section,  half  a  mile  long,  north  and  south,  and  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  wide — 80  acres. 
A  sixteenth  section,  a  quarter  of  a  mile  square — £0  acres. 

The  sections  are  all  numbered  1  to  36,  commencing  at  the  north-east 

The  sections  are  divided  into  quarters,  which  are  named  by  the  cardinal 
points.  The  quarters  are  divided  in  the  same  way.  The  description  of 
'  a  forty-acre  lot  wculd  read:  The  south  half  of  the  west  half  of  the 
south-west  quarter  of  section  1,  in  township  24,  north  of  range  7  west, 
or  as  the  case  might  be ;  and  sometimes  will  fall  short,  and  sometimes 
overrun  the  number  of  acres  it  is  supposed  to  contain. 




7  92-100  inches make  1  link. 

25  links «      1  rod. 

4  rods "      1  chain. 

80  chains «      1  mile. 

Note. — A  chain  is  100  links,  equal  to  4  rods  or  66  feet. 

Shoemakers  formerly  used  a  subdivision  of  the  inch  called  a  barleycorn; 
three  of  which  made  an  inch. 

Horses  are  measured  directly  over  the  fore  feet,  and  the  standard  of 
measure  is  four  inches — called  a  hand. 

In  biblical  and  other  old  measurements,  the  term  span  is  sometimes 
used,  which  is  a  length  of  nine  inches. 

The  sacred  cubit  of  the  Jews  was  24.024  inches  in  length. 
.     The  common  cubit  of  the  Jews  was  21.704  inches  in  length. 

A  pace  is  equal  to  a  yard  or  36  inches. 

A  fathom  is  equal  to  6  feet. 

A  league  is  three  miles,  but  its  length  is  variable,  for  it  is  strictly  speaking 
i  nautical  term,  and  should  be  three  geographical  miles,  equal  to  3.45  stat- 
ic miles,  but  when  used  on  land,  three  statute  miles  are  said  t*  be  a  league. 

In  cloth  measure  an  aune  is  equal  to  1}  yards,  or  45  inches. 

An  Amsterdam  ell  is  equal  to  26.796  inches. 

A  Trieste  ell  is  equal  to  25.284  inches. 

A  Brabant  ell  is  equal  to  27.116  inches. 


Every  farmer  and  mechanic,  whether  he  does  much  or  little  business, 
should  keep  a  record  of  his  transactions  in  a  clear  and  systematic  manner. 
For  the  benefit  of  those  who  have  not  had  the  opportunity  of  acquiring  a 
primary  knowledge  of  the  principles  of  book-keeping,  we  here  present  a 
simple  form  of  keeping  accounts  which  is  easily  comprehended,  and  well 
adapted  to  record  the  business  transactions  of  farmers,  mechanics  and 

1875. A.  H.  JACKSON. Dr.       Cr. 









March  8 















To  7  bushels  wheat at  $1.25 

By  shoeing  span  of  horses 

To  14  bushels  oats at  $  .45 

To  5  ft.  butter at      .25 

By  new  harrow 

By  sharpening  2  plows 

By  new  double-tree 

To  cow  and  calf 

To  half  ton  of  hay .....:. 

By  cash 

By  repairing  corn-planter 

1  o  one  sow  with  pigs 

4|By  cash,  to  balance  account 

$  8.75 












± ^i  ;r "~  Hi 






fe         • 

fe    So 

W   <* 


^  1 




z  a 




x  c 


£  w 


<  ffl 

^H      k^ 


r>i    r< 


^     >H 

si  E-1 

^   »— 1 

55  ° 



















w       1?  I 






Dr.      Cr. 













Bv  3  day's  labor 

To  2  shoats 

To  18  bushels  corn 

By  1  months  labor 

To  cash 

By  8  days  mowing 

To  50  lbs.  flour 

To  27  lbs.  meat 

By  9  days  harvesting 

By  6  days  labor 

To  cash , 

To  cash  to  balance  account. 

.at  $1.25 
.at  3.00 
.  at      .45 

at  $1.50$  .10  2.00     1.50 

$   6.00 




$  67.75 

$  3.75 





A  Simplb  Rule  for  Accurately  Computing  Interest  at  Ant  Giybn  Per  Cent  tor  Ant  Length 

op  Time. 
Multiply  the  principal  (amonnt  of  money  at  interest)  by  the  time  reduced  to  days;   then  divide  this 
product  by  the  quotient  obtained  by  dividing  360  (the  number  of  days  in  the  interest  year)  by  the  per 
cent  of  interest,  and  the  quotient  thus  obtained  will  be  the  required  interest. 


Require  the  interest  of  $462.50  for  one  month  and  eighteen  days  at  6  per  cent.  An 
interest  month  is  30  dayp;  one  month  and  eighteen  days  equal  48  days.  $462.50  .48  gives  $2-^2.0000;  360  divided  l>v  6  (the  per  cent  of  interest)  gives 
60,  and  222.0000  divided  by  60  will  give  the  exact  interest,  which  is  $3.70.     «  the 







12  units  or  things,  1  dozen .  J 196  pounds,  1  barrel  of  flour.  1 24  sheets  of  paper,  1  quire. 
12> dozen,  1  gross.  I  200  pounds,  1  barrel  of  pork.    20  quires  of  paper,  1  ream. 

SO  things,  1  ecore.  |  56  pounds,  1  firkin  of  butter.  |  4  ..  wide,  4  ft.  high,  and  8ft.  long,  1  cord  wood. 





Virginia. — The  oldest  of  the  states,  was  so  called  in  honor  of  Queen 
Elizabeth,  the  "  Virgin  Queen,"  in  whose  reign  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  made 
his  first  attempt  to  colonize  that  region. 

Florida. — Ponce  de  Leon  landed  on  the  coast  of  Florida  on  Easter 
Sunday,  and  called  the  country  in  commemoraticn  of  the  day,  which  was 
the  Pasqua  Florida  of  the  Spaniards,  or  "  Feast  of  Flowers." 

Louisiana  was  called  after  Louis  the  Fourteenth,  who  at  one  time 
owned  that  section  of  the  country. 

Alabama  was  so  named  by  the  Indians,  and  signifies  "  Here  we  Rest." 

Mississippi  is  likewise  an  Indian  name,  meaning  "  Long  River." 

Arkansas,  from  Kansas,  the  Indian  word  for  "  smoky  water."  Its  pre- 
fix was  really  arc,  the  French  word  for  "  bow." 

The  Carolinas  were  originally  one  tract,  and  were  called  "  Carolana," 
after  Charles  the  Ninth  of  France. 

*  Georgia  owes  its  name  to  George  the  Second  of  England,  who  first 
established  a  colony  there  in  1732. 

Tennessee  is  the  Indian  name  for  the  "  River  of  the  Bend,"  i.  e.,  the 
Mississippi  which  forms  its  western  boundary. 

Kentucky  is  the  Indian  name  for  "at  the  head  of  the  river." 

Ohio  means  " beautiful ; "  Iowa,  "drowsy  ones;"  Minnesota,  "cloudy 
water,"  and  Wisconsin,  "  wild-rushing  channel." 

Illinois  is  derived  from  the  Indian  word  Illini,  men,  and  the  French 
suffix  ois,  together  signifying  "  tribe  of  men." 

Michigan  was  called  by  the  name  given  the  lake,  fish-weir,  which  was 
•o  styled  from  its  fancied  resemblance  to  a  fish  trap. 

Missouri  is  from  the  Indian  word  "  muddy,"  which  more  properly 
applies  to  the  river  that  flows  through  it. 

Oregon  owes  its  Indian  name  also  to  its  principal  river. 

Cortez  named  California.  ♦ 

Massachusetts  is  the  Indian  for  "  the  country  around  the  great  hills." 

Connecticut,  from  the  Indian  Quon-ch-ta-Cut,  signifying  "  Long  River." 

Maryland,  after  Henrietta  Maria,  Queen  of  Charles  the  First,  of  Eng- 

New  York  was  named  by  the  Duke  of  York. 

Pennsylvania  means  "  Penn's  woods,"  and  was  so  called  after  William 
Penn,  its  original  owner. 

Delaware  after  Lord  De  la  Ware. 

New  Jersey,  so  called  in  honor  of  Sir  George  Carteret,  who  was  gov- 
ernor of  the  island  of  Jersey,  in  the  British  channel. 

Maine  was  called  after  the  province  of  Maine,  in  France,  in  compliment 
of  Queen  Henrietta  of  England,  who  owned  that  province. 


Vermont,  from  the  French  words  vert  mont,  signifying  green  mountain. 

New  Hampshire,  from  Hampshire  county,  in  England.  It  was  formerly 
called  Laconia. 

The  little  state  of  Rhode  Island  owes  its  name  to  the  island  of  Rhodes, 
in  the  Mediterranean,  which  domain  it  is  said  to  greatly  resemble. 

Texas  is  the  American  word  for  the  Mexican  name  by  which  all  that 
section  of  the  country  was  called  before  it  was  ceded  to  the  United  States. 


The  business  of  -publishing  books  by  subscription,  having  so  often  been 
brought  into  disrepute  by  agents  making  representations  and  declarations 
not  authorized  by  the  publisher,  in  order  to  prevent  that  as  much  as  possi- 
ble, and  that  there  may  be  more  general  knowledge  of  the  relation  such 
agents  bear  to  their  principal,  and  the  law  governing  such  cases,  the  fol- 
lowing statement  is  made: 

A  subscription  is  in  the  nature  of  a  contract  of  mutual  promises,  by 
which  the  subscriber  agrees  to  pay  a  certain  sum  for  the  work  described ; 
the  consideration  is  concurrent  that  the  publisher  shall  publish  the  book 
named,  and  deliver  the  same,  for  which  the  subscriber  is  to  pay  the  price 
named.  The  nature  and  character  of  the  work  is  described  by  the  pros- 
pectus and  sample  shown.  These  should  be  carefully  examined  before  sub- 
scribing, as  they  are  the  basis  and  consideration  of  the  promise  to  pay,  and 
not  the  too  often  exaggerated  statements  of  the  agent,  who  is  merely 
employed  to  solicit  subscriptions,  for  which  he  usually  paid  a  commission 
for  each  subscriber,  and  has  no  authority  to  change  or  alter  the  conditions 
upon  which  the  subscriptions  are  authorized  to  be  made  by  the  publisher. 
Should  the  agent  assume  to  agree  to  make  the  subscription  conditional,  or 
modify  or  change  the  agreement  of  the  publisher,  as  set  out  by  the  pros- 
pectus and  sample,  in  order  to  bind  the  princi-ple,  the  subscriber  should  see 
that  such  condition  or  changes  are  stated  over  or  in  connection  with  his 
signature,  so  that  the  publisher  may  have  notice  of  the  same. 

All  persons  making  contracts  in  reference  to  matters  of  this  kind,  or  any 
other  business,  should  remember  that  the  law  as  written  is,  that  they  can 
not  be  altered,  varied  or  rescinded  verbally,  but  if  done  at  all,  must  be  done 
in  writing.  It  is  therefore  important  that  all  persons  contemplating  sub- 
scribing should  distinctly  understand^ hat  all  talk  before  or  after  the  sub- 
scription is  made  is  not  admissible  as  evidence,  and  is  no  part  of  the  contract. 

Persons  employed  to  solicit  subscriptions  are  known  to  the  trade  as  can- 
vassers They  are  agents  appointed  to  do  a  particular  business  in  a  pre- 
scribed mode,  and  have  no  authority  to  do  it  in  any  other  way  to  the 
prejudice  of  their  principal,  nor  can  they  bind  their  principal  in  any 
other  matter.  They  cannot  collect  money,  or  agree  that  payment  may  be 
made  in  anything  else  but  money.  They  cannot  extend  the  time  of  payment 
beyond  the  time  of  delivery,  nor  bind  their  principal  for  the  payment  of 
expenses  incurred  in  their  business. 

It  would  save  a  great  deal  of  trouble,  and  often  serious  loss,  if  persons, 
before  signing  their  names  to  any  subscription  book,  or  any  written  instru- 
ment, would  examine  carefully  what  it  is;  if  they  cannot  read  themselves, 
call  on  some  one  disinterested  who  can- 

History  of  Lafayette  County. 



The  first  election  held  in  the  territory  of  Missouri  was  in  October,  1812, 
and  it  was  then  divided  into  five  voting  or  representative  precincts;  but 
just  how  and  when  this  sub-division  originated,  history  does  not  relate. 
The  district  of  St.  Charles  embraced  all  north  of  the  Missouri  river;  the 
district  of  St.  Louis  embraced  all  south  of  the  Missouri  river,  except  the 
old  settlements  of  St.  Genevieve,  Cape  Girardeau  and  New  Madrid,  on 
the  Mississippi  river;  and  therefore  the  territory  now  constituting  Lafay- 
ette county,  was  at  that  time  a  part  of  what  was  called  St.  Louis  parish  or 
district.  However,  in  governor  Howard's  proclamation,  dated  October  1, 
1812,  calling  this  first  election,  the  five  civil  districts  are  for  the  first  time 
officially  called  counties. 

January  23,  1816,  all  that  part  of  the  state  lying  north  and  west  of  the 
Osage  river  on  the  south  side  of  the  Missouri,  and  west  of  Cedar  creek, 
(opposite  Jefferson  City),  and  west  of  the  dividing  ridge  between  the 
streams  that  flow  eastward  into  the  Mississippi  and  those  which  flow  south- 
ward into  the  Missouri,  on  the  north  side  of  that  river,  was  organized 
under  the  name  of  Howard  county.  It  was  so  named  in  honor  of  Gen. 
Benj.  Howard,  of  Kentucky,  who  was  appointed  governor  of  this  Terri- 
tory in  1810.  The  county  seat  was  first  located  at  Cole's  Fort,  just  below 
the  present  site  of  Boonville;  but  in  1816  it  was  removed  to  old  Franklin, 
opposite  Boonville. 

In  1818,  all  that  part  of  Howard  county  lying  south  of  the  Missouri 
river,  and  north  and  west  of  the  Osage,  was  erected  into  a  new  county 
called  Cooper,  in  honor  of  Capt.  Sarshall  Cooper,  who,  with  ten  others  of 
the  same  name,  his  sons  or  relatives,  were  early  settlers  and  Indian  fight- 
ers in  the  "  Boone's  Lick  country."  (Capt.  Cooper  was  killed  in  1814.) 
The  county  seat  was  at  Boonville. 

On  November  16,  1820,  the  legislature  again  created  a  lot  of  new  coun- 
ties; and  all  that  portion  of  Cooper  county  lying  west  of  the  present  east- 
ern boundary  of   Lafayette  county,  and  between  the  Missouri  river  on  the 
north  and  the  Osage  river  on  the  south,  was  named  Lillard  county,  after 


James  Lillard,  who  was  the  first  member  of  the  legislature  from  this 
locality,  and  introduced  the  bill  to  make  the  new  counties.  The  county 
seat  was  fixed  at  Mount  Vernon,  a  small  settlement  near  the  mouth  of 
Tabo  creek,  about  eight  miles  east  of  Lexington.  Mr.  Lillard  subse- 
quently abandoned  the  new  county  which  had  received  his  name,  and 
went  back  to  his  old  home  in  Tennessee.  The  pioneer  settlers  were  dis- 
pleased with  this  move,  which  seemed  to  cast  some  discredit  on  their 
chosen  and  favorite  country. 

In  April,  1825,  Gen.  Lafayette  and  his  son  George  Washington  Lafay- 
ette, visited  St.  Louis,  the  General  being  then  sixty-eight  years  old,  and 
were  received  with  a  magnificent  ovation.  The  legislature  of  1824-5  was 
still  in  session,  and  it  signalized  the  great  event  by  changing  the  name  of 
Lillard  county  to  that  of  Lafayette,  in  honor  of  the  distinguished  French- 
man who  had  so  nobly  aided  our  country  in  the  revolutionary  war.  His 
name  and  great  services  to  our  national  cause  were  fresh  in  the  minds  of 
the  people;  and  the  naming  of  this  county  after  hfm  was  designed  as  a 
perpetual  memorial  of  their  reverence  and  gratitude.  In  February,  1823, 
the  county  seat  of  Lillard  county  had  been  moved  from  Mount  Vernon  to 
Lexington,  so  that  when  the  name  Lillard  was  dropped,  and  Lafayette 
substituted,  Lexington  was  alreadv  the  county  seat,  and  has  remained 
so  ever  since. 

In  1826,  December  15,  Jackson  county  was  organized,  and  its  eastern 
boundary  was  the  present  west  line  of  Lafayette  county.  And  on  Decem- 
ber 13, 1834,  Johnson  county  was  laid  off  by  act  of  legislature,  its  northern 
line  being  the  same  as  the  south  line  of  Lafayette  county.  This  com- 
pleted the  different  steps  and  stages  successively  by  which  Lafayette 
county  went  through  the  process  of  political  incubation  and  was  hatched 
out  into  her  present  goodly  plumage  and  fair  proportions. 

At  the  present  time  the  county  is  divided  into  eight  civil  townships,  to- 
wit:  Clay,  Davis,  Dover,  Freedom,  Lexington,  Middleton,  Sniabar  and 
Washington.  But  during  its  various  stages  of  development  it  has  had 
Blackwater,  Blue,  Caw,  Clearfork,  Fort  Osage,  Springfield,  and  Tabo 
townships,  which  do  not  now  exist  within  her  borders. 


The  first  court  held  in  Lillard  county  was  at  Mount  Vernon,  February 
12,  1821.  The  county  of  Lillard  was  established  by  an  act  of  the  Legis 
lature  passed  November  16,  1820,  and  was  included  in  the  first  judicia 
district.  Gov.  McNair  appointed  David  Todd  to  be  judge  of  this  cir- 
cuit, and  hence  it  was  Judge  Todd  who  held  the  first  court  at  Moun 
Vernon,  as  above  mentioned.  The  act  creating  Lillard  county  had  desig 
nated  Mount  Vernon  to  be  the  county  seat  until  the  people  of  the  county 
should  be  able  to  suit  themselves  better.     The  governor  had  likewis 


commissioned  Hamilton  R.  Gamble  to  be  prosecuting  attorney  of  this 
court;  Young  Ewing,  clerk,  (commission  dated  Jan.  18,  1821);  and  Wm. 
R.  Cole,  sheriff,  (commission  dated  Jan.  1,  1821).  Hamilton  R.  Gamble, 
Peyton  R.  Hayden  and  John  T.  McKinney  were  admitted  to  practice  as 
attorneys  at  the  bar  of  this  court,  the  first  day  of  its  existence. 

A  grand  jury,  the  first  one  in  the  county,  was  empaneled  the  same  day, 
as  follows:  Wm.  Lillard,  foreman;  John  J.  Heard,  John  Lillard,  Wm.  F. 
Simmons,  Thomas  Linville,  Jesse  Cox,  James  Bounds,  Jr.,  David 
Jennings,  Isaac  Clark,  Wm.  Wallace,  Christopher  Mulky,  Jacob  Catron, 
John  Bowman,  George  Parkerson,  Thomas  Hopper,  James  Linville, 
John  Robison,  Thomas  Fristoe,  Wm.  Fox  and  Samuel  Watson.  Their 
first  presentment  was  made  in  a  short  time,  against  John  Salady,  for  tres- 
pass and  assault  and  battery,  "a  true  bill,"  etc. 

The  next  day,  February  13,  the  court  was  opened  at  10:15  o'clock,  and 
the  first  case  presented  was  an  application  for  divorce,  as  follows : 
"Sarah  Lillard,  by  David  Jennings,  her  next  friend,  complainant, 
Against  Jerry  Lillard,  defendant, 
In  a  petition  for  a  divorce. 

This  day  came  the  complainant,  by  her  counsel,  and  filed  her  petition, 
praying  for  a  divorce  from  bed  and  board,  and  setting  forth  cruel  and 
barbarous  treatment  so  as  to  endanger  her  life,  and  indignities  offered  so 
as  to  render  her  situation  intolerable,  and  compelling  her  to  leave  her  hus- 
band," etc. 

But  at  the  next  term  of  the  court,  June  12,  the  case  was  on  motion  of 
the  complainant  discontinued.  However,  this  same' day  another  divorce 
case  was  entered,  to-wit:  Jane  Cooper,  complainant,  against  Braxton 
Cooper,  defendant.  This  case  was  heard  October  10th,  and  Jane  was 
granted  a  divorce. 

That  first  term  of  circuit  court,  in  February,  1821,  had  one  case  in 
chancery, — Thomas  Cox  and  Richard  Scott  vs.  Wm.  E.  Aikman.  And 
on  the  second  day  the  grand  jury  brought  in  quite  a  list  of  presentments, 
as  follows:  The  state  of  Missouri  vs.  John  Young,  for  assault  and  battery; 
also  against  John  Ingram  and  Solomon  Catron,  for  the  same  offense, 
and  against  John  Young,  Jonathan  Hicklin,  Jacob  Catron  and  James  Lil- 
lard for  an  affray.  The  business  of  litigation  continued  to  increase  from 
term  to  term  so  that  the  court  always  had  enough  cases  on  the  docket  to 
keep  it  busy  while  in  session.  In  fact,  the  records  show  that  "those  early 
times"  were  not  any  better  in  that  respect  than  these  later  times.  Indee  , 
there  was  a  great  deal  more  litigation  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  peo- 
ple than  there  is  now. 

The  July  term,  1825,  of  the  circuit  court  is  entered  as  "  a  circuit  court 
begun  and  held  in  the  town  of  Lexington,  and  county  of  Lillard"  etc. 
Its  record  occupies  pages  11  to  15  of  book  No.  2.  Then  on  page  16  of 
the  same  book  occurs  this  entry:     "A  circuit  court  begun  and  held  in  the 



court  house  in  the  town  of  Lexington,  Lafayette  county,  on  the  24th  day 
of  November,"  etc.,  (1825).  There  is  no  record,  note  or  memoranda  to 
show  how,  when  or  why  the  name  of  the  county  ceased  to  be  Lillard  and 
commenced  to  be  Lafayette.  It  is  common  report  that  one  of  the  first 
acts  of  our  state  legislature  after  Gen.  Lafayette's  visit  to  St.  Louis  in 
1825,  was  to  change  the  name  of  Lillard  county  to  Lafayette  county; 
but  this  historian  failed  to  find  a  copy  of  the  act,  or  any  document  or  other 
record  giving  the  exact  date  or  particulars  of  the  change.  It  would  cer- 
tainly seem  as  though  the  court  record  should  have  had  some  memoranda 
to  account  for  and  explain  the  change,  so  as  to  authenticate  the  proper 
dating  and  entitling  of  official  papers,  but  nevertheless  no  such  explana- 
tion appears,  neither  in  the  circuit  court,  county  court  or  marriage  records. 
In  each  case  there  is  simply  an  abrupt,  unexplained  change  of  name  from 
Lillard  to  Lafayette  county. 


The  first  circuit  court  of  Lafayette  county  was  held  at  Lexington, 
November  24,  25,  1825.  David  Todd,  judge;  Markham  Fristoe,  sheriff; 
Young  Ewing,  clerk. 

The  first  grand  jury  of  Lafayette  county  consisted  of:  Wm.  Bowers, 
foreman;  David  James,  Henry  Rowland,  Geo.  Nevil,  A.  P.  Patterson,. 
Spencer  Estes,  Thos.  Marr,  Isaac  Clark,  Pink  Hudson,  Wm.  Clark,. 
Calvin  Howe,  Samuel  Cox,  Wm.  Robertson,  Jesse  Demasters,  Hiram 
Helm,  David  Norris,  Jesse  Nave,  Frederick  Sebril,  Jesse  Cox,  and  Henry 
Campbell.  They  received  their  charge,  and  retired  for  consultation;  but, 
unlike  their  predecessors,  the  first  grand  jury  of  Lillard  county,  there  was 
no  business  before  them;  and  they  were  at  once  dismissed. 

David  Todd  continued  to  be  judge  of  the  circuit  court,  up  to  the  Novem- 
ber term,  1830.  But  at  the  February  term,  1831,  J^hji^\_Ryiandjook 
his  seat  as  judge  of  the  court,  under  a  commission  signed  by  John  Miller 
governor,  January  18,  1831.  This  Judge  Ryland  was  the  father  of  Judge 
John  E.  Ryland  and  Xenophon  Ryland,  Esq.,  prominent  and  well-known 
attorneys  of  Lexington  at  the  present  time.  Judge  Ryland  occupied  this 
bench  continuously  for  eighteen  years,  then  occupied  a  seat  on  the 
supreme  bench  of  the  state  for  eight  years.     He  died  September  10,  1873> 


The  first  thing  that  appears  of  record  is  the  opening  of  the  county  court 
at  the  house  of  Samuel  Weston*  in  the  town  of  Mount  Vernon,  January 
2,  1821.  John  Stapp,  John  Whitsett  and  James  Lillard,  Sr.,  had  been 
commissioned  by  Governor  McNair,  under  date  of  St.  Louis,  December 
8, 1820,  as  justices  of  the  county  court  of  Lillard  county.     Henry  Renick 

*Sarnuel  Weston  had  been  commissioned  by  the  governor,  November  22, 1820,  as  jus- 
tice of  the  peace  for  Tabbo  township,  then  in  Cooper  county,  but  at  this  time  in  Lillard 


Sr.,  was  then  justice  of  the  peace  for  the  county,  and  he  administered  the 
oath  of  office  to  the  new  justices.  (He  had  been  commissioned  by  the 
governor  November  22,  1820,  as  justice  of  the  peace  for  Sniabar  town- 
ship, then  in  Cooper  county,  but  now  Lillard  county.)  Young  Ewing 
was  the  first  clerk  of  court;  his  bond  was  given  for  $1,200,  with  Wm.  Y. 
C.  Ewing  and  Joel  Campbell,  as  securities.  This  was  at  the  April  term. 
The  January  term  had  done  no  business  except  to  record  the  justices'  com- 
missions aud  swear  them  into  office. 

The  first  case  in  this  court  was  a  motion  of  Abram  McClelland,  April 
23,  1821,  for  letters  testamentary  on  the  last  will  of  Amasa  Crain, 
deceased.  Mr.  McClelland,  David  Ward  and  Abel  Owens  entered  into 
bond  in  the  case.  The  will  was  proven  by  the  oaths  of  John  Tharp,  and 
John  Walker,  and  the  record  says:  "  Ordered,  that  Lilburn  W.  Boggs, 
[afterwards  governor  of  the  state,  1836  to  1840,]  Richard  Edmundson  and 
Wm.  E.  Aikman,  who  being  first  sworn,  do  appraise  all  the  slaves  and 
all  the  personal  estate  to  them  produced  of  Amasa  Crain,  deceased,  and 
make  due  return  thereof  according  to  law ." 

The  same  day  Wm.  Y.  C.  Ewing,  Thomas  Fristoe,  Joseph  Irwin,  Abel 
Owens  and  Samuel  Evans,  were  appointed  commissioners  of  the  school 
lands  of  the  county;  and  it  was  "ordered,  that  all  persons  who  have 
improved  school  lands  shall  be  allowed  to  occupy  the  same  so  long  as  to 
reap  the  benefits  of  three  crops,  including  those  that  have  been  made  or 
received  by  said  improver." 

April  24,  1821,  John  Dustin  was  appointed  surveyor  of  Lillard  county, 
he  "having  been  examined  in  presence  of  the  court,  as  to  his  qualifica- 
tions," etc. 

July  24,  John  Stapp  was  appointed  to  be  president  of  the  court.  After 
this,  the  court  proceeded  to  make  up  the  first  bill  of  county  expenses, 

To  Adam  Lightner,  for  furnishing  the  circuit  court  with  houses 

two  terms,  3  days  each  term,  at  $1.50  per  day $  9.00 

To  Adam  Lightner,  for  furnishing  county  court  with  houses  two 

terms,  at  $1.25  per  day,  3  days  in  all 3.75 

Markham  Fristoe,  deputy  sheriff,  as  per  account  filed 5.50 

Markham  Fristoe,  deputy  sheriff,  as  per  account  filed 1.00 

Wm.  R.  Cole,  as  per  account  filed 5.00 

Abner  Graham,  "  "      1.00 

George  W.  Parkerson,     "  "      1-00 

Wm.F.  Simmons,  "  "      2.00 

John  Stapp,  countv  court  justice,  4^-  davs 9.00 

James  Lillard,         «  "  "         9.00 

John  Whitsett,        "  "  "         9.00 

Total $55.25 


October  23,  1821,  Braxton  Small  was  appointed  deputy  clerk  of  the 
county  court.  The  first  report  of  the  tax  collector  was  made  on  this  same 
day,  when  there  appeared  to  be  due  the  county,  from  Markham  Fristoe, 
the  collector,  the  sum  of  $83.70.  The  court  ordered  him  to  pay  $50  of  it 
to  the  county  treasurer  within  fifteen  days,  and  the  balance  at  the  next 
term  of  court. 

March  12,  1822,  John  Duston,  James  Bounds,  and  James  Lillard  were 
bonded  in  the  penal  sum  of  $2,000,  as  commissioners  to  select  the  most 
suitable  place  whereon  to  erect  a  court  house  and  jail,  and  to  let  contracts 
for  the  buildings. 

The  first  record,  in  regard  to  an  election  in  the  county,  occurs  under 
date  of  July  9,  1822.  At  this  time,  Solomon  Cox,  Legard  Fine,  and 
James  Lillard,  Jr.,  were  appointed  judges  of  an  election  to  be  held  at 
Mount  Vernon,  in  Tabbo  township;  and  Julius  Emmons,  David  Ward, 
Thomas  Swift  were  appointed  judges  of  an  election  to  be  held  in  Sniabar 
township,  "at  the  place  of  preaching  near  Henry  Renick's." 

At  this  election,  which  occurred  in  August,  Jesse  Hitchcock  was  elected 
constable  for  Sniabar  township,  and  James  Bounds,  Jr.,  for  Tabbo  town- 

It  is  noticeable,  that  in  the  earliest  official  county  records  Tabo  is  some- 
times spelled  Ta  Beau;  and  Sniabar  is  nearly  always  spelled  Sny  E. 
Bairre.  [See  Township  History  of  Dover  and  Sniabar  township,  for 
origin  of  the  names  Tabo  and  Sniabar.] 

March  12,  1822,  James  Bounds,  John  Duston,  and  James  Lillard  were 
appointed  commissioners  to  select  a  town  site  for  the  county  seat,  and  let 
contracts  for  suitable  buildings.  They  selected  the  site,  and  laid  out  the 
town  of  Lexington  (old  town).  The  contract  to  erect  public  buildings 
was  let  to  Henry  Renick,  and  on  June  27,  1825,  appears  an  account  of 
$875.15  paid  him  on  the  job.  There  are  small  items  of  payments,  for  jail 
and  court  house,  scattered  along  in  the  county  records,  for  two  or  three 
years,  so  that  it  was  never  known  just  how  much  this  building  did  cost. 
It  was  a  poor  job,  anyway,  as  the  facilities  for  obtaining  suitable  materials 
for  such  a  structure  were  then  very  meagre. 

November  23,  1825,  appears  another  entry  of  $467.41J,  paid  Renick  on 
construction  of  court  house;  and  the  same  day  the  building  was  accepted, 
and  commissioners  discharged.  This  building  was  occupied  for  county 
purposes  a  few  years,  but  proved  to  be  unfit  and  unsafe,  and  on  July  24, 
1832,  the  county  court  "  Ordered  that  James  Fletcher  be  appointed  com- 
missioner to  sell  the  court-house  of  this  county,  except  the  rock  founda- 
tion, as  follows:  The  brick,  in  four  parcels,  and  the  shingles,  planks,  and 
timbers,  in  one  lot,  etc.     The  sale  took  place  August  1. 

The  county  then  rented  accommodations  for  some  years.  The  August 
term  of  court  was  held  in  Benedict  Thomas'  house.     In  1835  Messrs. 


Rollins  &  Thomas,  completed  a  new  fnree.-story  building  for  the  county. 
This  was  used  until  1845,  when  the  present  classic  and  stately  court 
house  was  erected  in  the  new  town  of  Lexington,  by  Hunter  &  Alford, 
contractors.  The  old  building  in  old  Lexington  was  eventually  sold  to 
the  Baptist  Female  College,  and  used  by  that  institution  until  the  war  of  the 
rebellion.  During  the  turmoil  it  was  used  by  the  United  States  troops  as 
a  hospital,  and  finally  as  a  pest-house  for  small-pox  cases;  hence  after 
the  war  it  was  not  used  again  for  a  school  house,  or  any  other  public 
purpose,  but  was  torn  down  and  sold  as  old  brick. 

The  transition  from  Lillard  to  Lafayette  county  is  a  little  curious.  The 
session  of  county  court  June  27,  1825,  called  it  Lillard  county.  The 
session  on  July  11,  makes  its  entry,  "  Lillard  or  Lafayette  county."  This 
occurs  twice.  Then  the  August  term  again  uses  Lillard  county  only. 
The  November  term  does  not  once  in  any  way  name  the  county.  The 
next  term,  February  6,  1826,  says,  "  county  of  Lafayette,  and  so  it  has 
stood  ever  since. 

August  6,  1822,  the  court  examined  and  adopted  a  county  seal.  It  bore 
the  figure  of  a  plow,  and  words,  "  Missouri,  Lillard  county." 


The  first  mention  of  a  road  in  the  count}'  occurs  under  date  of  April 
24,  1821.  Abner  Graham  was  appointed  overseer  of  the  road  leading 
from  Fort  Osage  through  Sniabar  township,  from  opposite  where  James 
Connor  then  lived,  to  Fort  Osage.  He  was  required  to  keep  the 
road  in  good  repair,  clear  and  smooth,  twenty  feet  wide.  At  the  same 
time  James  Young  was  appointed  overseer  of  the  road  from  Little  Snia- 
bar to  James  Connor's.  Wm.  F.  Simmons  was  appointed  overseer  of  the 
road  from  the  Tabbo  Creek  crossing  near  Mount  Vernon,  to  the  range 
line  between  ranges  26  and  27;  and  from  this  latter  point  Thos.  Fristoe 
was  appointed  overseer  westward  to  Little  Sniabar  Creek.  George 
Parkerson  was  appointed  for  the  road  from  Tabo  Creek  eastward 
through  Mount  Vernon  to  east  end  of  Tabo  township. 

On  the  same  day  Gilead  Rupe,  Markham  Fristoe,  Wm.  Robertson, 
and  Reuben  Riggs  were  appointed  commissioners  to  view  the  best  and 
nearest  route  for  a  road  leading  from  Jack's  ferry  to  intersect  the  road  lead- 
ing from  Fort  Osage  to  Mount  Vernon.  Fort  Osage  was  near  where  the 
town  of  Sibley  now  stands,  in  Jackson  county,  and  was  the  nearest  post  of 
U.  S.  soldiers,  in  case  of  an  attack  upon  the  settlement  by  Indians. 

At  the  same  time  also  a  license  was  issued  to  Adam  Lightner  to  keep  a 
ferry  across  Tabo  Creek,  for  which  he  paid  a  tax  of  two  dollars.  The 
ferriage  rates  fixed  by  the  court  were:  For  one  passenger,  three  cents; 
horse,  three  cents;  cattle,  three  cents  each;  hogs  or  sheep,  two  cents 


each;  carriage  or  cart,  twenty-five  cents;  wagon  and  team,  thirty-seven 
and  a  half  cents. 

July  9  a  license  was  granted  to  Robert  Castles  to  retail  merchandise  in 
this  county,  for  which  privilege  he  paid  $30  per  year.  This  is  the  first 
license  of  the  kind  on  record,  and  it  is  presumed  he  was  the  first  mer- 
chant in  the  county.     The  location  of  his  store  is  not  named. 

July  23,  1821,  license  was  granted  to  Thomas  Stokely  to  keep  a  ferry 
across  the  Missouri  River  about  three  miles  below  Fort  Osage,  for  which 
he  had  to  give  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $2,000.  Abel  Owen  was  his 
bondsman.  The  rates  fixed  by  court  for  this  ferry  were:  Passenger, 
twelve  and  a  half  cents;  man  and  horse,  twenty-five  cents;  neat  cattle, 
ten  cents  each ;  hogs  or  sheep,  three  cents  each ;  carriages,  thirty-seven 
and  a  half  cents;  carts,  fifty  cents;  wagons,  one  dollar;  lumber  or 
goods  not  in  vehicle,  six  cents  per  hundred  weight.  Mr.  Stokely  also 
procured  the  appointment  of  Abner  Graham,  James  Hicklin,  William 
Y.  C.  Ewing  and  Wm.  Renick  as  commissioners  to  lay  out  "a  road  from 
the  bridge  on  Fire  Prairie  creek  to  said  Stokely's  ferry  on  the  Missouri 

There  does  not  appear  any  record  as  to  how  or  when  or  where  Jack's 
ferry  was  established,  but  we  learn  from  General  Graham  that  it  was  at 
the  original  steamboat  landing  which  afterwards  became  the  foot  of  Com- 
mercial street  of  the  city  of  Lexington,  although  now  (1881)  there  is  solid 
land  for  half  a  mile  out  from  this  old  landing. 

July  23,  Ira  Bidwell,  Benjamin  Gooch,  Jesse  Demaster  and  Pink  Hud- 
son were  appointed  to  lay  out  a  road,  giving  Jack's  ferry  a  shorter  connec- 
tion with  the  Ft.  Osage  road.  Also  Gilead  Rupe,  Richard  Fristoe,  John 
Allison,  and  John  Young  were  appointed  to  lay  out  a  road  from  Jack's 
ferry  to  the  county  line  toward  Revis  salt  works. 

July  24,  Abel  Owen  and  Henry  Renick  were  appointed  to  lay  off  Snia- 
bar  township  into  suituble  and  convenient  road  districts.  And  the  same 
day  a  license  was  granted  to  Adam  Lightner,  to  keep  a  tavern;  for  this 
license  he  paid  $12  per  year.  The  same  day  also  Michael  Ely  was 
licensed  to  sell  merchandise;  this  license  cost  $30  per  year. 

August6, 1822,  Alfred  K.  Stevens  was  granted  a  permit  to  build  a  ware- 
house on  the  Missouri  river,  on  the  northwest  fractional  quarter  of  section 
24,  fractional  township  51.  This  was  for  the  storage  and  inspection  of 
tobacco,  and  appears  to  have  been  the  first  commercial  enterprise  in  the 

November  5,  record  is  made  of  license  issued  to  Abner  Graham  to 
retail  wines  and  spirituous  liquors;  also  to  James  Rath  well  for  the  same 
purpose — each  paying  $5  for  six  months'  license.  In  August,  1823,  a 
renewal  of  Rath  well's  license  to  sell  liquors  is  recorded  as  "J.  Rath  well's 


ferry  license,"  which  seems  to  have  been  one  of  the  popular  jokes  of  that 
early  day.     Rathwell,  it  seems,  had  bought  Stokeley's  ferry. 


The  first  marriage  record  in  the  county  is  a  curiosity,  and  we  copy  it 
"  verbatim  et  spellaiim"  etc : 

Missouri  State 

Lillard  county  no  ye  to  home  it  may  concern  that  this  8  day  of  Febru- 
ary 1S21  was  joined  together  in  the  holy  estate  of  marimony  James  Kee- 
ney  and  Anney  Ramsey  by  me 

Jonathan  Keeney,  G.  M. 

["  G.  M."  stands  for  gospel  minister.] 

During  the  same  year,  1821,  the  following  additional  marriages  occurred: 
February  23,  George  Shelby  to  Margaret  Tunage,  by  Rev.  Martin  Trapp ; 
March  15,  Wm.  Cox  to  Sary  Cantrel,  by  Rev.  Martin  Trapp;  March  28, 
Wm.  Furgusson  to  Polly  Heard,  by  Samuel  Weston,  J.  P.;  March  15, 
Robert  McAffee  to  Mary  Gladden,  by  John  Heard,  J.  P.;  March  15, 
Wallace  McAffee  to  Susanna  Givens,  by  John  J.  Heard,  J.  P.;  April  26, 
Walter  Burril  to  Lydia  Cox,  by  J.  J.  Heard,  J.  P.  This  was  all  in  that 

A  total  of  sixty-one  marriages  occurred  in  Lillard  county,  from  the  first 
one,  February  8,  1821,  till  August  5,  1S25.  But  the  first  marriage 
recorded  as  occurring  in  Lafayette  county,  after  the  change  from  Lillard 
to  Lafayette,  was  that  of  Nicholas  Turner  to  Keziah  McClure,  by  Abel 
Owens,  J.  P.,  July  19,  1825.  There  is  some  confusion  in  the  records 
during  the  period  of  the  change  of  name  from  Liliard  to  Lafayette  county. 
The  last  marriage,  as  above  noted,  is  given  as  occurring  in  Lafayette 
county,  and  yet  on  November  2,  1825,  nearly  four  months  later1,  Young 
Ewing  signs  his  name  on  the  record  as  Clerk  of  Lillard  circuit  court. 
The  July  term  of  the  circuit  court  was  recorded  as  in  Lillard  county,  but 
the  November  term  is  recorded  as  in  Lafayette  county.  No  record  was 
made  to  explain  this  change  of  name. 

The  actual  first  marriage  within  the  present  bounds  of  the  county,  was 
that  of  John  Lovelady  and  Mary  Cox,  in  1818,  before  the  county  was 
organized,  and  hence  does  not  appear  on  the  record.  [See  article  headed 
"  History  of  Dover  township." 


Commencing  on  page  20  of  this  volume  will  be  found  a  chapter  on  the 
general  subject  of  the  prehistoric  or  Moundbuilder  race  in  Missouri. 
That  chapter  rambles  all  over  the  state  for  its  data.  This  article  is  con- 
fined to  such  relics  of  those  ancient  people  as  we  have  been  able  to  get 
knowledge  of  in  Lafayette  county. 

The  writer  hereof  has  identified  the  site  of  an  ancient  or  Moundbuildei 
village  near  Lexington.     It  is  on  the  north  half  of  southeast  quarter  of. 


section  27,  township  51,  range  27;  the  land  is  known  as  the  old  Cromwell 
place,  and  is  just  across  a  ravine  north  from  Judge  A.  S.  Tutt's  place.  It 
was  formerly  cultivated  as  a  corn  field,  but  has  lain  fallow  for  three  years 
past,  the  old  house  upon  it  being  decayed  and  uninhabitable.  There  is  a 
small  orchard  near  the  old  house  ruins.  The  ground  here  for  five  or  six 
acres  is  dotted  over  with  flint  chips,  bits  of  ancient  pottery,  and  other 
relics  of  the  Moundbuilder  folks.  The  Lexington  Intelligencer  of  June  25, 
1881,  contained  the  following  local  item: 

Relics  of  the  prehistoric  people  Or  Moundbuilders,  who  inhabited  Mis- 
souri before  our  modern  Indians  occupied  it  as  their  hunting  grounds, 
have  been  found  and  published  in  about  twenty  different  counties  of  Mis- 
souri, but  Lafyette  county  has  not  received  her  share  of  celebrity  in  this 

Two  of  the  Intelligencer  office  boys,  Frank  Lamborn  and  Ethan  Allen, 
Jr.,  have  specimens  of  flint  arrow-heads  and  other  curious  things  which 
they  showed  to  Prof.  Reid,  of  the  Missouri  historical  company,  and  he 
listed  and  named  them  thus: 

Ethan's  list:  1  flint  drill,  3^  inches  long — was  used  by  the  ancient  peo- 
ple to  drill  their  soapstone  and  pipestone  pipes;  also  to  make  holes  in  other 
trinkets  so  as  to  string  them;  4  flint  arrow-heads  of  different  sizes,  shapes 
and  colors;  1  flesher — an  implement  made  of  green-stone,  and  which  was 
used  as  a  hand  wedge  or  peeler  in  the  process  of  skinning  animals,  then 
as  a  flesher  and  rubber  in  preparing  the  skins  so  they  would  be  soft  and 
pliable.  This  tool  weighs  just  a  pound.  It  was  also  used  to  peel  bark 
from  trees. 

Frank's  list  consists  of  25  arrow  and  javelin  heads,  varying  from  1£  to 
5  inches  in  length.  Five  implements  which  archaeologists  call  shovels; 
these  range  from  3Jto  6^  inches  long;  1  flesher;  1  stone  ax — a  very  beau- 
tiful specimen,  made  of  a  kind  of  rock  called  syenite,  a  species  of  granite. 

Last  Mondav  evening  the  boys  went  with  Prof.  Reid  out  to  a  place 
they  called  "Indian  Hill,"  east  of  the  old  Masonic  college,  and  there  they 
found  great  quantities  of  flint  chips,  broken  arrow  heads,  fragments  of 
ancient  pottery  with  different  styles  of  ornamentation  represented  on  differ- 
ent pieces;  and  lastly  a  part  of  a  tiny  copper  ax.  *  This  last  is  supposed 
to  have  been  the  emblem  of  authority,  kept  or  worn  by  the  chief.  The 
boys  say  they  used  to  find  pocketsfull  of  arrow-heads  and  such  things 
there.  The  abundance  of  flint  chips,  broken  pottery,  etc.,  on  the  ground 
is  said  to  show  that  a  village  was  located  there,  and  a  manufactory  of 
arrow-heads,  flint  knives,  shovels,  stone  axes  and  pottery  must  have  been 
kept  there  for  some  time. 

*  On  page  20  of  this  volume  it  is  stated  that  "they  had  no  knowledge  of  iron,  or  any  art 
of  smelting  copper,'1''  etc.  But  in  Switzler's  history  of  Missouri,  page  108,  we  find  this  pas- 
sage: "It  has  been  stated,  and  often  repeated,  that  they  had  no  knowledge  of  smelting  or 
casting  metals,  yet  the  recent  discoveries  in  Wisconsin  of  implements  of  copper  cast  in  molds 
— as  well  as  the  molds  themselves,  of  various  patterns,  and  wrought  with  much  skill — prove  that 
the  age  of  metallurgical  arts  had  dawned  in  that  region,  at  least."  This  was  written  by  A. 
J.  Conant,  of  the  St.  Louis  Academy  of  Sciences.  The  copper  specimen  found  by  Prof. 
Reid  at  Lexington  looks  as  if  it  may  have  been  molded,  instead  of  hammered  out  from  the 
virgin  ore. 


Col.  John  Reid  also  submitted  for  examination  and  name  a  round  stone 
weighing  one  pound  and  seven  and  one-fourth  ounces,  which  looked  more 
like  a  petrified  osage  orange  than  anything  else.  But  the  professor  says 
it  is  not  a  petrifaction  at  all,  but  is  made  from  a  flinty  kind  of  rock  called 
hornstone,  and  was  used  by  the  Mound  builder  people  as  a  sort  of  pestle 
to  work  in  a  saucerlike  cavity  in  another  piece  of  hard  stone  which  served 
as  a  mortar.  With  this  rude  apparatus  they  ground  or  mashed  their 
parched  corn  and  roasted  acorns;  they  also  used  it  to  pulverize  red  and 
yellow  ochre  to  make  war-paint. 

Prof.  Reid  made  several  subsequent  visits  to  the  place  in  company  with 
Prof.  S.  M.  Sellers  of  the  Wentworth  male  academy,  Mr.  Charles  Teub- 
ner,  George  Wilson,  and  others,  and  each  time  found  some  additional 
relics,  until  he  had  fragments  of  pottery  showing  over  thirty  different 
styles  of  ornamentation,  besides  many  plain  pieces,  and  much  variety  in 
the  quality  and  admixture  of  the  clay  in  degrees  of  hardness,  toughness* 
etc.,  and  in  shades  of  color. 

The  following  ancient  mounds  have  been  reported  to  this  historian:  Mr. 
George  Wilson  says  that  when  the  house  was  built  where  Prof.  Quarles 
now  lives,  (a  part  of  the  Elizabeth  Aull  seminary  property),  two  mounds 
were  dug  away  in  digging  the  cellar  and  foundation,  and  some  human 
bones  and  unimportant  relics  were  found.  And  there  is  one  mound  still 
remaining  in  the  back  yard  at  this  place,  just  on  the  edge  of  the  bluff, 
commanding  a  fine  view  of  the  river. 

Wm.  H.  Chiles,  Esq.,  reports  a  group  of  five  mounds  on  Brush  creek 
bottom,  where  the  old  Lexington  and  Warrensburg  road  crossed  the  creek 
on  Robert  H.  Smith's  land  in  section  36,  township  50,  range  27. 

Ethan  Allen,  Esq.,  reports  a  mound  in  Wm.  T.  Hay's  front  yard,  on 
southeast  quarter  of  section  24,  township  51,  range  27;  also,  two  mounds 
on  Dr.  Wilmot's  place,  northwest  quarter  of  section  23. 

Charles  Teubner  reports  two  mounds  on  T.  R.  E.  Harvey's  land,  south- 
east quarter  of  section  22,  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  northwesterly  from 
the  negro  burying-ground,  which  is  on  the  Robert  Aull  estate.  These 
two  mounds  are  perhaps  twenty  rods  apart,  and  near  the  brow  of  the 
bluff,  giving  a  grand  outlook  over  the  Missouri  river  and  country  beyond. 
One  of  the  mounds  is  still  six  feet  high,  and  has  a  modern  grave  on  top, 
with  a  rude  board  fence  around  it. 

Dr.  Sandford  Smith  reported  a  mound  on  section  5,  township  50,  range 
27;  and  in  company  with  Dr.  Smith  and  Mr.  Charles  Teubner,  we  visited 
it.  The  mound  is  on  the  Odell  place.  Old  Mr.  George  Odell  dug  into 
it,  from  top  to  bottom,  more  than  twenty  years  ago  (it  was  before  the  war, 
anyway).  Its  extreme  height  was  about  six  and  a  half  or  seven  feet.  A 
layer  of  loose  stones  had  been  laid  on  the  ground  and  then  the  earth  piled 
up  over  them.  No  wall  or  chamber  was  found,  nor  any  relics  except  a 
few  crumbly  human  bones.     This  mound  is  on  the  highest  point  of  land 


in  that  vicinity,  and  from  its  top  objects  can  be  seen  which  are  known  to 
be  twenty-five  miles  distant;  hence,  it  is  concluded  that  this  was  used  by 
the  ancient  people  as  a  signal  tower,  to  guide  their  distant  friends  up  or 
down  the  river  by  night,  or  give  warning  of  approaching  danger.  It  si 
on  the  brow  of  the  river  bluff. 


Mr.  Charles  Teubner  of  Lexington  has  a  collection  of  Moundbuilder 
relics,  numbering  about  2,300  specimens  in  flint,  comprising  arrow-heads, 
spear-heads,  javelins,  daggers,  bird  darts,  drills,  reamers,  fish  spears,  shov- 
els, hoes,  scrapers,  knives  or  lances,  and  some  forms  the  use  of  which  is 
still  undetermined.  The  materials  represented  in  these  specimens  are 
flint,  hornstone,  agate,  chert,  chalcedony,  slate,  hematite,  milky  quartz,  and 
vitreous  or  glassy  quartz  crystal.  Among  these  are  over  100  specimens 
known  as  bird  darts,  being  perfectly  wrought  and  finished  arrow  heads 
less  than  an  inch  long.  These  are  supposed  to  have  been  designed 
especially  for  shooting  small  birds  of  brilliant  plumage,  the  feathers  of 
which  were  used  by  some  tribes  in  making  a  very  rich  and  gaudy  kind 
of  cloth.  Specimens  of  this  kind  of  cloth  were  found  by  the  conquering 
Spaniards  in  Mexico  which  excelled  iu  princely  gorgeousness  the  most 
costly  silks,  satins,  velvets  or  laces  ever  seen  in  European  courts.  It  was 
made  in  the  same  way  that  some  good  housewifes  now-a-days  make  most 
elegant  rugs,  by  knitting  common  store-twine  and  looping  a  small  shred 
of  silk  fabric  into  each  stitch,  and  when  finished,  shearing  the  silk  ends 
all  to  even  length. 

About  900  specimens  of  Mr.  Teubner's  collection  are  arranged  on 
black  oil  cloth  so  as  to  form  five  life  size  figures  as  follows: 

No.  1  Indian  with  battle  axe,  in  the  act  of  striking  a  savage  blow.  This 
figure  or  chart  is  composed  of  181  flint  arrow  and  spear  heads,  so 
arranged  as  to  depict  the  Indian  physiognomy,  costume,  and  action  with 
great  vigor  and  lifelikeness. 

No.  2.  Indian  with  drawn  bow  and  arrow,  full  life  size,  and  the  Indian's 
redness  of  face,  even,  is  artistically  represented  by  using  red  or  coppery 
tinged  flints  for  that  part.     This  design  is  composed  of  192  pieces. 

No.  3,  A  deer  running.  This  is  a  companion-piece  to  No.  2,  and  con- 
tains 93  flints  besides  a  small  pair  of  deer  horns. 

No.  4.  Indian  smoking  the  peace-pipe.  This  chart  contains  147  flint 

No.  5.  Indian  squaw  and  pappoose.  This  is  the  masterpiece  of  all;  it 
contains  296  flints,  so  exquisitely  arranged  that  the  woman's  moccasins, 
frilled  skirt,  flowing  hair,  and  nursing  breast  are  perfectly  represented; 
the  child's  figure  is  perfect,  even  every  finger  and  toe  being  shown,  and 
by  a  skillful  use  of  the  different  shapes  and  colors  of  the  arrow-heads,  an 


expression  of  glee  or  laughter  shows  in  the  features  of  both  mother  and 
child  as  she  stands  tossing  the  little  sucker  as  high  as  she  can  reach. 

The  specimins  of  which  these  figures  are  composed  were  all  collected 
in  Gasconade  and  Franklin  counties,  Missouri,  during  the  years  1873-74- 
75,  by  George  H.  King,  Esq.,  now  of  Kansas  City,  who  was  then  school 
commissioner  of  Gasconade  county.  He  made  the  charts  and  had  them 
displayed  in  the  Missouri  building  at  the  Centennial  Exhibition  in  Phila- 
delphia in  1876.  Mr.  Teubner  afterwards  bought  them  and  added  them 
to  his  Lexington  collection,  where,  in  addition  to  the  above,  he  has  speci- 
mens from  Lafavette,  Pettis,  Montgomery,  Warren,  Boone,  and  Jackson 
counties  in  Missouri;  and  also  from  the  States  of  Kentucky,  Ohio,  Indiana, 
Virginia,  Maryland,  and  New  York.  Besides  the  flint  specimens  of 
Moundbuilder  work,  are  grooved  stone  hammers  and  axes  weighing  from 
twelve  ounces  to  over  five  pounds.  Two  of  these  are  of  hematite,  a  kind 
of  brown  iron  ore  almost  as  heavy  and  hard  as  real  iron.  Also  stone  bark 
peelers,  skin  dressers,  corn  pestles,  paint  cups,  game  discs,  and  various 
other  tools  or  trinkets.  There  are  supposed  to  be  two  or  three  other 
larger  collections  in  the  United  States  than  this,  but  there  is  probably  not 
another  one  equal  to  it  in  the  variety  of  forms  and  material  and  the  great 
number  of  exquisitelv  finished  specimens  of  the  flint  work.  Mr.  Teubner 
has  been  over  twenty  years  making  his  collection  and  still  pursues  it.  He 
is  determined  to  give  Lexington  the  honor  of  having  both  the  largest  and 
most  varied  collection  in  the  United  States  except  that  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution.     Of  course  no  private  collection  can  compete  with  that. 

Mr.  Jackson  Cox,  in  his  field  in  south  half  of  section  2,  township  48, 
range  28,  Sniabar  township,  plowed  up  an  ancient  pipe  of  flattened  ovoid 
form,  with  a  groove  and  two  creases  worked  around  from  the  stem  hole. 
The  material  is  a  heavy,  compact,  dirty-blue  tinged  variety  of  pipe-stone, 
and  an  excellent  specimen.  Mr.  Geo.  F.  Maitland  furnishes  a  fine  speci- 
men of  flint  drill,  5f  inches  long  and  half-inch  bore,  such  as  the  ancient 
people  used  to  work  with  thumb  and  finger,  for  drilling  into  softer  kinds 
of  stone.     He  found  it  on  Gen.  Vaughan's  farm. 

In  connection  with  Mr.  Teubner's  specimens  that  were  collected  in 
Gasconade  county,  we  ought  to  mention  the  fact  that  a  stone  about  eight- 
een inches  square,  with  a  human  footprint  on  each  side,  was  found  in  his 
field  by  Mr.  Wm.  Miller,  of  Bay  post-office,  Gasconade  county.  [See 
page  14,  of  this  work,  for  the  St.  Louis  footprints  in  stone.]  Mr.  Miller 
sold  this  stone,  together  with  other  relics,  to  John  P.  Jones,  Esq.,  of 
Keytesville,  Chariton  count}7,  a  well  known  writer  on  the  early  explora- 
tions of  Missouri  by  the  Spanish  and  French.  [See  Kansas  City  Review 
of  Science,  Nos.  for  May,  June,  July,  August,  1881.]  Mr.  Jones  thinks 
the  footprints  which  he  had  were  sculptures  and  not  plastic  moulds.  He 
sent  the  stone  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  at   Washington  City.     Mr. 


Jones  says  this  stone  was  reddish  quartzite.  He  further  writes:  "Geo.  S. 
Mepham,  of  St.  Louis,  had  a  footprint  stone  a  few  years  sgo,  its  material 
being  limestone.  I  saw  one  at  Washington  with  two  footprints  on  the 
same  side.     I  also  knew  of  one  in  Kansas." 



Lafayette  is  the  second  county  east  from  the  state  line  between  Mis- 
souri and  Kansas;  has  seven  counties  between  it  and  the  south  line  of  the 
state,  six  east  of  it,  and  four  north.  Its  area  is  395,000  acres,  one  author- 
ity says;  another  says  393,000;  and  a  third  says  403,671  acres.  The  last 
man  gives  exact  figures,  as  if  he  had  measured  it  himself,  so  we  conclude 
the  other  fellows  were  only  "guessing  at  it."  The  39th  parallel  of  latitude 
crosses  about  midway  of  the  county — almost  through  Higginsville;  and 
its  longitude  is  from  16^  to  IT  degrees  west  from  Washington.  Saline 
county  adjoins  on  the  east,  Johnson  county  on  the  south,  Jackson  on  the 
west,  and  Ray  and  Carroll  across  the  Missouri  river  on  the  north.  Its 
latitude  is  the  same  as  Kansas  City,  Cincinnati,  and  Dover  the  capital  of 
Delaware;  its  longitude  corresponds  with  the  boundary  between  Louisana 
and  Texas,  and  with  the  cities  of  Des  Moines,  Iowa,  and  Mankato,  Min- 


We  have  not  found  any  survey  notes  or  other  authentic  data  to  show 
where  is  the  highest  or  lowest  point  of  land  in  Lafayette  county.  But  an 
examination  of  the  map  shows  that  the  county  about  Mount  Hope  and 
Odessa,  in  the  east  part  of  Sniabar  township,  is  probably  the  highest  land ; 
for  streams  rising  in  this  vicinity  flow  off  in  every  direction — north,  south, 
east  and  west.  Both  forks  of  the  Big  Sni  rise  here,  one  flowing  north- 
ward and  the  other  westward;  ^eadstreams  of  Davis  creek  flow  from 
here  eastward;  and  small  tributaries  of  the  Blackwater  river  in  Johnson 
county  rise  here  and  flow  southward.  Hence  a  knob  near  Odessa,  on 
Edward  Lee's  land,  is  supposed  by  some  to  be  the  highest  point.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  vicinage  of  Mayview  likewise  has  streams  flowing  from  it 
in  nearly  every  direction,  and  some  think  that  is  the  highest  land.  Others 
again  claim  that  Lexington,  or  some  hills  in  its  vicinity  are  the  highest, 
citing  the  fact  that  the  coal  beds  dip  from  Lexington  southward,  and  that 
the  Lexington  &  St.  Louis  railroad  runs  a  heavy  down  grade  for  five 
miles  out  of  the  city.  ISTothing  but  an  actual  topographical  survey  can 
settle  such  a  point;  and  we  are  informed  that  some  such  surveys  will  be 
made  in  this  county  by  the  government  during  this  year  and  next. 


The  largest  and  longest  stream  in  the  county  is  Davis  creek:  which  rises 
by  several  tributaries  in  the  southern,  western  and  central  parts  of  Wash- 
ington township,  and  flows  northeasterly  between  Freedom  and  Davis 
townships,  then  southeasterly  in  Saline  county,  where  it  empties  into 
Blackwater  river,  that  into  the  Lamine,  and  that  into  the  Missouri  in 
Cooper  county  a  few  miles  above  Boonville.  The  east  and  west  forks  of 
the  Big  Sni  both  rise  in  Sniabar  township,  the  east  fork  flowing  steadily 
northward,  while  the  west  fork  makes  a  grand  detour  westward  into  Jack- 
son county,  then  back  northeasterly  to  a  junction  with  the  east  fork  in 
Clay  township,  about  three  miles  from  its  mouth  near  the  village  of  Wel- 
lington. The  Little  Sni  rises  partly  in  Clay  and  partly  in  Washington 
townships,  flows  north,  northwest,  and  north,  and  for  three  or  four  miles 
of  its  course  forms  the  boundary  between  Lexington  and  Clay  townships. 

Tabo  creek  is  perhaps  the  next  largest  stream  after  the  Big  Sni;  and 
has  two  considerable  branches  which  rise  in  Washington  township,  two 
in  Lexington  township,  and  one  in  Dover  township.  The  course  of  the 
main  stream  is  steadily  northward,  and  it  forms  the  entire  boundary  line 
between  Lexington  and  Dover  townships.  One  of  its  branches  rises  in 
the  southeast  part  of  Lexington  city,  anal  the  Lexington  &  St.  Louis  rail- 
road follows  it  in  a  southeasterly  direction,  for  advantage  of  grade,  for  a 
distance  of  over-  five  miles. 

Salt  creek  rises  in  the  southwest  part  of  Middleton  township,  with 
small  headstreams  flowing  in  from  Davis  and  Dover.  Its  course  is  north 
and  northeast,  and  then  it  flows  away  entirely  across  Saline  county  and 
empties  into  the  Blackwater  river,  of  which  it  is  called  the  "  Salt  fork." 
Saline  licks  occur  in  many  places  along  this  stream,  and  this  fact  gave 
name  to  Saline  county.  Elm  creek  rises  in  southeast  part  of  Middleton 
township,  and  flows  northeasterly  into  Saline  county  and  joins  Salt  cfeek. 
Panther  creek  rises  in  Freedom  township,  west  of  Concordia,  and  flows 
southeasterly  into  the  Blackwater. 

The  above  are  all  the  principal  streams  of  the  county,  but  there  are  a 
great  many  small  tributaries  with  local  or  neighborhood  names  which  do 
not  appear  on  the  maps.  In  Freedom  township  there  is  Mulky  creek, 
Blackjack  creek,  and  Peavine  creek.  In  Middleton  township  there  is 
Willow  creek  and  Craig's  branch.  In  Davis  township  there  is  an  Elm 
branch,  Bear  branch,  Merritt's  branch,  and  Johnson's  creek,  all  flowing 
southwardly  into  Davis  creek.  In  Dover  township  there  is  Cottonwood 
creek.  In  Washington  township,  there  are  James  creek,  Honey  creek, 
North  and  South  forks  of  Davis  creek,  and  Brush  creek.  In  Clay  town- 
ship there  is  Owl  creek,  and  Helm's  lake,  the  latter  a  remnant  of  t'ne 
ancient  river  bed.  In  Lexington  township  there  are  Graham's  branch 
and  Rupe's  branch,  at  Lexington  city,  and  the  Garrison  fork  of  Tabo 
creek.     In  Sniabar  township  there  is  Horseshoe  creek.     Clay,  Lexington, 


Dover,  and  Middleton  townships  front  on  the  Missouri  river  as  their 
northern  boundaries. 

The  river  at  the  city  of  Lexington  has  very  much  changed  its  channel. 
The  original  landing  for  Jack's  ferry  and  keel  boats,  before  steamboats 
came  much  into  use,  was  at  or  near  the  mouth  of  Rupe's  branch.  The 
backwater  from  the  river  set  up  into  the  branch  above  the  stone  bridge  on 
the  Wellington  road,  and  there  was  a  ledge  of  bare  rocks  in  the  bed  of 
the  branch  just  above  the  bridge,  from  which  boys  used  to  leap  or  plunge 
into  deep  water;  it  was  a  favorite  swimming  ground.  When  steamboats 
began  to  come,  and  Lexington  grew  to  be  a  great  center  of  trade, 
the  steamboat  landing  was  at  the  old  ferry  landing;  and  the  city 
graded  and  paved  Commercial  street  to  make  a  good  and  mudless  road- 
way from  her  main  business  center  down  to  the  wharf.  But  now  the 
river  has  filled  up  its  old  channel  with  solid  land,  so  that  a  steamboat  to- 
day cannot  land  anywhere  within  half  or  three-quarters  of  a  mile  of  the 
old  place;  Rupe's  branch  cove  is  all  filled  up,  the  ledge  of  rocks  com- 
pletely covered,  and  Commerce  street  grown  to  weeds  and  chink-grass, 
though  the  paving  still  remains  as  a  reminder  of  the  "  used-to-be."  At 
low  water,  the  steamboat  and  ferry  landing  are  now  far  down  the  river, 
almost  below  the  city.  And  what  the  old  Missouri  is  going  to  do  with  it 
in  the  future  no  mortal  can  tell. 

Other  steamboat  landings  in  the  county  are  at  Napoleon,  Berlin,  Dover 
landing,  and  Waverly. 


During  the  winter  of  1879-80  the  Burlington  and  Southwestern  railroad 
company  made  a  series  of  surveys  and  soundings  to  determine  the  feasi- 
bility of  building  a  railroad  bridge  across  the  Missouri  river  at  Lexington. 
Howard  Dunn,  a  civil  engineer  of  Lexington,  was  employed  on  this  work, 
assisted  by  Wm.  Tutt,  Charles  Morrison,  Charles  Montgomery  and 
Charles  H.  Dunn,  all  Lexington  boys.  Some  work  was  done  by  making 
soundings  through  the  ice.  Then  Mr.  Dunn  was  sent  by  the  same  com- 
pany to  examine  and  report  on  the  grades,  curves  and  condition  of  roadbed 
of  the  old  Lexington  and  Gulf  railroad.  After  this,  or  about  February 
18, 1880,  the  railroad  company  sent  another  engineer,  Mr.  Hurst,  of  Chili- 
cothe,  to  join  Mr.  Dunn  in  a  further  prosecution  of  the  river-bed  sound- 
ings and  bank  surveys,  and  this  work  was  carried  on  from  a  point  on  the 
north  bank  considerably  above  the  foot  of  pine  street  to  a  point  on  the 
south  bank  bluff,  near  Dr.  Wilmot's  place.  The  highest  point  taken  on 
the  bluff  was  just  north  of  the  old  Masonic  college,  and  was  167  feet 
above  low-water  mark.  Fifteen  different  test  soundings  were  made  for 
bed-rock  in  the  river,  with  the  following  results: 

No.  1.  950  feet  down  stream  from  west  end  of  the  old  Anderson  ware- 


house  at  foot  of  Pine  street,  and  149  feet  out  from  the  river  bank,  bare 
rock  was  struck  at  15.8  feet  from  the  surface,  the  river  being  then  3£  feet 
above  low-water  gauge.  This  rock  was  drilled  into  18  inches  without 
going  through,  and  was  found  to  be  a  solid  limestone  ledge. 

No.  2.  At  same  place,  291  feet  from  bank,  the  same  bed-rock  was  found 
with  16.5  feet  of  water. 

No.  3.  Same  place,  396  feet  from  river  bank,  sand  bottom  was  found 
at  21  feet  depth  of  water.  A  two-inch  gas-pipe  was  then  sunk  in  the 
sand  46.7  feet  without  finding  rock. 

No.  4.  Same  place,  492  feet  from  bank,  water  12.5  feet  deep;  gas-pipe 
driven  52  feet  into  the  sand  of  river  bottom  without  finding  rock.' 

Nos.  11,  12,  13,  14  and  15  represented  a  line  of  soundings  from  shore 
to  shore  at  a  point  200  feet  up-stream  from  Major  Claget's  coal  mine. 
No.  15  was  200  feet  out  from  the  south  shore,  and  at  21  feet  depth  of 
water  the  bedded  limestone,  same  as  Nos.  1  and  2,  was  found.  But  at  all 
the  other  numbers  on  this  line,  at  an  average  depth  of  51  feet  from  the 
surface,  there  was  found  a  reef  of  boulders  and  coarse  gravel,  with  sand 
again  below  them. 

No.  9.  This  sounding  was  500  feet  up-stream  from  the  line  last  men- 
tioned, and  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  50  feet  back  on  the  beach  from 
the  water's  edge.  The  result  was,  they  bored  through  55  feet  of  sand 
and  sandy  loam,  then  8  feet  of  gravel  and  shale,  then  4  feet  of  slate  and 
coal,  then  13  feet  of  sand,  without  finding  bed  rock.  The  total  depth 
bored  at  this  point  was  80.2  feet. 

No.  10.  This  test-point  was  150  feet  out  in  the  river  from  the  north 
shore  line,  and  the  water  was  4.5  feet  deep.  At  21  feet  below  the  water 
surface  coal  and  sand  was  found;  at  22  feet,  gravel;  at  27  to  46  feet,  quick- 
sand; at  52  feet,  gravel;  at  94  feet,  no  bed-rock.  Here  the  tube  stuck 
fast,  could  not  be  got  out,  and  is  there  yet. 

Whether  the  railroad  company  considered  these  results  such  as  to  war- 
rant them  in  ever  building  a  railroad  bridge  at  Lexington,  no  man  know- 
eth;  but  at  this  writing  (Oct.  1,  1881)  there  are  many  signs  which  seem 
to  indicate  that  a  bridge  will  sometime  be  built  here,  and  that  the  Chicago, 
Burlington  and  Quincy  railroad  company  will  run  its  southwestern  branch 
from  Burlington,  Iowa,  by  way  of  the  old  Lexington  and  Gulf  grade 
toward  Texas. 

In  October,  1880,  Mr.  Dunn  assisted  in  making  water  soundings  for  the 
government,  from  Wellington  down  to  Lexington  island,  and  the  deepest 
water  found  was  opposite  the  foot  of  Pine  street,  where  it  showed  thirty- 
five  feet  depth  of  water  below  low-water  oauge. 

A  little  above  the  old  hemp  warehouse  on  Pine  street,  in  the  angle  of 
the  bluff  on  the  west  side  of  the  street,  there  is  a  heavy  bed  of  rock  facing 





the  river,  and  in  this  rock  is  a  plug  of  lead  with  a  copper  bolt  in  its  center. 
This  is  called  a  government  bench  mark;  the  government  surveyors  have 
established  a  similar  mark  every  ten  miles  along  the  banks  of  the  Missour 
river,  from  Sioux  City  to  its  mouth.  These  form  permanent  fixed  points 
from  which  to  reckon  all  future  topographical  surveys,  but  do  not  seem  to 
have  any  uniform  reference  to  water  level. 


A  mark  known  as  the  St.  Louis  directrix,  is  the  standard  gauge  from 
which  all  levels  on  the  Missouri  and  Upper  Mississippi  rivers  are  reck- 
oned, and  that  mark  is  372  feet  above  sea  level.  The  government  low 
water  gauge-mark  at  Lexington  is  at  an  assumed  elevation  of  424.2  feet 
above  the  sea,  but  that  is  not  certain;  and  a  series  of  soundings  made  for 
the  government  by  Mr.  Dunn,  of  Lexington,  on  September  20,  1881,  gave 
a  depth  of  19  feet  4  inches  of  water,  below  low  water  gauge,  in  the  channel 
a  little  above  Pine  street;  but  there  was  known  to  be  deeper  water  below 
this  point. 

In  1844  occured  the  greatest  flo  od  on  record  in  the  Missouri  river. 
Another  "  high  water"  came  in  1877,  and  another  in  1881.  The  following 
is  their  record:  1844,  26.66  feet  above  Lexington  low  water  gauge;  1877, 
17.75  feet  above;  1881,  23.10  feet  above. 

An  old  city  survey  reports  the  top  of  the  curb  stone  in  front  of  Aull's 
building,  corner  of  North  and  Broadway  streets,  to  be  190  feet  above  low 
water  mark,  and  that  is  nearly  the  level  of  North  or  Main  street  of  Lex- 
ington City. 


From  the  annual  report  of  U.  S.  chief  engineers,  1880,  Part  II,  page 
1409,  we  quote:  "The  rapid  erasion  of  the  left  bank,  in  the  bend  just 
above  Lexington,  is  allowing  the  whole  river  to  move  bodily  down  stream, 
and  if  not  checked  will  soon  destroy  entirely  the  harbor  and  boat-landing 
at  Lexington.  The  plan  proposed  contemplates  the  protection  of  caving 
banks  by  brush-mattress  revetments,  and  the  construction  of  floating 
dikes,  designed  and  located  so  as  to  rectify  the  channel." 

In  Part  I,  page  163,  of  same  report,  we  find  this:  "With  the  funds 
appropriated  by  act  of  June  14,  1880,  for  improving  the  Missouri  river  at 
this  locality  (Lexington),  it  is  proposed  to  commence  the  work  by  pro- 
tecting the  banks  where  necessary  with  brush  revetment,  and  rectifying 
the  channel  by  floating  brush  dikes  or  other  structure  (wire  mattress  is 
being  used,  1881,)  designed  to  produce  like  effect,  as  far  as  the  funds  avail- 
able will  allow." 


Amount  appropriated  by  Act  approved  June  15, 1880 $15,000 

July  1,  1880,  amount  available _ .  .  .  .    15,000 

Am't  (estimated)  required  for  completion  of  exixting  project .    35,000 
Am't  that  can  be  profitably  expended  in  fiscal  year  ending 

June  30,  1882 35,000 

The  above  work  was  in  progress  during  the  summer  of  1881,  under 
immediate  charge  of  E.  C.  Shankland,  U.  S.  assistant-engineer.  A  steam 
hydraulic  grading  machine  or  boat  was  employed  on  the  north  bank  of 
the  river,  to  prepare  the  bank  for  the  floating  dykes  and  recumbent  wire 
mattresses.  This  machine  was  kept  at  work  steadily  by  two  crews,  five 
working  from  noon  to  midnight,  and  five  from  midnight  till  noon;  then  a 
cook,  making  eleven  men  in  all,  and  all  Lexington  men  except  one.  The 
survey  and  sounding  party,  in  charge  of  Mr.  Howard  Dunn,  of  Lexing- 
ton, consisted  of  seven  men,  two  flagmen  on  shore,  three  oarsmen,  a  lead- 
man,  and  a  recorder  in  boat;  and  five  of  this  party  were  Lexington  men. 


In  the  spring  of  1877  Prof.  Francis  E.  Knipher,  of  Washington  Univer- 
sity, St.  Louis,  established  a  system  of  voluntary  weather  observing  sta- 
tions throughout  the  state.  It  was  purely  a  voluntary  service,  only 
engaged  in  by  those  who  were  willing  to  give  time,  labor,  and  care  to  it, 
from  their  love  of  science  and  their  desire  to  secure  to  Missouri  the  prac- 
tical benefits  of  such  observations.  There  were  in  Missouri  at  one  time 
eighty  of  these  stations,  but  in  June,  1881,  only  forty-nine  made  any 
reports.  In  the  state  of  Iowa  there  are  two  hundred  similar  volunteer 
weather  stations. 

In  December,  1877,  Dr.  J.  B.  Alexander,  of  Lexington,  commenced  his 
work  as  a  member  of  the  Missouri  Volunteer  Weather  Bureau,  making 
careful  observations  of  wind,  moisture,  temperature,  etc.,  three  times 
each  day,  and  at  the  end  of  each  month  reporting  to  Prof.  Knipher  in 
tabulated-  form,  the  results  of  the  month's  daily  record.  This  is  one  of 
the  most  unremitting  and  taxing  kinds  of  public  service  that  any  man  can 
engage  in;  it  is  fraught  with  the  supremest  interests  of  agriculture,  com- 
merce, climatology,  prevailing  diseases,  etc.  Its  devotees  are  self- 
sacrificing  public  benefactors,  toiling  gratuitously  for  the  industrial  and 
sanitary  welfare  of  the  state,  for  it  is  only  by  such  observations,  kept  up 
through  a  long  series  of  years,  that  the  laws  of  climate  and  season  can 
be  learned,  and  their  normal  recurrences  taken  advantage  of  for  the  ben- 
efit of  mankind. 

The  following  tables  of  observations  made  at  Lexington,  show  a  mar- 
velous amount  of  patient  and  painstaking  labor,  and  were  prepared  by 
Dr.  Alexander  especially  for  this  work,  in  order  to  their  permanent  pres- 



ervation;  and  any  one  can  see  that  when  similar  records  have  been  kept 
at  forty  or  fifty  different  places  throughout  the  state  for  ten,  twenty,  or 
thirty  years  successively,  they  must  throw  a  vast  deal  of  valuable  light 
upon  the  problems  of  climate  and  season  within  our  commonwealth. 































































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I  34 

22  0 

1  05  *Q 

2  29 

16  8 

17  34 

•17  8 







1  62 


4  29 




2  58 

54  fi 






53  7 

2  04 


May  ...  

61  R 

3  26 

74  3 

67  8 

3  63 

66  5 


66  1 


79. a 

1  20 

10  53 
0  44 

71  4 
74  9 

5  14 


79  6 

2  10 
2  24 

71  7 

76  1 

4  97 

3  82 

79  0 


69  1 

1  78 

63  2 

3  02 

62  5 

4  37 

64  9 




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49  7 









2  51 




4  00 



0  97 













76  2 



•5  66 

54  3 

7  63 


10  28 















52  8 



31 .  12 


32  76 

♦This  average  is  based  upon  four  dry  years.  A  more  accurate  averaee  fiom  a  larger  number  of  years 
would  be  much  higher. 







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extremes  of  temperature  observed  during  the  years  1878,  1879, 

1880  and  1881. 


1878.  june. 
No.  of  days  above  90°  .  .0 


12 94O0 

13 94®0 

15 95  =  0 

No.  of  days  above  90°  .13 

19 95=>0 

20 95  =  0 

21 94  =  5 

23 96  =  5 

24 97  =  0 

No.  of  davs  above  90°  .12 


No  of  days  above  90°  . .  .4 

1879.  junk. 

9 94  =  5 

No.  of  days  above  90=  ..5 


11 93  =  5 

No  of  days  above  90  =  . .  .7 


26 94  =  0 

27 94  =  5 

No.  of  days  above  90=  ..9 

1880.  JUNE. 

11 93  =  5 

No,  of  days  above  90=  .'.5 


12 95  =  5 

13 96  =  0 

30 94  =  5 

No.  ol  days  above  90  =.15 


14 .....97  =  5 

16 96  =  5 

17 97  =  0 

18  99  =  5 

19 100  =  0 

No.  of  days  above  90  ° . .  15 

1881.  JUNE. 

28 95  =  0 

29 95  =  0 

No.  of  days  above  90  o  ..11 


16 94  =  0 

7 94  =  5 

8  95  =  0 

9  : 97  =  5 

10 98  =  5 

11   97  =  5 

12 98  =  0 

16 94  =  0 

17 94C5 

20 9505 

No.  of  days  above  90=  ..14 


1 94  =  5 

3  98  =  5 

4 98  =  0 

5 100  =  0 

6 .96  =  0 

8 96  =  0 

9 100  =  5 

10 101O0 

11  103  =  0 

12  101O5 

16 98  =  0 

17 105  =  0 

24  99  =  5 

25 100  =  5 

6 102  =  0 

27 101=8 

28 ....97  =  5 

29 95  =  0 

No.  of  days  above  90=  .21 


5  9405 

No.  of  days  above  90=  ..0 


WINTER  OF   1877-8. 
DECEMBER    1877. 

No.  of  days  below  32=  ..8 
No.  of  days  below  zero..O 

JANUARY.   1878. 
No.  of  days  below  32=  .22 
No.  of  days  below  zero.  .0 

FEBRUARY,  1879. 

No.  of  da)  s  below  32=  .15 

No.  of  days  below  zeto.,0 

WINTER  of  1878-9. 

DECEMBER.  1878. 

17 3  =  0  above 

18     4  =  5  below 

19 4c0above 

22 2  =  5  below 

24 5o0      " 

25 4  =  0      •• 

27 zero 

28 2  =  0  above 

30  oOOi.bove 

No. of  days  below  32=  ..28 

No.  of  days  below  zero.. 5 

JANUARY,  1879. 

2 15=  below 

3 17=      " 

|4 17  =  5  below 

|5 12  =  0      " 

6 11  =  0     " 

8  2  =  0  above 

9 7  =  0  below 

19 3  =  0 

No.  of  days  below  32=. .25 
No.  of  days  below  zero.  7 

FEBRUAKY,  1879. 

13 4  =  0above 

14 3  =  0 

20 1°0 

No.  of  days  below  32=   22 

march,  1879. 

No.  of  days  below  32  "5  ..12 

winter  of  1879-80. 

december.  1879. 

12 5  =  0  above 

15 1=5      " 

84... 6  =  5  below 

25 11=0     '•• 

26 3  =  5  above 

No. of  days  below  32  :    .27 
No. of  days  below  zero.  2 

JANUARY,     1880. 

No. of  days  below  32=  ..15 

No.  of  days  below  zero.  0 

FEBRUARY,  1880. 

No  of  days  below  32=  ..21 

WINTER  OF   1880-1. 
OCTOBER.  1880 

No.  of  days  below  32  =  .  .6 

NOVEMBER.  1880. 

18 3  =  5  above 

19...   : 5  =  0      " 

22 4  =  0     •• 

No  of  days  below  32=  .  22 

DECEMBER,  1880. 

5 1=0  above 

6 3  =  4  below 

7 2° 5  above 

3  =  5     " 

27 3  =  0below 

28 9  =  0     » 

39 18  =  0     " 

30 6  =  0      » 

31 5  =  0     '• 

No.  of  days  below  32=  .29 
No.  of  days  below  zero    6 

JANUARY,  1881. 

3 3  =  0  below 

4 2  =  0ab&ve 


4  =  0  above 

7  =  0  below 

12  =  0below 

3  =  5  above 

13  =  5  below 

0  =  5  above 

2  =  5      " 

2  =  5      «' 

3  =  5     " 

.  of  days  below  32=  .31 
.  oidays  below  zero.. 5 

FEBRUARY.  1881. 

2  =  5  above 

1  =  5     " 


1  =  5  above 

3  =  0     " 

5  =  0     " 

of  days  below  32  =  . .  26 
of  days  below  zero.  1 

march,  1881. 
of  days  below  32=  .27 

APRIL,  1881. 
of  days  below  32=  11 



During  a  period  of  four  years,  observations,  amounting  to  4,077  in  num- 
ber, gave  the  following  result  as  to  relative  frequency  of  direction  ot  the 


South 1,158     North 652     Southwest 570 

West 457     East 410     Northeast 300 

Southeast 235     Northwest 225     Calm 70 


A  few  points  of  interest  we  have  gathered  from  memoranda,  kept  by 
Mr.  George  Venable.  January  29,  1873,  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning, 
the  thermometer,  at  Grimes  &  Venable's  jewelry  store,  showed  24  ° 
below  zero.  During  the  winter  of  1875-6,  no  ice  was  put  up  in  Lexing- 
ton; the  river  did  not  close  at  all;  the  steamboats  ran  all  winter;  and 
it  was  the  mildest  winter  that  had  occurred  for  thirty  years.  December 
12  and  13,  1878,  snow  fell  continuously  for  twenty  hours,  and  then  meas- 
ured thirty-three  inches  deep.  Uncle  George  Houx  said  it  was  the  deep- 
est snow  that  had  been  in  Missouri  for  sixty  years.  During  the  winter  of 
1880-1,  the  river  closed  December  29,  and  remained  icebound  until  Feb- 
ruary 7,  a  period  of  forty-one  days.  It  then  remained  open  seven  days, 
but  on  the  night  of  February  15  it  froze  up  again,  and  remained  so  until 
February  26. 


Dr.  Swallow  was  born  in  Buckfield,  Oxford  county,  Maine,  in  1817, 
and  traces  his  ancestry  back  to  a  Norman  French  family  named  Sevallieu, 
whose  chief  marched  with  William  the  Conqueror  into  England.  One 
branch  of  the  family  afterward  emigrated  from  France  to  New  Orleans, 
while  another  branch  came  from  old  England  to  New  England;  and  from 
this  latter  stock  Prof.  Swallow  is  descended.  His  father  was  a  farmer  and 
mechanic.  Very  early  in  life,  young  George  took  a  deep  interest  in  the 
then  new  and  mysterious  science  of  geology.  In  1843,  he  graduated  at 
Bowdoin  College  with  high  honors,  and  was  immediately  appointed  lec- 
turer on  botany,  in  his  alma  mater.  In  1848  he  obtained  aid  from  the 
state  of  Maine,  and  established  an  agricultural  school  at  Hampden,  Maine. 
In  1850  he  was  elected  professor  of  chemistry  and  geology  in  the  Univer- 
sity of  Missouri,  and  in  1853  was  appointed  state  geologist — the  first  one 
Missouri  ever  had.  His  first  official  report  was  published  by  the  state,  in 
1855.  He  first  determined,  located,  and  correctly  mapped  the  boundaries 
of  the  geological  formations  of  Missouri,  and  their  mineral  contents,  as 
published  in  his  reports,  and  in  Campbell's  Atlas  of  Missouri— St.  Louis, 
1873 — a  work  which  has  been  followed  by  later  investigators,  in  working 
out  the  minor  details  of  Missouri's  geology.     During  the  war-time,  the 



business  of  the  State  University  and  the  geological  survey  were  so  much 
broken  up,  that,  in  1865,  Prof.  Swallow  accepted  an  appointment  as  state 
geologist  of  Kansas,  and  continued  in  that  work  two  years.  He  had  pre- 
viously, in  1858,  discovered  and  determined  rocks  in  Kansas,  belonging  to  the 
Permian  group  of  geological  series.  This  was  the  first  time  that  rocks  of 
this  age  were  shown  to  exist  in  America ;  and  this  discovery  by  Prof.  Swal- 
low, together  with  his  reports  on  the  geology  of  Missouri  and  Kansas,  and 
papers  read  before  the  American  Association,  gave  him  a  high  rank  and 
honorable  recognition  among  the  learned  societies  and  savans  of  America 
and  Europe. 


Professor  of  Geology  and  Agriculture  in  the  State  University  of  Missouri,  and  Dean  of  the 

State  Agricultural  College. 

In  1870  the  University  of  Missouri  was  enlarged,  reconstructed  and 
reorganized  on  the  true  university  plan — with  co-ordinate  schools  or  col- 
leges of  literature,  science,  art,  law,  medicine,  mines  and  agriculture.  Dr. 
Swallow  was  appointed  to  the  chair  of  natural  history  and  agriculture 
and  made  dean  of  the  agricultural  college,  which  position  he  still  holds. 


For  nearly  thirty  years  past  he  has  been  a  working  and  leading  member 
of  the  agricultural  and  horticultural  societies  of  the  state,  their  very  exist- 
ence having  grown  out  of  his  urgent  and  eloquent  advocacy  of  such 
organizations  as  early  as  1852.  He  has  also  been  an  active  member  of 
the  "American  association  for  the  advancement  of  science,"  and  has  taken 
an  honored  and  leading  part  in  many  of  its  profoundest  discussions.  He 
has  always  been  a  staunch  opponent  of  "  Darwinism,"  or  the  materialistic 
phase  of  the  doctrine  of  evolution.  His  most  persistent  and  useful  work 
is,  perhaps,  his  study  and  classification  of  Missouri  soils  as  shown  by  his 
numerous  publications  on  their  chemical  and  physical  properties,  and  the 
best  modes  of  culture  for  the  staple  crops  of  the  Mississippi  valley.  [See 
page  70  and  following  pages.] 


In  Prof.  Swallow's  geological  map  of  Missouri,  Lafayette  county  is  all 
included  in  what  he  marks  as  the  "  coal  measures,"  or  upper  carboniferous 
formation,  except  some  strips  of  alluvial  bottom  lands  along  the  Missouri 
river;  these  bottom  lands  he  marks  as  "quarternary  " — but  other  authori- 
ties would  further  subdivide  and  class  them  as  "recent  "  formations,  (see 
geological  chart  on  page  67)  because  they  are  the  same  sort  of  formations 
as  are  now  being  made  every  year  by  the  Missouri  and  other  rivers.  By 
referring  to  the  chart  the  order  of  superposition  of  the  different  geolog- 
ical formations  will  be  readily  seen.  Lafayette  county  bluffs  show  the 
coal-measures  subdivision  of  the  carboniferous  age;  then  there  is  an 
absence  of  several  succeeding  formations,  to- wit:  Peruvian,  Triassic, 
Jurassic,  Cretaceous  and  Tertiary;  but  the  first  division  of  the  quarter- 
nary is  found — a  layer  of  sand  and  gravel,  with  occasional  granite  boul- 
ders from  the  azoic  rocks  of  Dakota,  Wyoming  and  Colorado.  These 
are  the  drift  materials  of  the  glacial  epoch ;  and  upon  them  is  deposited  the 
"  bluff'  formation,"  as  Prof.  Swallow  calls  it,  but  which  is  called  loess  by 
most  other  writers.  The  manner  of  production  of  this  "  bluff' formation  " 
will  be  found  explained  on  page  80,  and  this  is  the  body  soil  or  clay  at  the 
top  of  the  geological  formations  all  over  Lafayette  county,  except  the 
recent  bottom  lands  or  flood  plains  of  the  rivers  and  creeks,  and  the  out- 
crop of  other  formations  in  the  river  bluffs  and  on  the  banks  of  streams. 

The  writer  of  this  history  learned  from  some  former  pupils  of  the  Eliz- 
abeth Aull  Seminary  that  Miss  Emma  G.  Wilber.  a  long  time  favorite 
teacher  there,  used  to  take  her  pupils  out  on  geological  excursions;  and 
also  have  them  bring  in  any  specimens  which  they  might  find,  and  which 
she  would  explain  to  them  individually  or  in  class.  And  Miss  Wilber  hav- 
ing removed  to  Englewood,  Illinois,  we  wrote  to  her,  requesting  a  sketch 
of  some  of  her  geological  excursions  with  her  classes,  and  notes  of  any 
rare  specimens  found.  Accordingly,  the  lady  wrote  us-  in  reply,  under 
date  of  June  23,  1881: 


"My  pupils  overrate  me  if  they  take  enthusiasm  and  interest,  and  a  lit- 
tle imperfect  book-learning,  as  comprehensive  and  accurate  knowledge. 
In  teaching,  I  have  but  attempted  to  give  them  a  glimpse  into  the  beauties 
and  wonders  of  the  boundless  regions  of  Natural  Science,  and  to  awaken 
in  them  a  desire  to  go  in  and  by  patient  study  to  view  for  themselves. 

"Bluffs,  stone  ledges,  water  and  ripple  marks,  and  the  small  shells  that 
are  so  thickly  imbedded  in  the  shales  in  the  ravines,  mean  much  to  girls 
who  are  taking  first  lessons  in  observation,  but  mean  nothing  to  men  of 
mature  study,  except  that  to  the  latter  even  little  things  are  of  value  in 
making  estimations.  I  found,  not  far  from  the  stone  bridge  a  large  gran- 
ite boulder  with  striae  upon  it,  and  an  injected  vein  of  coarse  granite.  I 
do  regard  that  as  a  specimen  of  value  in  a  geological  cabinet,  and  I  had  it 
taken  to  the  Elizabeth  Aull  Seminary,  where  it  remains.  Beyond,  and 
on  the  hill,  I  found  a  concretion  resembling  a  petrified  turtle,  which  is  also 
now  at  the  Seminary;  and  many  small  shells,  besides  two  or  three  uni- 
valves, large  and  well  preserved." 

The  granite  boulder  above  referred  to,  with  "striae"  or  glacial 
scratches  upon  it,  is  indeed  a  very  interesting  relic.  The  original  bed  or 
ledge  from  which  it  was  broken  must  have  been  far  to  the  north-west; 
and  the  scratches  upon  it  would  show  that  it  was  once  embedded  in  the 
bottom  of  a  glacier,  or  possibly  a  iceberg,  and  had  ground  along  upon 
bed  rocks  as  hard  or  harder  than  itself,  thus  leaving  scratches  or  grooves 
upon  it  to  tell  the  story  of  how  it  came  to  Lafayette  county  during  the 
glacial  epoch  of  the  geological  calendar.  The  "concretion  resembling  a 
petrified  turtle,"  which  she  refers  to  is  a  fine  and  valuable  specimen,  but 
it  is  of  mineral  origin  (sometimes  called  "septaria"),  and  not  a  fossil  or 
petrification.  In  closing  her  modest  and  ladylike  coummunication,  Miss 
Wilber  says:  "Mr.  George  Wilson,  to  whom  I  have  referred  many  ques- 
tions, and  Dr.  Alexander,  are  so  able  in  expression  and  so  well  informed 
with  regard  to  geology  and  kindred  subjects,  that  even  were  I  a  very 
great  deal  wiser,  I  could  add  nothing  to  what  they  can  say." 


The  first  official  geological  work  ever  done  in  Missouri  was  by  David 
Dale  Owen,  who  was  from  1847  to  1852,  the  United  States  geologist.  In 
1852,  Lippincott,  Grambo  &  Co.,  of  Philadelphia,  published  Dr.  Owen's 
elaborate  report  of  his  geological  surveys  in  Wisconsin,  Iowa  and  Minne- 
sota, and  a  part  of  Nebraska.  Missouri  is  not  mentioned  in  the  title  page, 
but  the  text  and  accompanying  maps  show  that  he  surveyed  the  Missouri 
river  from  Sioux  City  to  its  mouth.  His  map  of  the  Missouri  river  notes 
geological  sections  taken  from  the  bluffs  on  the  north  side  opposite  Napo- 
leon and  Wellington  in  this  county,  and  on  the  south  side  at  Lexington 
and  again  fourteen  miles  below.  These  are  undoubtedly  the  first  geolog- 
ical sections  ever  made  in  Lafayette  county,  but  they  are  merely  general- 
ized and  not  given  in  detail,  their  only  purpose  being  to  show  the  relative 
position  of  the  coal  and  any  other  valuable  minerals  or  any  good  rock  for' 


industrial  uses.  The  Lexington  section  gives,  from  top  downward,  Chae- 
tetes  limestone,  [chaetetes  is  a  fossil  coral],  then  shale,  then  coal  20  inches, 
then  indurated  slaty  clay,  then  limestone,  the  river  bedrock.  Thickness 
of  beds  is  not  given  except  for  coal.  On  this  map  he  notes  that  there  are 
"heavy  beds  of  cannel  coal  back  in  the  bluffs,  some  200  to  300  feet  above 
the  Missouri,  on  both  sides  of  the  river."  In  the  introduction  to  his  great 
work,  Prof.  Owen  says:  "The  thickest  vein  of  coaltdetected  in  Iowa  does 
not  exceed  from  four  to  five  feet ;  while  in  Missouri  some  reach  the  thick- 
ness of  twenty  feet  and  upwards."  These  quotations  were  written  in 
1851,  just  thirty  years  ago,  and  were  based  purely  on  geological  observa- 
tions and  theories,  for  no  such  mines  had  then  been  worked.  Coal  beds 
of  such  thickness  do  not  appear  to  have  been  yet  found  in  Lafayette 
county;  but  the  "History  of  Saline  County,"  published  this  year  (1881), 
by  the  Missouri  Historical  Company,  says: 

Township  49  and  range  19,  lying  witlun  the  township  of  Arrow  Rock, 
contains,  perhaps,  the  richest  deposit  of  coal  in  the  county.  The  stratum 
of  bituminous  coal  in  this  section  varies  from  two  to  twenty  feet  in  thick- 
ness, of  the  very  finest  quality  of  coal,  and  is  interspersed  in  numerous 
places  with  huge  -pockets  of  cannel  coal  of  a  quality  equalling  the  famous 
cannel  coal  of  Kentucky.  These  pockets  often  present  a  face  of  from 
thirty  to  forty  feet  of  coal.  In  this  region  is  the  famous  cannel  coal  mine 
on  the  farm  of  the  late  Gov.  C.  F.  Jackson,  besides  numerous  others, 
nearly  all  of  them  of  great  thickness,  from  ten  to  thirty  feet — of  limited 
extent,  and  most  of  them  reposing  on  the  lower  carboniferous  rocks. 
South  of  Blackwater  there  is  much  the  same  coal  deposit  as  that  in  the 
region  just  described.  Cannel  pockets  are  also  here,  as  is  proved  by 
those  found  on  the  farm  of  the  late  C.  G.  Clark,  now  worked  by  Mr. 
Laner.  Coal  has  also  been  found  along  the  northern  edge  of  the  county 
near  Miami,  in  township  52,  ranges  19  and  21. 

From  Prof.  Owen's  work,  page  137,  we  again  quote:  "The  first  work- 
able bed  of  coal  which  I  encountered  in  my  descent  of  the  Missouri  river, 
was  at  Wellington.  It  is  from  twelve  to  fourteen  inches  thick,  and  lies  a 
few  feet  above  the  bed  of  the  river.  *  * .  The  bed  of  gray  limestone 
which  covers  the  principal  coal-seam  at  Wellington,  containing  choetetes 
capellaries  [a  species  of  fossil  coal  called  choetetes  milleporaceous  by  later 
writers],  occupies  the  same  relative  position  over  the  coal  at  Lexington, 
but  here  it  lies  at  a  greater  elevation  above  the  river — fifty  feet.  One  to 
two  miles  below  Lexington,  the  coal  and  chaetetes  limestone  are  seen  on 
the  right  bank  of  the  river,  forty-five  feet  above  the  water  level.  *  *  .  At 
the  bold  promontory  on  the  right  shore,  fourteen  miles  below  Lexington, 
heavy  beds  of  sandstone  from  fifteen  to. twenty  feet  in  thickness,  extend 
down  to  the  river." 

The  above  are  a  few  of  the  main  points  of  public  interest,  as  relates  to 
Lafayette  county,  which  were  developed  by  that  first  geological  survey, 
thirty  years  ago.     The  first  state  geologist  was  Professor  G.  C.  Swallow, 


who  was  appointed  April  12,  1853.  He  published  annual  reports  of 
progress  in  1854,  1857,  1859  and  1861.  In  1870,  Albert  D.  Hazer  was 
appointed  state  geologist;  in  1871,  Raphael  Pumpelly  took  the  position, 
and  his  report  was  published  in  1873  by  Julius  Bien  of  New  York.  The 
most  useful  service  that  any  of  the  geological  surveys  has  rendered  to 
Lafayette  county  will  be  found  in  Prof.  Pumpelly's  work,  pages  40  to  59 ;  also, 
pages  136,  193,  421,  and  several  other  places  of  incidental  mention.  Those 
speciallv  interested  in  mining  coal  or  quarrying  stone  in  this  county  should 
study  that  work.  We  can  only  give  here  a  few  gleanings  of  popular 

In  going  from  the  east  line  of  Lafayette  county  to  Lexington,  we  pass 
in  succession  from  the  lower  to  the  middle  coal  measures.  At  Henry 
Franke's  mine,  one  and  a  half  miles  east  of  Concordia,  or  about  two  miles 
from  the  eastern  and  three  miles  from  the  southern  county  line,  the  follow- 
ing geological  section  was  noted,  belonging  to  the  lower  coal  measures: 


Earthly  slope,  bluff  or  loess 24  0 

Sandstone 2  0 

Pyritiferous  limestone 1  2 

Slate,  enclosing  pyritiferous  concretions 5  6 

Hard,  dull,  splintery,  semi-bituminous,  slaty  cannel  coal 0  3 

Bituminous  coal 1  8 

Slate  and  coal .  .    ; 0  2 

Fire  clay 2  6 

Clay  and  sandstones 0  0 

A  coarse,  generally  thick  bedded,  brown  or  burl'  sandstone,  filled  with 
small  particles  of  mica,  is  found  occupying  the  top  of  the  lower  coal 
series.  It  is  seen  near  Aullville,  on  Gen.  J.  O.  Shelby's  land.  The  next 
place  where  it  was  observed,  was  on  the  McCausland  farm,*  two  miles 
north  of  Higginsville.  On  this  farm  occur  outcrops  of  bituminous  sand- 
stone, and  borings  were  made  to  a  depth  of  800  feet  for  oil,  but  without 
success.     Prof.  Swallow  made  a  geological  section  on  this  farm  thus: 

Buff  and  brown  marls  and  clay 5  to  50  feet. 

Blue  and  brown  sandy  shales 10  to  50    " 

Bluish  gray  and  brown  sandstone,  the  oil  stone 20  to  50    " 

Blue  and  brown  sandy  shales 3  to  50    " 

This  oil  stone  on  the  McCausland  farm  is  usually  so  saturated  that  it 
shows  plainly  on  fresh  fracture,  and  will  burn  well  in  the  fire.  The  petro- 
leum is  found  as  solid  asphaltum,  breaking  with  a  shiny  fracture,  as  a 
dark,  viscid  fluid  like  tar,  and  as  thin  as  amber-colored  oil.  Prof.  Broad- 
head  says  of  this  oil  rock  that  he  regards  it  as  of  the  same  age  as  the 
Berlin  sandstone,  and  that  above  the  mouth  of  the  Tabo,  which  would  go 

*The  McCausland  farm  included  parts  of  sections  25  and  36,  township  50,  range  26,  and 
sections  30  and  31,  range  25. 


to  prove  that  there  is  a  northerly  dip  of  about  fifty  feet  in  nine  miles.  In 
its  northern  extension  this  lower  coal-measure  sandstone  crops  out  at  vari- 
ous points,  low  in  the  bluffs  on  the  Missouri  river,  from  the  east  line  of 
Lafayette  county  to  the  mouth  of  Tabo  creek.  The  Berlin  sandstone, 
and  that  of  the  McCausland  farm,  and  that  at  Warrensburg,  may  all  be 
considered  of  the  same  geological  age;  but  only  on  the  McCausland  farm 
was  it  observed  to  contain  petroleum. 

In  Prof.  Pumpelly's  volume  there  are  printed  at  least  twenty-seven  geo- 
logical sections  from  different  places  in  Lafayette  county.  We  only  aim 
to  give  such  information  as  may  be  of  interest  to  the  general  reader.  The 
geological  section  at  Franke's  coal  mines,  as  given  above,  was  taken  in 
1872,  and  represents  the  lower  coal  measures.  The  following  section  was 
obtained  in  June,  1881,  specially  for  this  History  of  Lafayette  County,  at 
the  air-shaft  of  the  Lexington  and  Kansas  City  Coal  Company's  works, 
about  a  mile  west  of  Lexington  City;  workmen  were  then  engaged  in 
sinking  the  air  shaft,  and  their  measurements  were  mainly  relied  upon. 
This  section  represents  the  upper  coal  measures,  and  its  coal  vein  is  by 
geologists  called  "  the  Lexington  coal "  wherever  the  same  vein  is  met 

kind  of  formation. 

Ft.  In. 
Slope,  loess  or  bluff  formation,  from  mouth  of  air-shaft  to  first  level 

of  bluff",  estimated  vertical 50     00 

Surface  soil  cut  through 2     00 

Loess 15    00 

Gravel —      8 

Coarse  brown  sand 2       6 

Shale  (what  the  miners  call  soapstone) ...    13     00 

Dark-blue  shell  rock 1       6 

Light-colored,  flinty  limestone,  with  occasional  small  shells,  and 

minglings  of  calc  spar 6       6 

Shell  marl,  with  nodules  of  chert 1       4 

Fire  clay ' 2     00 

Dark-blue  limestone,  with  shells  and  calc  spar  intermingled —       3 

Fire  clay  and  soapstone  (shale) 2     00 

Coarse,  arenaceous  limestone  (roof  of  mine) 6     00 

Slate 1       6 

Coal 1       8 

Gray  clay,  varying  from  6  inches  to  3  feet  in  thickness. 

In  1872  Prof.  G.  C.  Broadhead  was  assistant  state  geologist  under  Prof. 
Pumpelly,  and  examined  nineteen  different  coal  mines  then  being  worked 
in  Lafayette  county.  He  found  the  coal  two  feet  thick  at  Henry  Franke's 
mine,  half  a  mile  north  of  Concordia,  and  at  R.  G.  Tucker's  mine  at  Lex- 
ington; 23  inches  thick  in  mine  east  of  the  stone  bridge  at  Lexington,  and 
22  inches  in  Gen.  Graham's  mine  a  little  way  above  the  stone  bridge  up 
Graham's  branch.     It  was  21  inches  thick  at  the  Mulky  mines,  two  and  a 


half  miles  east  of  Aullville,  and  the  same  in  a  mine  west  of  the  Lexington 
ferry  landing.  It  was  17  inches  on  the  Little  Sniabar,  six  miles  south  of 
Lexington,  and  16  inches,  four  miles  below  Berlin.  Other  mines  are 
reported  at  5  inches  of  coal  (two  miles  east  of  Judge  Wood's  place),  6 
inches,  7  inches,  8  inches,  9  inches,  and  so  on,  but  none  higher  than 
24  inches.  The  writer  hereof  measured  a  vein  of  coal  23  inches 
thick,  with  a  clear  outcrop  in  the  bed  of  Rupe's  branch  about  two  miles 
back  from  the  Missouri  river,  and  only  30  or  40  feet  from  the  Lexington 
and  Gulf  railroad  bed  which  is  said  to  now  belong  to  the  Burlington  & 
Southwestern  railroad  company;  this  vein  will  furnish  the  railroad  a  good 
and  easily-worked  mine  at  the  lowest  possible  cost.  There  are  now  coal 
shafts,  or  mines  of  some  sort,  in  every  township  of  Lafayette  county. 

Dr.  J.  B.  Alexander  called  our  attention  to  a  fact  of  local  geological 
interest.  The  coal  and  other  formations  west  of  Rupe's  branch  lie  about 
twenty-five  feet  higher  than  the  corresponding  formations  on  the  east  side, 
which  shows  that  there  was  once  a  cortaclysm  or  great  fracture  of  the 
earth's  rocky  ribs  at  this  point,  and  one  side  of  the  gulfy  chasm  finally 
settled  lower  than  the  other.  [See  also  under  head  of  "  River  Surveys 
and  Soundings."] 

Two  petrified  stumps  were  found  in  Tabo  creek  where  the  road  from 
Lexington  to  Dover  crosses  it,  and  Mr.  Geo.  W.  Garr  has  them  at  his 
house,  which  is  the  first  one  east  of  the  bridge.  He  brought  a  large  frag- 
ment of  one  stump  to  the  Lexington  Intelligencer  office,  where  we 
examined  it.  This  fragment  was  13  inches  long  and  17  inches  in  diame- 
ter; its  top  fracture  showed  the  open,  heavy-pored,  succulent  structure 
that  characterized  the  watery  and  gigantic  weeds  (they  were  not  trees  at 
all,  in  the  present  sense  of  the  word)  which  formed  the  vegetation  of  the 
early  carboniferous  period.  The  wood  is  agatized,  and  some  of  the  great 
pore  cavities,  nearly  an  inch  square,  are  beautifully  bordered  with  head- 
ings of  chalcedony.  Mr.  Garr  said  the  other  specimens  were  similar  to 
this,  except  very  much  larger,  and  some  of  the  root  parts  still  remaining. 
Rev.  F.  R.  Gray,  three  or  four  miles  southwest  of  Higginsville,  section 
10,  township  49,  range  26,  also  has  a  petrified  stump,  about  four  feet 
around  at  its  base,  and  18  inches  high,  which  was  found  in  a  small  stream 
near  his  house  in  1861.     Some  other  fragments  were  found  in  the  vicinity. 

These  interesting  geological  specimens  were  originally  imbedded  in  the 
bluff  formation,  and  had  been  washed  out  and  fallen  to  the  bed  of  the 
•  creek  as  its  banks  kept  washing  down.  They  originally  grew  in  some 
region  far  to  the  northwest,  or  probably  in  Colorado,  where  whole  forests 
of  similar  petrifications  have  been  found;  and  these  fragments,  after  petri- 
faction, were  transported  by  masses  of  floating  ice  and  dropped  in  Lafay- 
ette county  while  the  great  Missouri  lake  was  being  filled  up  with  the 
sediment  which  now  forms  our  priceless  "  bluff"   formation.     [See  page 


80  of  this  history.]  Their  angles  are  not  rounded  or  worn,  like  boulders 
and  gravel,  and  this  fact  shows  that  they  were  not  brought  here  during 
the  glacial  epoch,  but  were  transported  gently  on  or  in  floating  ice,  and 
"  let  down  easy  "  as  the  bergs  of  ice  stranded  and  gradually  melted  away. 
The  following  article  was  prepared  by  Prof.  G.  C.  Swallow,  the  first 
and  most  eminent  state  geologist  of  Missouri,  specialty  for  this  work;  but 
was  not  received  until  the  foregoing  geological  matter  had  already  been 
prepared,  ready  for  the  printers. 


The  geological  formations  of  Lafayette  county  are  among  the  most 
interesting  and  useful  to  man.  It  is  to  these  formations  that  Lafayette 
owes  its  fair  fame  as  a  most  beautiful,  fertile  and  prosperous  country. 


In  order  from  the  surface  down,  are  as  follows: 


[1.     Recent  Alluvium. 
|  2.     Bottom  Prairie. 

PERIODS.    -    o  r>j    -or         T 

\  3.     Bluff or  Boess. 
I  4.     Drift, 


\  Lozver  Coal  Measures. 
'  |  Middle  Coal  Measures. 

1.  The  recent  alluvium  of  Lafayette  county  includes  the  soils  and  all 
the  recent  deposits  of  clays,  sands,  gravels  and  river  drift  of  pebbles  found 
in  the  river  bottoms  or  beds  of  lakes.  These  deposits  abound  in  the  beds 
of  the  stream  as  the  sand-bars  of  the  Missouri  and  the  mud,  gravel  and 
pebble  beds  of  the  smaller  streams,  and  in  the  stratified  sands  and  clays 
beneath  the  bottom  lands  of  the  principal  streams  of  the  county. 

2.  The  bottom  prairie  so  extensive  in  the  Missouri  bottom  in  Chariton, 
Carroll  and  Clay,  covers  but  small  areas  in  'Lafayette.  It  is  known  by 
the  many  thin  beds  of  sand,  clay  and  loam  interstratified  in  the  formations 
under  the  old  bottom  prairies.  These  beds  were  deposited  in  the  Mis- 
souri river  bottom,  when  that  stream  spread  its  sluggish  waters  from 
bluff  to  bluff",  filling  the  whole  valley  with  the  sediments  of  its  lake-like 
waters.  After  the  level  was  changed  so  as  to  give  a  rapid  current  to  the 
waters,  the  river  cut  its  channel  through  these  deposits  thus  made,  and 
has  been  wearing  them  away  ever  since  and  forming  the  newer  river  or 
alluvial  bottoms,  whose  surface  is  more  uneven  and  whose  deposits  of 
sand  are  more  irregular. 


3.  It  is  a  singular  fact,  that  while  the  bluff  is  older  than  the  alluvial 


bottoms  and  bottom  prairie,  it  lies  higher  on  the  bluffs  and  highlands  adja- 
cent to  the  river  valleys.  ^ 

The  bluff  which  underlies  the  soil  in  all  the  Highlands  of  the  county  con- 
sists of  a  sandy  marl  more  or  less  stratified  and  varying  in  thickness  from 
a  few  inches  to  more  than  one  hundred  feet.  This  vast  deposit  was  evi- 
dently formed  in  one  of  those  lakes  which  were  formed  as  the  ice  of  the 
glacial  period  melted  away.  This  lake  extended  over  northern  Missouri, 
eastern  Kansas,  and  southeastern  Nebraska  and  southwestern  Iowa.  * 
The  Missouri,  Sioux,  Platte  and  Kansas  rivers  flowed  in  this  lake  from 
the  north  and  west,  bringing  into  it  the  rich  marls  ground  out  of  the  rocks 
to  the  north  and  west  by  the  great  glaciers  of  the  drift  period.  These  bluff 
marls  constitute  the  rich  subsoils  of  all  the  uplands  of  Central  Missouri. 
The  marls  of  the  bluff  are  a  little  coarser  and  more  sandy  on  the  bluffs 
adiacent  to  the  rivers,  as  the  finer  materials  were  washed  out  by  the  sub- 
siding waters  of  the  streams  where  the  land  was  changed  and  the  lake 
drained  oft  and  the  rivers  became  more  and  more  rapid,  until  they  found 
their  present  condition. 

The  bluff  is  by  far  the  most  valuable  formation  in  the  Mississippi  val- 
ley.    It  is  a  vast  storehouse  of  plant  food,  agricultural  wealth. 

Organic  Remains.  The  fossils  of  the  bluff  are  very  numerous  and 

I  have  collected  from  it,  of  the  Mammalia,  two  teeth  of  the  Elephas 
•primigenius,  mastodon,  the  jaw  bone  of  the  Castor  fiber  Americana,  the 
molar  of  a  Ruminant,  and  the  incisor  of  a  Rodent;  of  the  Mollusca,  seventeen 
species  of  the  genus  Helix,  eight  Limnea,  eight  Physa,  three  Pufa,  four 
Planorbis,  six  Succinnca,  and  one  each  of  the  genera  Valvata,  Amnicola, 
Helicina,  and  Cyclas,  besides  some  others  not  determined. 

These  lacusstrine,  filuvialile,  amphibious  and  land  species  indicate  a 
deposit  formed  in  a  fresh-water  lake,  surrounded  by  land  and  fed  by  rivers. 
These  facts  carry  back  the  mind  to  a  time  when  a  large  portion  of  this 
great  valley  was  covered  by  a  vast  lake,  into  which,  from  the  surround- 
ing land,  flowed  various  rivers  and  smaller  streams.  We  see  the  waters 
peopled  with  numerous  mollusks,  the  industrious  beaver  building  his  hab- 
itation, the  nimble  squirrel,  the  fleet  deer,  the  sedate  elephant  and  huge 
mastodon,  lords  of  the  soil.  There  must  have  been  land  to  sustain  the 
elephant  and  mastodon  and  helices,  fresh  water  and  land  for  the  beaver, 
and  fresh  water  for  the  cyclas  and  limnea. 

Some  geologists  have  supposed  the  marls  back  from  the  river  which 
have  a  more  jointed  structure,  are  boulder  clay  and  belong  to  the  drift. 
This  opinion,  they  think,  is  confirmed  by  the  small  pebbles  sometimes 
found  in  these  marls;  but  these  pebbles  would  be  very  easily  carried  out 

*  See  page  80  for  further  explanation  of  this  matter.  Also,  page  70  for  Prof.  Swallow's 
scale  of  the  Missouri  rocks . — Historian  . 


into  the  lake  by  ice  floating  from  the  shores  or  from  the  many  rivers  flow- 
ing into  it.  a 

The  evidence  that  the  surface  marls  of  the  interior  belong  to  the  same 
formation  as  the  marls  on  the  river  bluffs,  is  shown  by  the  facts,  they  are 
continuous  with  the  river  bluff  marls,  they  contain  the  same  fossils,  and 
have  the  same  chemical  composition,  and  about  the  same  lithological 
characters.  When  both  have  been  exposed  to  the  weather,  no  one  can 
distinguish  them  by  the  lithological  characters. 


The  drift  which  is  so  abundant  in  North  Missouri,  is  very  sparingly 
developed  on  the  south  side  of  the  Missouri  river.  Where  seen  in  Lafay- 
ette it  rests  immediately  on  the  consolidated  rocks  of  the  coal  measures, 
beneath  the  marls  of  the  bluff  just  described.  These  limited  deposits  con- 
sist of  sands  and  pebbles,  containing  some  small  boulders,  called  Lost 

But  these  deposits  are  so  limited  as  to  be  of  little  economical  impor- 


The  lower  and  middle  coal  measures  are  found  to  underlie  the  whole  of 
the  highlands  of  Lafayette  county.  These  rocks  are  limestones,  sand- 
stones, clays,  marls,  shales,  iron  and  coal  variously  interstratified. 

The  following  section  taken  at  Lexington  will  show  the  character  of 
the  middle  coal  measures  of  this  county: 

No.  1.— Bluff  marls. 

No.  2. — Five  feet  calcareous  gray  sandstone,  in  thin  ripple  marked 

No.  3. — Thirty  feet  silico-argillaceous  shale.  This  is  also  exposed  at 
Owen's  landing. 

No.  4. — One  foot  bitumuous  shale. 

No.  5. — Eight  feet  purple,  blue  and  green  shale. 

No.  6. — One-half  foot,  bitumuous  coal. 

No.  7. — Six  feet,  blue  clay  and  marlite  full  of  fossils. 

No.  8. — Ten  feet,  indurated  brownish  sandstone  in  thick  beds. 

No.  9. — Six  feet,  purple,  blue  and  green  shales. 

No.  10. — Four  feet,  buff  and  gray  limestone. 

No.  11. — Five  feet,  bluish  green  shales. 

No.  12. — Eight  feet  blue  and  graytargillo-calcarous  sandstone. 

No.  13. — Twelve  feet,  blue,  green  and  yellow  shales  and  clays. 

No.  14. — Two  feet,  buff  slaty  limestone. 

No.  15. — Five  feet,  hard  gray  limestone. 

No.  16. —  Eight  feet,  blue  and  black  shale  and  marlite. 

No.  17. — One  and  one-half  feet,  bitumuous  shale. 


No.  18. — Four  feet,  hard  blue  limestone. 

No.  19. — One  and  one-half  feet,  bitumuous  *hale. 

No.  20.— One  and  five-sixths  feet,  bitumuous* coal. 

No.  21. — Two  and  one-fourth  feet,  bitumuous  and  yellow  shale. 

No.  22. — Five  feet,  hard  gray  limestone. 

No.  23. — Nine  feet,  yellow  and  blue  shale. 

No.  24. — Sixteen  feet,  blue  and  purple  shale. 

No.  25. — Five  feet,  bitumuous  shale. 

No.  26.— One-half  foot,  coal. 

No.  27. — Six  feet,  blue  and  yellowish  argillaceous  shale. 

No.  28. — Four  feet,  hard  blue  limestone. 

No.  29. — Two  feet,  shale. 

No.  30. — Six  feet,  buff  and  gray  limestone. 

No.  31. — Twelve  feet,  bluish  gray  shale. 

No.  32.— Two-thirds  foot,  coal. 

No.  33. — Four  feet  blue  sandy  shale. 

No.  34. — Missouri  river  water. 

The  upper  coal  measures  overlie  these  middle  coal  measures  to  the 
west,  and  the  lower  coal  measures  underlie  them  below  Lexington. 

The  clays  and  shale  of  the  coal  measures  usually  make  a  poor  soil  as 
in  England  and  Pennsylvania,  but  in  Lafayette  county,  all  the  coal  rocks 
are  so  deeply  buried  beneath  the  bluff  marls,  they  have  very  little 
influence  on  the  soils. 


The  usual  process  of  forming  soils  on  the  suface  of  solid  rocks,  such  as 
the  surface  of  Missouri  was  before  the  clays,  gravel,  sands  and  soils  were 
placed  over  the  solid  rocks,  is  a  very  slow  process.  The  action  of  the 
winds,  the  rains,  and  the  frosts  would  slowly  decompose  the  rocks  into 
sand,  clay,  and  marls.  Plants  would  grow  on  these  clays  and  marls,  and 
animals  would  live  on  the  plants;  and  when  the  plants  and  animals  died 
they  would  make  up  the  necessary  organic  matter  and  thus  the  soil 
would  be  formed.  But  the  process  would  be  an  extremely  slow  one.  It 
would  take  a  thousand  years  to  form  a  foot  of  soil  by  this  process.  And 
when  the  solid  rock  is  so  near  the  surface,  the  soil  is  of  small  compara- 
tive value. 

Bui  if  some  vast  mill  of  the  gods  would  grind  up  the  rocks  to  the  depth 
of  some  fifty  or  one  hundred  feet  and  then  sort  out  the  finest  and  best 
material  and  place  it  on  top  to  the  depth  of  from  five  to  fifty  feet,  a  first  rate 
soil  would  be  formed  in  a  few  years,  since  all  the  mineral  elements  would 
be  provided  in  vast  abundance  and  in  the  best  possible  condition  to  receive 
the  decaying  plants  and  animals  to  complete  the  soil.  This  is  just  what 
has  been  done  for  central  and  northern  Missouri, 



The  great  glaciers  which  swept  over  the  whole  of  North  America 
from  the  pole  to  our  latitude),  ground  up  the  rocks  and  left  the  material  to 
the  depth  of  from  a  few  irfcnes  to  more  than  a  thousand  feet.  A  lake 
was  then  formed  over  Missouri  xind  the  adjacent  parts  of  Iowa,  Nebraska, 
and  Kansas  and  the  rivers  washed  the  best  soil  material  out  of  the  ground- 
up  rocks  spread  over  the  regions  to  the  north  and  west  and  into  the  lakes, 
where  it  was  deposited  as  the  "bluffs,"  the  best  soil  material  in  the  world. 
Thus  Missouri  has  in  the  Bluff  the  best  soil  materials  of  the  rocks  in  all 
the  States  and  Territories  to  the  north  and  west  as  far  as  the  Rocky 
Mountains  and  the  Saskatchewan. 


It  may  be  well  to  ask  attention  to  the  vast  amount  of  plant  food  in  the 
soils  of  Lafayette ;  but  more  particularly  to  the  amounts  found  in  the  sub 
soils  resting  upon  and  formed  out  of  the  rich  marls  of  the  bluff. 

To  show  at  a  glance  the  amount  of  plant  food  in  the  soil  itself,  and  then 
in  each  foot  of  depth  below  the  soil,  I  have  prepared  the  following  table, 
which  presents  an  average  of  all  the  varieties  of  soils  resting  on  the  bluff, 
from  the  richest  Hackberry  land  to  the  poorest  White  Oak,  and  the 
amount  for  each  foot  in  depth  for  the  first  three  feet  and  also  for  one  foot 
at  he  depth  of  twelve  feet  below  the  surface.  Other  portions  between  the 
third  and  twelfth  foot  and  below  are  equally  rich. 
Table  showing  the  amount  of  various  elements  of  plant  food  in  each  foot 

of  the  Lafayette  soils  resting  on  the  Bluff  as  all  the  upland  soils  do. 

1st.  foot, 

2d.  foot. 

3d.  foot. 

12th.  foot. 





Phosphoric  Acid 
Organic  Matter. , 
Sulphuric  Acid .  . 


Carbonic  Acid. .  . 

19.166  1 
















not  known. 

16,117  lbs. 

30.927    " 

32.234    " 

7.405    " 

11.157    " 

253.381    " 

2.990    " 

.429    " 

not  known 

29.494  lbs. 















not  known. 

26 .484  lbs. 

18.818    " 

40.420    " 

104.541    " 

1.491    " 

46.787    " 
not  known, 
not  known. 

44.605  lbs. 

This  table  shows  these  soils  as  rich  in  plant  food,  save  the  organic 
matter  at  a  depth  of  three  feet  as  they  are  at  the  surface,  even  a  little 
richer  in  phosphoric  acid,  soda,  potash,  chlorine,  and  sulphuric  acid.  At 
twelve  feet  below  the  surface  the  amount  of  plant  food  is  still  greater, 
except  in  organic  matter  and  phosphoric  acid. 

Farmers  usually  cultivate  less  than  one  foot  of  their  soils,  and  when  the 
plant  food  is  exhausted  they  use  fertilizers,  at  great  expense  of  money  and 
labor  to  supply  the  plant  food .     But  the  farmer  on  these  Missouri  soils, 


when  the  surface  soil  is  exhausted,  has  an  abundance  of  the  best  fertil- 
izers in  his  subsoil;  and  instead  of  buying  fertilizers  and  spreading  them 
over  the  surface,  he  sets  his  plow  a  little  deeper  and  turns  them  up  from 
his  own  stores  in  the  subsoil.  And  when  the  plants  have  consumed  the 
supply  thus  obtained,  there  is  still  lower  down,  enough  of  the  same  costlv 
materials  to  replenish  his  soil  a  hundred  times;  for  it  goes  all  the  way  down 
to  depths  varying  from  10  to  200  feet,  all  about  equally  rich,  as  the  table 
shows  it  to  be  at  a  depth  of  twelve  feet. 

To  show  the  money  value  of  this  store  of  plant  food  in  the  subsoil  of 
all  these  lands,  we  may  reckon  the  commercial  value  of  the  phosphoric 
acid  for  a  single  foot  in  depth  on  one  acre.  The  second  foot  of  these  soils, 
that  is,  the  subsoil  from  the  depth  of  one  foot  to  two  feet,  in  every  acre 
contains  11,157  pounds  of  this  acid.  At  ten  cents  a  pound  this  would 
cost  $1,115.70.  The  next  foot  below,  that  is  from  two  to  three  feet  in 
depth,  contains  in  each  acre  13,996  pounds  of  phosphoric  acid,  which 
would  cost  $1399.60. 

Thus  it  is  seen  that  two  feet  only  of  these  subsoils,  contain  on  each 
acre  as  much  phosphoric  acid  as  could  be  bought  in  commercial  fertilizers 
for  $2,515.30. 

The  soils  as  above  shown,  from  which  these  results  are  obtained,  were 
selected  as  representative  soils  from  the  lands  of  all  grades. 

If  we  should  calculate  the  commercial  value  of  the  other  fertilizers,  as 
potash,  soda,  sulphuric  acid,  chlorine,  and  organic  matter  found  in  the  sub- 
soils of  a  single  acre,  and  if  the  calculation  be  extended  to  a  depth  of  ten 
feet  or  one  hundred  feet,  the  result  would  be  somewhat  startling.  Such  a 
calculation  would  not  fall  far  short  of  a  demonstration  of  the  often  repeated 
assertion,  "  Our  Lafayette  soils  are  inexhaustible." 


Ash. — White  ash,  blue  ash,  black  ash,  prickly  ash. 

Coffee  bean  tree. 

Cottonwood — a  species  of  poplar. 


Elm — White  elm,  and  red  or  slippery  elm. 

Dogvjood — 


Hickory — Thin  and  thick  shell-bark  hickory,  bull-nut  hickory,  pignut 
hickory,  pecan  nut  hickory. 


Locust — Honey  locust. 

Linden — or  basswood;  sometimes  called  white  wood. 


Maple — white  or  soft  maple,  hard  or  sugar  maple,  ash-leaved  maple  or 


Oak — White  oak,  burr  oak,  post  oak,  rock  or  chestnut  oak,  black  oak, 
pin  oak,  laurel  oak,  chinquepin  oak,  poison  oak. 
Sycamore — or  buttonwood. 

Walnut — Black  walnut,  and  white  walnut  or  butternut. 

Wild  cherry — Black  and  red  varieties. 


Shrubs — Blackberry,  buttonbush,  coralberry,  elderberry,  gooseberry, 
greenbriar,  hawthorn,  black  haw,  raspberry,  red  bud,  paw-paw,  hazel-nut^ 
wild  plum,  sumach,  wahoo  or  staff  tree,  laurel  bush,  wild,  black,  or  Mis- 
souri currant,  wild  roses,  serviceberry. 

Vines — Honeysuckle,  wild  grapes,  woodbine. 


Bear,  beaver,  buffalo,  catamount,  chipmunk,  coyote,  deer,  dear  mouse, 
elk,  fox  (gray  and  red)  gopher,  ground  mole,  groundhog,  mink,  muskrat, 
otter,  opossum,  panther,  prairie  dog,  prairie  mouse,  pouched  rat  (com- 
monly called  pocket  gopher),  rabbit,  jack  rabbit,  raccoon,  skunk,  squirrel, 
red  gray  and  black  varieties,  swift,  weasel,  (wolf  prairie  and  gray  and 
black  varieties),  wild  cat. 

Birds. — Wild  turkey,  grouse  or  prairie  chicken,  wild  goose,  swan,  peli- 
can, wild  ducks  (many  varieties),  snipe,  plover,  pigeon,  partridge,  gray 
and  bald  eagle,  raven,  crow,  turkey  buzzard,  owl,  hawk,  finch,  mocking 
bird,  blue  jay,  kingfisher,  gull,  robin,  bluebird,  blackbird,  bobolink,  wood- 
pecker, oriole,  sapsucker,  night  hawk,  whipporwill,  curlew,  sandhill  crane, 
blue  heron,  swallow,  wren.  These,  some  of  which  have  several  varieties, 
are  the  more  common  species  of  birds  that  have  been  found  here  ever 
since  white  men  first  knew  the  country. 

The  black  "  Missouri  honey  bee  "  is  an  original  native. 


Several  years  ago  Mrs.  W.  H.  Bowen  found  a  monster  tooth  in  Gra- 
ham's branch,  nearly  under  the  bridge  of  the  old  Lexington  and  gulf  rail- 
road grade,  where  Graham's  branch  puts  into  Rupe's  branch.  Mrs. 
Bowen  submitted  the  specimen  to  Dr.  Alexander,  and  he  pronounced  it  a 
genuine  mastodon  tooth.  Master  Frank  Lamborn,  the  "  printer's  devil,'* 
of  the  Lexington  Intelligencer office,  also  has  a  mastodon  tooth  which  was 
found  in  Graham's  branch.  And  "  thereby  hangs  a  tale."  Graham's 
branch,  flowing  westward  along  the  southern  border  of  the  city  of  Lex- 
ington, is  supplied  with  water  mostly  from  an  immense  spring  (the  Masto- 
don spring),  which  flows  out  of  the  ironated  sandbed  underlying  the  bluff 
formation  in  all  this  region.  At  the  point  where  this  spring  flows  out, 
and  for,  perhaps,  a  hundred  feet  along  down  the  stream,  its  bed  and  mar- 
gin are  miry,  or  composed  of  quicksand — very  treacherous  to  tread  upon. 


The  supposition  is  that  in  the  ancient  time,  a  mastodon'  strolled  along  up 
this  branch  to  cool  and  refresh  himself  with  its  perennial  waters,  but  ven- 
turing too  far,  got  mired  in  the  quicksand,  so  that  he  could  not  extricate 
himself,  and  so  died  there.  The  conditions  there  were  not  favorable  to  a 
long  preservation  of  his  bones,  and  they  long  since  dissolved  away,  but 
the  teeth  above  mentioned  remained  to  tell  the  story  of  the  "Mastodon 
spring,"  and  its  prehistoric  tragedy,  at  the  city  of  Lexington. 


In  1877  a  petition  was  presented  to  the  county  for  the  appointment  of 
a  time  for  the  people  of  Lafayette  county  to  make  a  special  and  united 
effort  for  the  extermination  of  the  rat  pests.  The  court  appointed  Thurs- 
day, Friday  and  Saturday,  December  27,  28,  29;  and  it  will  never  be 
know  how  many  thousands  of  rats  went  to  hades  on  those  days. 

In  the  Lexington  Register  of  December  23,  1869,  we  find  the  following: 
"  Mr.  Robert  Pucket,  living  in  Old  Town  had  been  for  some  days  both- 
ered with  an  animal,  in  many  things  resembling  a  rat.  He  used  every 
means  at  hand  to  capture  it,  but  was  unsuccessful.  He  then  laid  poison 
for  it.  Two  or  there  days  afterwards,  he  was  removing  a  hearth  in  his 
house,  and  found  his  strange  visitor  dead.  It  proved  to  be  a  double  rat. 
It  has  two  well  formed  heads,  a  large  eye  and  a  small  one  in  each  head, 
four  ears,  eight  legs  and  two  tails.  Mr.  P.  has  it  on  exhibition  at  his  shop. 
It  is  to  be  regretted  that  this  singular  lusus  naturae  had  not  been  captured 
alive. " 


In  1868  a  blue  catfish,  which  weighed  206  pounds,  was  caught  with  a 
hand  line,  near  the  mouth  of  Tabo  creek,  by  Jesse  Hamlet.  In  1869 
Joseph  Utt  caught  one,  in  a  net,  near  the  mouth  of  Willow  creek,  oppo- 
site Lexington,  which  weighed  218  pounds;  and  up  to  this  time  that  was 
the  biggest  fish  ever  caught  within  the  bounds  of  Lafayette  county.  In 
1876,  Charles  Silver,  a  colored  man,  caught  a  channel  catfish,  with  a  hand 
line,  right  at  Lexington  wharf,  that  weighed  176  pounds.  Many  other 
"whoppers"  were  caught  at  different  times,  but  the  above  three  are  the 
only  ones  reported  as  having  been  accurately  weighed  at  the  time. 

Mr.  Joseph  Utt,  of  Lexington,  followed  fishing  here  for  fifteen  years, 
and  is  probably  the  best  posted  on  the  fish  question  of  any  man  in  the 
county.  From  him  we  obtain  the  following  complete  list  of  all  the  kinds 
of  fishes  found  in  these  waters: 

Blue  catfish,  crescent-tailed  one  hundred  to  two  hundred  and  twenty-five 
pounds  weight. 

Channel  catfish,  dirty  white  color,  fork-tailed,  thirty  to  fifty  pounds. 

Yellow  or  mud-catfish,  extra  big  head,  with  tail  nearly  square,  weigh 
from  five  to  one  hundred  pounds. 


Black  catfish,  five  to  twenty-five  pounds. 

Pone-head  or  bank  catfish,  head  narrow  but  deep;  fish  weigh  from  five 
to  fifteen  or  eighteen  pounds. 

Speckled  catfish,  fork-tail,  small  fish. 

Bullheads,  small  fish. 

Spoonbill  catfish,  long,  shovel  nose — not  eatable. 

Channel  buffalo  fish,  sucker-mouthed,  ten  to  forty  pounds. 

Round  buffalo,  sucker-mouthed,  ten  to  forty  pounds. 

Perch-mouthed  buffalo. 

Red  carp,  sucker-mouthed. 

Drumfish,  perch  mouth,  a  game  fish,  good  biter,  etc. 

Jack  salmon,  six  to  eight  pounds. 

Gar  fish,  long  jaws  with  sharp  teeth;  this  fish  is  not  eatable,  and  is  very 
destructive  to  smaller  fish. 

Shovel  fish — not  eatable. 

Alewives,  small  fish,  common  in  the  spring-time. 

Red  horse,  log  perch,  black  bass,  croppie,  chubs,  silversides,  and  min- 

Occasionally  sunfish  and  pike  are  caught,  but  they  are  supposed  to  be 
estrays,  and  not  native  to  these  waters. 



In  1817,  a  settlement  was  formed  a  few  miles  west  of  where  the  town 
of  Waverly  now  stands,  by  Littleberry  Estes,  John  Evans,  a  Mr.  Hyde,  a 
Mr.  Russell,  and  a  few  others,  whose  names  are  not  known.  They  were 
mostly  from  Madison  county,  Kentucky.  What  is  claimed  to  be  the  first 
school  ever  opened  within  the  bounds  of  Lafayette  county,  was  started  in 
this  settlement,  in  the  winter  of  1819-20,  by  a  son  of  Mr.  Estes.  Miss 
Susannah  Estes,  a  sister  of  this  first  and  youthful  schoolmaster,  afterwards 
married  William  Fristoe,  who  was,  for  about  forty  years,  a  well-known 
citizen  of  the  county.  In  1822-3,  this  school  was  taught  by  Edward 
Ryland,  a  brother  of  the  elder  Judge  Ryland,  who  was  afterward  appointed 
circuit  judge  for  eighteen,  and  supreme  judge  for  eight  years. 

But  now  comes  John  Catron,  Esq.,  and  says  the  first  school  in  the 
county  was  taught  by  Benjamin  Gooch,  in  1820,*  in  what  was  called  the 
Bedwell  school-house,  on  the  premises  of  the  late  Washington  Johnson, 
about  two  miles  east  of  Lexington,  on  the  Dover  road.    Joseph   Farrar 

*As  near  as  we  can  make  out  from  all  reports,  the  fact  seems  to  be,  that  young  Estes 
started  a  little  private  school  on  his  own  venture,  in  the  fall  of  1819 :  and  Mr.  Gooch's  school 
was  a  more  public  affair,  started  the  next  fall. 


taught  at  the  same  place,  in  1822.  In  1823-4,  John  Drummond  taught  a 
school  about  a  mile  further  east,  on  the  same  road,  about  where  John 
McFaddin  now  lives.  James  Warren  taught  in  John  Catron's  neighbor- 
hood, in  1822.  James  Fletcher  taught  a  three  months'  school,  in  1823,  at 
his  own  house,  where  Col.  Joseph  Davis  now  lives.  Col.  John  Stapp, 
afterward  county  judge,  taught,  in  1828-9,  at  the  Swift  school-house,  near 
where  Mr.  Ford  now  lives.  James  Francis  taught  in  or  near  old  Lexing- 
ington,  in  1829-30.  Dr.  A.  T.  Buck  taught  the  first  grammar  school  in 
the  county,  using  the  old  log  court  house  in  Lexington  for  a  school-room. 
Judge  James  Pearson  taught  in  the  Warder  neighborhood  one  or  two 
years  prior  to  1830;  and  a  Mr.  White  taught  there  in  1835.*  William 
Spratt  taught,  in  1833,  about  four  miles  east  of  Lexington,  in  the  Catron 
settlement — in  a  house  built  by  the  father  of  George  M.  Catron,  Esq.,  who 
has  been  county  superintendent  or  commissioner  of  schools  for  about  ten 
years  past. 

The  school-houses  at  this  time  were  rude  log  cabins  with  dirt  floors, 
and  seats  made  of  slabs  with  pegs  stuck  in  them  for  legs.  They  were 
"subscription  schools,'"  the  teacher  being  paid  $1  per  month  for  each 
pupil,  and  boarding  around  among  them.  It  was  purely  a  private  enter- 
prise, the  teacher  taking  the  risk  of  getting  enough  to  pay  him  for  his 
time;  but  the  community  at  large  generally  provided  the  school-house, 
which  was  also  used  for  Sunday  preaching  and  other  public  meetings  of 
the  neighborhood.  Each  new  settlement  or  cluster  of  families  would  soon 
have  a  school  after  this  fashion,  and  no  particular  improvement  was  made 
for  fifteen  or  twenty  years;  the  only  branches  taught  were  reading,  spell- 
ing, arithmetic,  and  writing  with  a  goosequill  pen,  and  often  pokeberry 
juice  for  ink;  occasionally  a  little  grammar  was  added.  But  in  1836  we 
find  at  Dover  a  school  which  had  risen  to  the  dignity  of  having  a  punch- 
eon floor  in  its  log  house,  and  was  in  other  respects  quite  ahead  of  the 
other  schools  in  the  county — hence  it  was  known  as  the  "Dover  Acad- 
emy." It  was  at  this  time  taught  by  John  A.  Tutt,  a  cousin  to  Judge 
Tutt,  now  of  Lexington.  Mr.  Tutt's  school  was  so  large  that  he  had  to 
have  an  assistant;  and  in  addition  to  the  common  branches  he  also  taught 
grammar,  geography,  natural  philosophy,  geometry  and  trigonome- 
try. The  pupils  paid  $1  per  month  for  the  "common  branches," 
and  $1.25  or  $1.50,  according  to  what  "higher  branches"  they  studied. 
Dr.  Gordon  (now  of  Lexington),  attended  this  school  in  the  winter  of 
1837-38,  and  the  next  year  was  an  assistant  in  the  same  school,  while  also 
a  student. 

May  2,  1838,  John  Aull,  of  Lexington,  made  his  will,  which  was  wit- 
nessed by  Young  Ewing  and  Wm.  Ward.      Mr.  Aull  died  in  February, 

*For  these  particulars  about  the  first  schools  in  the  county  we  are  indebted  to  Wm .  H. 
Chiles,  Esq.,  John  Catron,  Dr.  Wm.  A.  Gordon,  aad  Rev.  Joseph  Warder. 



1842;  and  on  the  22d  of  the  same  month  his  will  was  filed  for  record  in 
the  probate  court.  It  contained  the  following  bequest  for  school  pur- 

"  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  in  trust  to  the  county  court  of  Lafayette 
county,  in  the  state  of  Missouri,  the  sum  of  one  thousand  dollars,  to  be 
loaned  out  by  said  court  on  real  estate  security,  of  ample  value  and  free 
from  all  incumbrance,  and  at  the  highest  legal  interest,  to  be  continued  at 
interest  perpetually — and  the.  interest  accruing  therefrom  to  be  applied 
under  the  direction  of  said  court  to  pay  the  tuition  or  education  of  orphan 
or  poor  children  under  the  age  of  sixteen  years,  at  or  within  two  miles  of 
the  county  seat  of  said  county." 

He  also  gave  a  similar  amount  for  the  same  object  and  under  the  same 
conditions,  to  each  of  the  counties  of  Ray,  Clay  and  Jackson.  James  and 
Robert  Aull,  of  Lexington,  and  Samuel  C.  Owens,  of  Jackson  county, 
were  the  executors  of  this  will. 

The  above  explains  the  "Aull  fund"  which  has  so  mysteriously 
appeared  as  a  special  item  in  the  annual  school  reports  for  some  years 
past,  the  county  court  having  placed  it  with  the  public  school  resources. 

We  could  not  find  in  Lexington  the  first  annual  report  of  county  super- 
intendent, as  his  returns  are  made  directly  to  the  state  superintendent; 
but  on  applying  to  the  latter  officer  we  received  promptly  the  following 
reply,  dated  Jefferson  City,  Aug.  1,  1881 :  "The  records  of  this  office 
show  the  first  annual  school  report  of  your  county  to  have  been  made  by 
J.  L.  Minor,  in  January,  1842.     Copy  enclosed." 





No.  of 

No.  Mos. 

and    days 

School   tag't. 



Amt  present 


No.  Child'n 

bet  6  and  18 


Town  50  R  26... 

No.   1. 

No.  2.. 
No.   3. . 

7  mo 

9  mo..  . . 







Township  48 

No.    1.. 
No.    1.. 

6  mo..  . . 
6  mo. .  .  . 
6  mo..  . . 

5  mo24d 











Town  49  R  24... 
Town  51  R  24.  . . 



These  were  the  only  districts  that  sent  in  reports,  although  it  is  known 
that  there  were  many  other  school  districts  then  in  the  county. 

The  first  printed  annual  report  of  the  state  superintendent  that  we  suc- 
ceeded in  finding  was  that  of  1870 — printed  in  1871.  From  the  tabulated 
returns  from  Lafayette  county  as  given  in  that  report  we  compile  the  fol- 
lowing statistics:  Total  number  of  subdistricts,  82;  total  number  of  school 
houses,  76 — 6  brick,  63  frame,  7  log;  8  new  frame  school  houses  had  been 
built  during  the  year.  Total  number  of  white  school  children,  7,388; 
colored  children,  1,286;  total,  8,674.     Total  number  in  schools,  4,574.     Of 


this  last  number  601  were  in  private  schools,  the  balance  in  the  public 
schools.  The  average  number  of  months  taught  was  5.  Total  number 
of  teachers,  male  64,  female  30;  1st  grade  certificate  32,  2d  grade  62; 
average  wages  per  month,  male  $55.11, — female  $39.28.  Estimated  total 
value  of  school  houses  and  grounds  $58,278;  furniture  and  apparatus, 
$4,175.  At  this  time  the  school-age  enrollment  was  between  5  and  21 
years;  and  the  total  in  the  state  was  690,250. 

For  some  years  the  state  school  law  required  Teachers'  Institutes  to  be 
held  periodically,  and  made  some  provision  for  the  necessary  expense 
attending  them,  besides  allowing  teachers  engaged  in  school  their  wages 
while  attending  the  institute. 

The  first  Teachers'  Institute  ever  held  in  Lafayette  county  was  at  Lex- 
ington, in  the  old  Masonic  College,  June  13th,  1867.  The  only  names 
mentioned  as  taking  part  in  itare  G.  K.  Smith, county  superintendent;  Dr. 
D.  K.  Murphy,  A.  Slaughter,  and  A.  M.  Clay.  The  next  Institute  was 
appointed  to  be  held  at  the  public  school  house  in  Lexington,  August  10, 
1867;  and  others  were  held  at  the  same  place  in  succeeding  years. 

In  November,  1873,  one  was  held  at  Aullville,  conducted  by  Prof.  Bald- 
win, principal  of  the  State  Normal  School  at  Warrensburg,  who  eight 
years  afterwards  told  our  present  county  school  commissioner,  Geo.  M. 
Catron,  Esq.,  that  that  Aullville  Institute  was  the  best  Teachers'  Institute 
he  ever  attended.  We  therefore  make  it  a  historic  waymark  in  this 
sketch  of  our  county's  school  progress.  The  executive  committee  were 
G.  M.  Catron,  W.  F.  Bahlmann,  L.  B.  Wright.  Prof.  Baldwin,  conduc- 
tor. The  Institute  continued  from  Monday  morning,  Nov.  24,  till  Satur- 
day night,  with  from  21  to  27  separate  exercises  each  day.  We  could  not 
learn  how  many  were  in  attendance,  but  found  the  following  names  of 
teachers  who  took  leading  parts  in  the  exercises,  to  wit.:  Miss  Gussie 
Clowdsley,  Miss  Mattie  Wallace;  Messrs.  Taylor  Winn,  J.  G.  Worthing- 
ton,  N.  T.  Moore,  F.  Thornton;  Miss  Ella  Shaw,  Miss  Aurelia  Miller, 
Miss  Lucy  W.  McFarland;  Messrs.  Samuel  M'Reynolds,  J.  M.  Bediechek, 

P.   A.  Fisher, Keating;   Miss   Bettie   Arnold,  Miss    Lizzie  Talley; 

Messrs.  W.  L.  Robinson,  J.  B.  Jones,  W.  E.  Clark,  C.  O.  Smith,  W.  T. 
Doyle;  Miss  W.  J.  Finley;  Messrs.  W.  F.  Bahlmann,  Rudolph  Erbschloe, 
J.  F.  Conner,  C.  F.  Johnston,  T.  W.  Carmichael,  Miss  Nannie  Shaw,  Miss 
M.  F.  Carpenter;  Messrs.  D.  H.  Hill,  G.  K.  Smith,  Alex.  Graves,  M.  L. 
DeMotte,  J.  B.  Merwin,  G.  W.  Thornton,  Rev.  L.  Bedsworth;  Miss 
Bettie  Drysdale,  Miss  Celia  Rice,  Miss  Anna  Rees,  Miss  Mary  B.  Mad- 
dox;  Messrs.  C.  H.  Lacey,  L.  G.  Manypenny,  W.  Brown,  Edgar  Flem- 
ing, Lucian  B.  Wright,  Hon.  John  Monteith,  state  superintendent;  Miss 
Maggie  Smith,  Miss  Sallie  B.  Smiih,  Miss  Fannie  Burke,  Miss  Allie 
Jones;  Messrs.  James  Cather,  Wm.  Allison,  J.  A.  Lee,  W.  H.Carter, 
Bates,  J.  D.  Conner. 


The  teachers  entered  into  the  work  with  a  zeal  and  enthusiasm  which 
made  this  meeting,  which  was  the  largest  one  ever  held  in  the  county,  also 
the  most  brilliant. 

In  November,  1874,  another  institute  was  held,  under  the  same  execu- 
tive committee  and  the  same  conductor,  Prof.  Baldwin,  at  the  village  of 
Dover.  But  meanwhile  the  public  provision  for  expenses  had  been  abol- 
ished; the  teachers  had  not  only  to  do  the  work  but  also  to  pay  the 
expenses;  and  the  good  people  of  Dover  were  generous  in  providing  free 
entertainment  for  those  who  attended.  From  this  time  forward  the  county 
institutes  rapidly  declined  and  soon  went  out  altogether — and  for  several 
years  past  no  attempt  has  been  made  to  hold  them.  School  teachers  can- 
not afford  to  hold  them  at  their  own  private  cost. 


From  Mr.  Catron's  last  annual  report  made  to  the  State  superintendent 
July  1,  1881,  we  compile  the  following  statistics: 

Male.      Female.    Total. 

White  children  of  school  age*  in  the  county 3,769     3,496     7,265 

Colored  "  "  "  782        761     1,543 

Number  of  white  children  in  public  schools 2,476     2,168     4,639 

colored        "  "  377       442        819 

Total  number  of  school  houses  in  the  county,  106;  houses  rented  for 
school  uses,  3 ;  value  of  school  property,  $50,660 ;  No.  of  white  schools  in 
operation,  90;  ditto  colored,  19;  No.  of  teachers  employed  during  the 
year — male,  63;  female,  85.  Average  of  salaries  per  month — male, 
$39.97|;  female,  $31,27.  Total  of  teachers'  wages  during  the  year,  $27,- 
740.74.  Average  cost  per  day  of  tuition  for  each  pupil,  8  cents.  Fuel 
during  the  year  cost  $1,326.21.  Total  assessed  valuation  of  the  county, 
$7,426,240;  rate  per  cent,  levied  for  school  purposes,  33  cents  on  $100. 


The  last  will  and  testament  of  John  Aull,  of  Lexington,  was  admitted 
to  probate  February  22,  1842,  and  contained  special  bequests  amounting 
in  all  to  $62,000.  Among  the  special  bequests  occurs  the  following:  "I 
give,  devise  and  bequeath  in  trust  to  the  county  court  ot  Lafayette  county, 
in  the  State  of  Missouri,  the  sum  of  one  thousand  dollars,  to  be  loaned  out 
by  said  court  on  real  estate  security  of  ample  value  and  free  from  all 
incumbrances,  and  at  the  highest  legal  interest,  to  be  continued  at  interest 
perpetually — and  the  interest  accruing  therefrom  to  be  applied  under  the 
direction  of  said  court  to  pay  the  tuition  or  education  of  orphan  or  poor 
children  under  the  age  of  sixteen  years,  at  or  within  two  miles  of  the 
couuty  seat  of  said  county."  (The  same  amount,  under  the  same  condi- 
tions, was  bequeathed  to  each  of  the' counties  of  Ray,  Clay  and  Jackson.) 

♦Between  the  ages  ot  six  and  twenty  years. 


This  bequest  was  received  by  the  court,  placed  among  the  county's  vari- 
ous funds,  and  remains  intact  to  this  very  day.  The  interest  goes  annually 
into  the  public  school  fund  of  the  city  of  Lexington. 


January  5,  1875,  a  convention  of  presidents  of  school  districts  was  held 
at  Lexington.  The  following  list  of  that  convention  will  serve  to  show 
the  school  system  of  the  county: 

Sub-  Sub- 

R.  President.  dist.  Twp.      K.  President. 

24 George  P.  Gordon     5     48     24 Otto  Walkenhorst 

24 Jacob  Newland     Aullville Wm.  Downing 

27 Wm.  Pearcy     2     48     25 Jacob  Taggart 

27 Eli  Adams     Mayview John  P.  Herr 

25 George  Liese     2     45     24 Henry  Oeting 

25 H.  L.  Grooms     2     51     25 L.G.Buford 

27 Dr.  S.  Smith     Lexington H.  J.  E.  Ahrens 

26 John  Page     1     50     26 David  Groves 

27 Moses  Anson     5  48-49  26 S.  L.  Smith 

25 A.  K.  Sittington     2     50     29 H.  H.  Westmeyer 

25 R.  Kountz     3     49     25 D.H.Hill 

28 John  E.  Arnold  Lafayette  countv..Geo.  M.  Catron 

28 R.T.Russell     6     49     27 " C.  L.  Ewing 

28 Mat.  Wood     3     50     24 T.A.Catron 

28 J.  B.  McDonald     4     49     26 Seth  Mason 

27 Thos.  Jones     4     51     28 J.  W.  Burton 

28 Isaac  Varner     4     50     27 D.J.Morgan 

26 Ferd.  Smith     Higginsville H.  G.  Smith 

24 C.  Reisterer     2     49     26 A.  W.  Douthitt 

24 H.  A.  Bringater     1     51     24 John  Chrisman 

25 H.  Haeffer     3     49     28 H.  S.  Kincaid 

25 John  Yokely     1     49     27 H.  C.  Chiles 

24 Fritz  Everets     4     49     29 M.  Strader 

The  following  committee  was  appointed  to  select  a  list  of  school  books 
for  use  in  this  county: 

Clay  township,  J.  B.  McDonald;  Dover  township,  D.  Groves,  Prof. 
Carter;  Davis  township,  G.  P.  Gordon;  Freedom  township,  H.  Reisterer; 
Lexington,  H.J.  E.  Ahrens;  Middleton  township,  C.  C.  Catron;  Sniabar 
township,  R.  T.Russell;  Washington  township,  C.  L.  Ewing;  county  at 
large,  George  M.  Catron. 


Wm.  Houx  relates  the  following:  In  the  forepart  of  the  winter  of  1838, 
George  Houx  and  his  brother  Wm.  Houx,  originated  the  idea  of  estab- 
lishing a  high  school.  William  Houx  hewed  cottonwood  logs  on  an 
island  in  the  river  above  Lexington,  and  floated  them  down  to  the  town, 
and  the  same  year  erected  a  log  house,  18ft  by  20ft.  He  got  the  boards 
to  cover  the  house  from  a  large  white  oak  tree  that  stood  near  where  the 


















































Baptist  church  now  stands,  corner  of  North  and  Poplar  streets.  This 
was  the  beginning  of  the  high  schools  in  Lafayette  county.  A  number 
of  ladies  were  principally  educated  here,  who  afterward  became  wives  of 
prominent  men  of  the  state.  The  Messrs.  Houx  secured  the  services  of 
Mrs.  David  Hogan,  of  Pettis  county,  to  come  and  take  charge  of  the 
school.  The  school  continued  in  a  flourishing  condition  for  several  years. 
The  Messrs.  Houx  after  a  number  of  years,  gave  their  interest  to  Rev. 
Robert  Morrow.  Mr.  George  Houx  was  the  leader  in  this  enterprise, 
and  furnished  all  the  means. 


It  has  been  extremely  difficult  to  get  any  data  for  a  sketch  of  the  early 
days  of  this  historic  institution,  although  some  of  its  graduates  have  won 
honorable  celebrity  in  their  several  spheres  of  life.  We  first  interviewed 
five  or  six  different  men  in  Lexington  who  were  supposed  to  know  all 
about  it,  but  we  were  always  referred  to  some  one  else.  We  then  wrote 
to  Rev.  Dr.  Vincil,  and  here  is  his  reply: 

Office  of  Grand  Secretary,  A.  F.  &  A.  M.,  ) 

State  of  Missouri,      > 
St.  Louis,  July  18,  1881.  ) 

Dear  Sir: — I  know  nothing  of  any  records  concerning  Masonic  col- 
lege.    I  can  furnish  no  data. 


John  D.  Vincil. 

We  then  wrote  to  Judge  Wm.  T.  Wood,  at  Kansas  City,  and  here  is  his 

Kansas  City,  Mo.,  July  29,  1881. 

*  *  *  I  had  full  knowledge,  but  most  strangely,  I  fail  to  remem- 
ber those  facts  so  as  to  answer  your  purpose.  I  have  no  papers  or  mem- 
orandum to  which  I  can  refer  to  assist  me.  *  *  *  Everything  was 
written  down,  and  all  papers  and  records  were  kept  by  Dr.  Boulware, 
since  deceased.  *  *  *  I  think  it  probable  that  his  widow,  Mrs. 
Boulware,  still  residing  in  Lexington,  has  preserved  them,  and  if  so,  I  am 
sure  it  will  give  her  pleasure  to  give  you  full  access." 

Thereupon  we  interviewed  Mrs.  Boulware,  who  said  she  had  given  all 
her  husband's  papers  to  Dr.  Chapman,  administrator  of  the  estate,  and  to 
Zenophon  Ryland,  Esq.  We  sought  Dr.  Chapman,  and  he  said  no 
Masonic  records  or  papers  had  come  into  his  hands;  then  we  found  Mr* 
Ryland — and  he  did  not  remember  about  it,  but  said  if  he  did  receive  any 
he  sent  them  to  the  grand  secretary,  as  the  college  was  entirely  under  the 
control  of  the  grand  lodge.  But  really  he  did  not  think  Dr.  Boulware 
ever  had  any  records  of  the  college;  he  was  secretary  of  the  Masonic 
lodge,  but  not  of  the  college.  We  give  the  foregoing  facts  to  show  how 
difficult  it  often  is  to  get  reliable  historic  data  on  a  matter  supposed  to  be 


familiar  to  everybody,  and  to  show  that  this  historian  did  the  best  he  could 
to  get  full  particulars  of  the  Masonic  era  of  the  old  college. 

We  finally  got  the  following  points  from  Mr.  James  Cloudsley:  "After 
considerable  discussion  in  the  grand  lodge  over  the  proposition  to  establish 
a  college  for  the  orphan  children  of  deceased  Masons,  it  was  finally  decided 
to  do  it,  and  the  cities  of  Lexington  and  Palmyra  became  rivals  to  secure 
its  location;  but  Lexington  made  the  Largest  offer,  subscribing  $30,000 
toward  it,  and  thus  it  became  located  here.  In  the  spring  of  1847  the 
corner-stone  was  laid,  with  the  usual  ceremonies,  by  the  grand  master, 
Joseph  Foster,  E.  Winsor  and  Wm.  P.  Walter  being  marshals  of  the  day. 
The  main  building  was  erected  that  year,  and  in  1848  it  was  dedicated  by 
Grand  Master  Foster.  It  was  controlled  entirely  by  the  grand  lodge;  it 
was  primarily  for  the  benefit  of  the  orphan  children  of  deceased  Masons; 
and  each  member  in  the  state  was  to  pay  a  small  per  capita  tax  to  support 
the  collage.  H.  Sherwood  was  the  first  president  of  the  board  of  trus- 
tees.    The  first  professors  were  Archibald  Patterson  and  Matt.  Williams. 

Gen.  John  S.  Marmaduke,  of  Saline  county,  Judge  Samuel  F.  Gilbert, 
of  Platte  county,  Missouri,  and  Stephen  B.  Elkins,  member  of  congress 
from  New  Mexico,  were  educated  in  this  college,  and  have  since  dis- 
tinguished themselves. 

The  people  of  Lexington  raised  altogether  about  $32,000  and  put  into 
the  buildings  and  grounds  of  this  institution.  But  when  the  civil  war 
broke  out  in  1861  it  was  early  occupied  as  a  military  post,  and  was  alternately 
in  possession  of  federals  and  confederates  all  through  the  war.  Soon  after 
the  close  of  the  bloody  struggle  the  old  college  building  was  converted 
into  a  military  institute  by  the  state  authorities.  But  in  this  character  it 
soon  became  such  a  palpable  farce  that  the  state  returned  it  to  the  Masons. 

From  the  report  of  the  proceedings  of  the  house  of  representatives  on 
January  10,  1870,  we  take  the  following: 

By  Mr.  Miller,  of  Lafayette:  On  leave,  resolution  that  a  committee  of 
five  be  appointed  to  visit  the  Missouri  Military  Institute,  at  Lexington, 
and  report  its  condition  to  the  house. 

A  statement  from  the  Auditor  was  read,  showing  that  $15,000  had  been 
appropriated  for  establishing  and  improving  the  Institute. 

Mr.  Miller  said  that  the  institute  there  was  a  swindle  on  the  state.  The 
military  part  of  the  institution  consisted  of  four  colored  youths,  who  peri- 
odically parade  around  the  dilapidated  building.  The  superintendent 
resides  in  two  rooms  of  the  building.  Beyond  that  it  is  unoccupied.  About 
two  hundred  dollars  had  been  spent  in  improving  the  house.  It  was  a 
burlesque  upon  the  design  of  its  founders  and  proprietors.  He  would 
like  to  know  what  had  become  of  the  $3,000  a  year  appropriated  to  the 
institution.  The  state  should  either  re-cede  the  grounds  and  property  to 
the  donors,  or  establish  there  a  school  worthy  of  the  name.  The  money 
is  drawn  out  of  the  treasury  on  some  pretext  of  official  requisition,  but  the 
accounts  should  be  examined  to  find  how  the  funds  had  been  applied. 


The  governor  had  informed  him  in  effect  that  there  had  been  no  school 
there  for  twelve  months.  The  motion  was  adopted,  and  Messrs.  Miller, 
Weinrich,  Powell,  Ithner  and  Key  were  appointed. 

The  college  property  having  reverted  to  the  Missouri  Grand  Lodge,  in 
the  year  1871,  they  donated  it  to  the 


of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church  south,  on  condition  that  they  would 
maintain  a  first-class  female  college  in  the  building,  and  furnish  free  tuition 
to  a  limited  number  of  daughters  of  deceased  or  indigent  Masons. 

The  Central  Female  College  was  organized  in  1869,  and  duly  incorpo- 
rated, with  all  the  powers  usually  pertaining  to  a  collegiate  organization. 
Many  of  the  members  of  this  new  body  had  been  among  the  original 
incoi  porators  of  the  Old  Masonic  College,  so  that  the  ultimate  succession 
was  the  more  easily  effected.  Wm.  Morrison  was  first  president  of  the 
board  of  curators.  The  first  session  of  the  new  female  college  opened  on 
the  first  Monday  in  September,  1869,  with  Dr.  Wm.  F.  Camp  as  acting 
president  of  the  faculty.  He  was  in  a  short  time  succeeded  by  Dr.  J.  O. 
Church,  who  filled  the  chair  about  two  years,  and  was  then  followed  by 
X)v.  W.  T.  J.  Sullivan.  The  next  president  was  Rev.  Marshall  Mcllhany; 
and  after  him  W.  F.  Kerdolff,  Jr.,  the  present  incumbent. 

W.  F.  Kerdolff,  Jr.,  was  born  in  Lexington,  Missouri,  in  October, 
1853.  During  his  early  life  he  attended  constantly  either  private  or  pub- 
lic schools  in  his  native  town,  and  in  the  fall  of  1870,  left  home  to  attend 
Central  College  at  Fayette,  Mo.,  where  he  remained  four  years.  Very 
early  in  life  he  united  himself  with  the  M.  E.  church  south,  and  has  since 
remained  a  consistent  member  of  the  same.  During  the  time  he  was  at 
college,  he  obtained  license  to  preach,  and  since  that  time  has  continued 
his  relation  of  "  local  preacher  "  in  his  chosen  church.  Soon  after  leaving 
college  he  married  Miss  Alice  Eaton,  an  estimable  young  lady  who 
resided  near  Fayette  and  whose  father  and  mother  are  of  old  Kentucky 
and  Virginia  stock.  In  the  fall  of  1875,  he  began  teaching  school  in  Mor- 
gan Park  Military  Academy,  near  Chicago,  111.,  where  he  remained  two 
years.  At  the  end  of  this  time  he  came  back  to  his  old  home,  Lexington, 
Mo.,  and  took  charge  of  the  Lexington  High  School,  where  he  had  grad- 
uated before  leaving  home  to  attend  college.  In  this  position  he  remained 
three  years  and  was  re-elected  for  the  fourth  year,  but  declined  the  prof- 
fered position  and  was  soon  after  called  to  the  presidency  of  Central 
Female  College.  Under  his  administration  the  college  is  now  in  a  more 
prosperous  condition  than  ever  before,  there  being  more  pupils  enrolled  at 
this  time  of  the  present  year,  October,  1881,  than  during  the  whole  of  any 
previous  "year. 



Elizabeth  Aull  was  born  at  New  Castle,  in  the  state  of  Delaware,  in 
1790.  She  united  with  the  Presbyterian  church  of  her  native  town  when 
about  fifteen  years  of  age.  She  was  sister  to  James,  John  and  Robert 
Aull,  and  Mrs.  Maria  Pomeroy,  all  of  whom  were  early  settlers  and  in  their 
lifetime,  wealthy  and  prominent  citizens  of  Lexington.  As  early  as  1839 
we  find  the  names  of  Elizabeth  Aull  and  her  sister  Mrs.  Pomeroy  and ' 
brother  James,  among  the  first  members  of  the  Presbyterian  church, 
which  was  organized  in  Lexington  during  that  year.  There  were  twenty 
of  those  first  members,  and  Mrs.  Pomeroy  is  the  only  one  of  them  who  is 
still  living,  1881. 

In  1857-8  Elizabeth  had  a  lingering  sickness  which  finally  resulted  in 
her  death.  During  this  period  she  meditated  much  upon  what  she  should 
do  with  her  property,  she  having  about  $150,000  in  her  own  right;  and  it 
was  in  this  time  of  protracted  wasting  of  body  that  she  formed  her  plan 
and  purpose  to  do  something  for  the  education  of  the  young  women  of 
this  state,  for  she  had  observed  that  the  provisions  for  their  education 
were  meager  and  insufficient.  Also,  about  this  time  occurred  the  business 
failure  of  H.  S.  Chadwick  &  Son,  to  whom  she  had  loaned  $10,000  and 
taken  security  on  Mr.  Chadwick's  fine  residence.  This  mansion  was  about 
to  become  her  property,  and  it  seemed  like  a  providential  provision  for  the 
female  seminary  which  she  was  planning  in  her  mind.  The  plan  and  pur- 
pose and  determination  of  the  project  was  entirely  her  own ;  and  after  she 
had  fully  decided  upon  it,  then  she  called  in  her  pastor,  Rev.  B.  M.  Hob- 
son,  and  asked  his  counsel  about  some  of  the  lesser  details  of  the  matter. 
It  has  been  commonly  believed  that  Mr.  Hobson  had  used  his  influence  to 
induce  her  to  devote  some  of  her  ample  means  in  this  way,  for  the  bene- 
fit of  the  church,  but  Mr.  Hobson  himself  says  it  was  not  so;  and  Mrs. 
Pomeroy  also  informs  us  that  it  was  Elizabeth's  own  doing — that  she  did 
not  even  mention  the  matter  to  her  until  she  had  determined  upon  it,  and 
thought  of  the  Chadwick  house  as  a  nice  place  for  the  school. 

The  following  is  that  portion  of  Miss  Elizabeth  Aull's  will  in  which 
she  made  provision  for  the  founding  of  a  seminary. 

'■'■Item  j6l/i.  I  give  and  bequeath  to  Robert  Aull,  George  W  ilson  and 
Rev.  B.  M.  Hobson,  as  trustees,  upon  the  conditions  and  subject  to  the 
restrictions  hereinafter  named,  the  following  real  estate  situated  in  the 
city  of  Lexington,  Missouri,  viz:  The  real  estate  recently  purchased  by 
me  of  Hanson  S.  Chadwick,  and  now  in  his  possession,  embracing  lots 
numbered  five,  six,  seven,  eight  and  nine,  in  block  number  two,  in  Mun- 
dy's  addition  to  the  town  of  Lexington,  as  described  in  the  plat  of  said 
addition,  now  on  file  in  the  recorder's  office  for  said  county  of  Lafayette, 
the  real  estate  hereby  bequeathed,  being  the  whole  of  the  real  estate  con- 
veyed to  me  by  the  said   H.  S.  Chadwick  and  wife  by  deed  dated  the  29th 


day  of  September,  A.  D.,  1858.  In  trust,  however,  to  be  used  as  a  female 
seminary  of  learning,  under  the  management  and  control  of  the  Presby- 
terian church,  in  Lexington,  Missouri,  of  which  I  am  now  a  member;  upon 
condition,  however,  that  upon  said  premises  such  seminary  shall  be  opened 
and  established  within  three  years  after  my  death.  And,  if  upon  said  prem- 
ises such  seminary  shall  not  be  opened  and  established  within  the  period  afore- 
said, then  said  premises  and  every  part  thereof  shall  revert  to  and  become  a 
part  of  my  estate ;  or  if  after  said  seminary  shall  be  so  opened  and  established, 
said  premises  shall  cease  to  be  used  for  the  purpose  aforesaid  for  a  period 
of  two  years,  then  said  premises  and  every  part  thereof  shall  revert  to 
and  become  a  part  of  my  estate.  And,  in  the  event,  for  the  reasons  afore- 
said, or  either  of  them,  said  premises  shall  revert  to  my  estate,  I  give  and 
bequeath  the  same  and  every  part  thereof  to  my  residuary  legatee  here- 
inafter named,  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever.  And,  if  in  addition  to  the 
real  estate  above  specified,  which  I  value  at  ten  thousand  dollars,  a  fur- 
ther subscription  of  ten  thousand  dollars  in  money,  shall  be  made 
and  paid  to  the  proper  person  or  persons,  for  the  use  and  benefit  of 
said  seminar)'-,  within  three  years  after  my  death,  then  I  give  and  bequeath 
to  the  said  trustees,  above  named,  the  further  sum  of  ten  thousand  dol- 
lars for  the  use  and  to  be  expended  for  the  benefit  of  said  female  semi- 

This  will  was  signed  and  sealed  by  Miss  Aullin  the  presence  of  Edward 
Stratton,  Wm.  P.  Boulware  and  A.  H.  McFadden,  October  1,  1858.  Her 
death  occurred  December  12,  1858,  and  on  December  18th  the  certificate 
of  probate  was  issued.  February  22, 1859,  the  will  was  recorded,  and  the 
executor  named  in  it  (Robert  Aull)  was  placed  under  bonds  of  $150,000 
for  his  faithful  execution  of  its  many  bequests. 

The  citizens  of  Lexington  soon  commenced  making  subscriptions 
toward  the  additional  $10,000  which  were  necessary  to  secure  the  bequest. 
About  $6,000  were  subscribed;  but  it  began  to  be  feared  that  under  the 
conditions  of  the  will  some  state  of  facts  might  occur  which  would  cause 
the  whole  property,  subscriptions  and  all,  to  revert  back  to  the  residuary 
legatee.  The  requisite  $10,000  could  not  be  made  up,  and  consequently  the 
Chadwick  property,  and  the  contingent  $10,000  named  in  the  will  would 
soon  fall  to  John  Aull,  as  the  will  provided.  At  this  stage  of  affairs  Mr. 
Aull  made  a  proposition  which  should  still  meet,  legally,  the  terms  of  the 
will,  and  at  the  same  time  not  defeat  his  sister's  wish  to  found  a  female 
seminary.  He  would  take  the  Chadwick  property,  as  the  will  provided 
he  should,  and  give  his  own  house  in  place  of  it  for  the  school;  and  give 
one-half  of  the  contingent  $10,000.  This  was  not  nearly  so  liberal  a  pro- 
vision as  Miss  Aull  had  herself  intended  to  make;  Mr.  Aull's  house  was 
not  so  good  a  one,  and  the  amount  of  money  was  only  half;  but  it  was  a 




great  deal  better  than  to  lose  the  school  entirely,  because  the  $10,000 
''additional  subscription"  could  not  be  raised.  So  the  working  friends  of 
the  enterprise  accepted  Mr.  AulFs  proposition,  as  the  best  they  could  do 
under  the  circumstances.  And  about  $2,000  of  the  $6,000  which  had 
been  subscribed  were  ultimately  paid  in,  notwithstanding  this  change  of 
plan.  Stephen  G.  Wentworth  has  been  one  of  the  trustees  from  the 
beginning;  he  was  treasurer  seventeen  years,  and  president  of  the  board 
three  years;  he  donated  to  the  school  a  telescope  and  some  other  scientific 
apparatus,  besides  other  liberal  benefactions. 

The  legislature  of  Missouri  chartered  the  constitution  March  12,  1859, 
and  incorporated  Robert  Aull,  Rev.  B.  M.  Hobson,  Gen.  R.  C.  Vaughan, 
Dr.  J.  B.  Alexander,  John  Chamberlain,  George  Wilson,  James  Wilson, 
S.  G.  Wentworth,  Samuel  F.  Taylor,  A.  W.  Hutchins,  W.  J.  Ferguson, 
Rev.  T.  A.  Brachen,  and  Edw.  M.  Samuel,  as  the  original  board  of 

Rev.  Lewis  Green  Barbour,  A.  M.,  now  professor  of  mathematics, 
Central  University,  Richmond,  Kentucky,  was  chosen  the  first  president. 
Under  his  management  the  school  opened  its  halls  for  the  reception  of 
students  September,  1860.  The  school  prospered  under  his  care,  and 
made  for  itself  a  fine  reputation.  The  war,  however,  soon  came  on;  while 
the  school  was  not  closed,  it  materially  interfered  with  its  peace  and  pros- 
perity. Mr.  Barbour  remained,  true  to  his  trust,  until  the  war  closed, 
when  he  resigned,  and  was  succeeded 'bv  Capt.  Rufus  W.  Finley,  A.  M., 
who  entered  upon  his  duties  in  the  fall  of  1865.  His  term  of  office  closed 
in  the  summer  of  1867. 

Anthony  Haynes,  A.  M.,  a  graduate  of  the  Missouri  State  University, 
succeeded  him.     He  resigned  after  a  three  years'  administration. 

The  next  president  was  Rev.  J.  A.  Quarles,  A.  M.,  a  graduate  of  West- 
minster College,  Missouri,  during  the  incumbency  of  Pres.  S.  S.  Laws, 
now  at  the  head  of  the  State  University.  This  was  the  beginning  of  a  new 
era  in  the  history  of  the  seminary.  Mr.  Quarles,  in  addition  to  his  tute- 
lage for  eight  years,  under  Prof.  F.  T.  Kemper,  of  Boonville,  Missouri, 
had  attended  the  college  at  Fulton,  had  passed  two  years  at  the  great 
University  of  Virginia,  then  at  the  zenith  of  its  glory,  and  had  taken 
theological  course  at  the  world-renowned  seminary  of  Princeton,  New 
Jersey.  Possessed  thus  of  an  unusually  liberal  education,  he  was  also 
gifted  with  energy  and  rare  executive  and  organizing  talent.  He  threw 
his  whole  soul  into  the  work,  and  thoroughly  remodeled  the  school  from 
top  to  bottom.  The  present  plan,  which  is  quite  peculiar,  is  his  work.  Its 
radical  features  were  introduced  by  him  at  once;  but  the  minutiae  have 
been  the  result  of  his  thought,  experience,  and  observation  since  he  has 
been  engaged  in  the  work.     He  was  fortunate  to  associate  with  himself 


Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  R.  Ireland,  who  took  charge  of  the  boarding  department, 
and  have  made  it  exceedingly  popular. 

Mr.  Quarles  continued  at  the  helm  for  three  years,  during  which  period 
the  school  grew  in  patronage  until  it  became  necessary  to  add  the  left 
wing  to  accommodate  its  increasing  members.  The  joint  labors  of  the 
church  and  school  proving  too  much  for  him,  he  resigned  the  presidency 
in  1875,  and  Rev.  Jas.  M.  Chaney,  A.  M.,  was  chosen  his  successor.  The 
administration  did  not  last  longer  than  three  years,  when  he  was  followed 
by  Maj.  A.  H.  Todd,  A.  M„  who  conducted  the  school  one  year. 

In  1877  Mr.  Quarles,  having  been  laid  aside  from  the  ministry  by  what 
the  physicians  pronounced  an  incurable  disease  of  the  throat,  was  again 
chosen  president  for  a  period  of  ten  years.  The  past  four  years  of  his 
second  administration  have  been  growingly  prosperous.  In  1879  Mr. 
Quarles  purchased  the  square  of  ground  adjoining  the  Seminary  on  the 
southwest,  and  converted  the  brick  building  that  was  on  it  into  the  Prepar- 
atory Department.  In  it  are  also  rooms  for  the  school  of  Design.  In 
18S0,  the  buildings  still  being  crowded,  seven  additional  rooms  were  added 
in  the  rear  of  the  chapel.  Even  this  did  not  furnish  the  accommodations 
needed,  and  so,  later  in  the  y^ar  1881,  Mr.  Quarles  bought  the  square 
next  southwest,  on  which  stood  the  elegant  and  commodious  mansion 
which  was  Miss  Aull's  original  bequest  to  the  Seminary.  This  he  occu- 
pies as  a  residence,  and  as  a  home  for  any  pupils  who  may  not  be  able  to 
find  accommodations  in  the  main  buildings  of  the  Seminary.  In  the  cut 
of  the  grounds  as  found  in  this  volume,  the  three  adjacent  squares,  all 
under  one  enclosure,  are  presented.  The  buildings  on  the  right,  as  you 
look  at  the  picture,  are  the  Seminary  proper,  containing  the  chapel,  reci- 
tation, music  and  sleeping  rooms,  all  under  one  roof.  The  central  building 
is  the  Preparatory  Department.  The  house  on  the  extreme  left  is  the 
president's  mansion.  These  buildings  have  but  two  stories,  and  thus  long 
stairways  are  avoided.  The  main  buildings  are  lighted  throughout  with 
gas.  The  grounds  altogether  enclose  something  over  six  acres.  The 
location  is  the  bluff  of  the  Missouri  river,  the  buildings  overlooking  the 
turbid  waters  of  that  majestic  stream.  The  health  of  the  institution  has 
been  so  good,  that  not  a  single  death  has  occurred  amongst  the  boarders 
or  teachers  during  the  twenty-one  years  of  its  existence. 

The  studies  are  divided  into  two  grand  departments;  easily,  naturally 
and  necessarily  seperable  from  each  other.  Each  of  these  are  sub-divided 
carefully  and  accurately.  The  sciences  are  arranged  into  subordinate 
departments.  The  preparatory,  the  intermediate  and  the  collegiate.  This 
division  is,  of  course,  based  upon  grade.  The  collegiate  department  of 
the  sciences  is  arranged  into  separate  schools:  The  school  of  English,  of 
mathematics,  of  history,  of  languages,  of  physics,  of  metaphysics,  and  of 
the  Bible.     The  department  of  the  arts  is  also  classified  into  schools:     the 


school  of  music,  of  design,  of  elocution,  of  penmanship,  of  fancy  work, 
and  of  cooking. 

The  course  of  study  in  mathematics  embraces  the  calculus;  in  physics, 
ten  of  the  natural  sciences,  in  languages,  Hebrew,  Greek,  Latin,  Anglo- 
Saxon,  German.  French,  Italian,  and  Spanish.  In  music,  the  course  is 
classical  and  unusually  extensive. 

In  the  collegiate  department,  the  graded  system  has  been  abandoned, 
and  the  elective  substituted  for  it.  This  is  one  of  the  more  radical  features, 
and,  as  its  friends  claim,  most  important  reforms.  Each  pupil  is  graded 
in  each  study  according  to  her  attainments  in  that  study,  and  without  ref- 
erence to  her  proficiency  in  anything  else;  and  no  pupil  is  advanced 
or  retarded  bv  those  who  belong  to  her  grade.  A  parent  or  pupil  may 
select  iust  those  studies  which  taste  and  talent  may  indicate.  There  is  no 
treadmill  course.  Each  one  stands  exclusively  on  her  own  merit  in  each 
department.  The  pupils  are  not  graduated  by  classes,  each  one  must  work 
her  way,  study  bv  study,  until  she  has  passed  successfully  all  the  written 
examinations  of  the  course.  The  work  of  no  other  institution  is  accepted. 
That  is,  if  a  pupil  has  passed  to  the  senior  year  in  another  college,  and 
then  comes  here,  she  must  stand  the  regular  written  examinations  of  this 
seminary  in  the  studies  she  has  pursued,  if  she  wishes  to  graduate.  As 
proof  that  the  standard  for  graduation  here  is  exceptionable  high,  Mr. 
Quarles  points  tp  the  fact  that  during  the  seven  years  of  his  prosperous 
administration,  onlv  five  young  ladies  have  received  the  baccalaureate 
diploma,  while  the  mistress'  degree  has  not  yet  been  even  attempted. 

Another  peculiarity  of  this  seminary  is  its  partial  diplomas.  If  a  pupil 
here  does  no  more  than  pass  the  examination  in  spelling,  she  is  given  a 
certificate  of  that  fact.  So  she  is  awarded  a  similar  testimonial  for  every 
success  that  she  attains.  If  she  passes  five  examinations,  or  fifteen,  she  is 
given  an  authentic  record  of  it,  with  her  standing  in  each.  Moreover, 
quite  a  number  of  distinct  diplomas  are  given,  besides  those  for  the  bac- 
calaureate and  mistress'  degrees  of  science.  In  each  school  of  studies,  a 
baccalaureate  and  a  mistress'  diploma  are  offered.  So  there  is  a  normal 
degree  for  teachers.  A  seminary  degree,  corresponding  to  that  usually 
given  bv  female  colleges.  Bv  these  means,  all  the  varieties  of  taste  and 
capacity  can  be  accommodated:  each  girl  is  stimulated  and  encouraged> 
and  exact  justice  is  done  to  every  pupil  upon  her  record. 

Another  characteristic  is  written  examinations.  These  are  the  founda- 
tion for  all  the  honors  that  are  offered.  No  public  exhibition  has  been 
given  for  eleven  vears. 

J.  A.  Quarles,  president  of  the  Elizabeth  Aull  female  seminary,  was 
born  in  Clark's  Fork  township,  Cooper  county,  Missouri,  near  Boonville, 
April  30,  IS 37,  of  parents  who  had  emigrated  from  Virginia  the  preced- 
ing fall.     When  he  was  nine  years  old  he  was  so  fortunate  as  to  be  placed 


under  the  care  of  the  famous   Prof.  F.  T.  Kemper.     Here  he  rema:r-: 
until  the  summer  of  1^54,  having  completed  the  course  of  mathema: 
including  the  calculus,  and  having  read  a  full  -  :  :he  Greek  and  Latin 


He  was  then  sent  to  the  university  of  Virginia,  where  he  spent  nearly 
two  Years.  This  institution  was  then  at  the  zenith  of  its  prosperity,  hav- 
ing an  annual  attendance  of  over  six  hundred  students.  In  the  summer 
of  IS 54  Mr.  Q.  returned  to  Boonville,  and  Prof.  Kemper  having  accepted 
a  professorship  in  Westminster  college,  he  was  asked  to  take  temporarv 
charge  of  the  schools,  which  he  did  for  the  next  school  year.  In  the  fall 
of  1*57  he  entered  the  theological  seminary  of  the  Presbvterian  church 
at  Princeton,  New  Jersey,  where  he  remained  two  years  enioving  the 
instructions  of  its  celebrated  professors.  In  the  spring  of  1S55,  Prof. 
Kemper  being  a  professor  in  the  college  at  the  time,  he  was  admitted  into 
the  senior  class  of  Westminster  college.  Missouri,  where  he  graduated 
first  in  his  class,  after  an  attendance  of  onlv  three  months. 

In  the  spring  of  IS 59  he  returned  to  Missouri  from  Princeton,  and  was 
licensed  to  preach,  April  9,  by  the  presbytery  of  Missouri,  in  the  Presbv- 
terian church  of  Columbia.  He  then  went  to  Springfield,  Mo.,  with  a 
view  to  a  permanent  settlement,  but  in  the  fall  of  the  same  vear  he  received 
a  call  to  the  church  at  Glasgow,  Mo.,  which  he  accepted,  and  where  he 
was  ordained  and  installed  pastor  Februarv  15,  I860,  and  remained  until 
January,  1866.  He  was  successful  in  his  work  here,  the  church  having 
quadrupled  its  members  during  his  stav  of  six  vears. 

January,  1866,  he  removed,  upon  invitation,  to  Lexington.  Mo.,  and 
preached  his  first  sermon  as  pastor  on  the  opening  Sabbath  of  the  new 
year.  The  congregation  had  been  scattered  and  the  church  was  a  good 
deal  discouraged.  He  remained  pastor  until  September,  1S73 — nearlv 
eight  years — during  which  time  2*39  persons  united  with  the  church,  about 
two-thirds  upon  an  original  profession  of  faith. 

September.  1873,  Mr.  Q.  was  called  to  the  High  street  church,  St. 
Louis.  He  accepted  and  removed  to  that  citv:  but  was  almost  immedi- 
ately informed  by  the  most  skilled  phvsicians  there  that  he  was  the  victim 
in  an  aggravated  form  of  the  "preacher's  sore  throat."  He  continuec 
labors,  however,  enjoying  the  skilled  treatment  of  Dr.  Wm.  C.  Glasgow, 
until  the  summer  of  1*74.  when  he  w    -  reluctandv  compelled  to  give 

up  the  profession  for  which  he  had  been  trained,  to  which  he  had  gr 
his  early  enthusiasm  and  was  most  ardently  attached,  and  in  which  he  had 
been  greatly  blessed.     During  his  brief  and  trving   ministrv  in   St.  Louis 
88  persons  united  with  the  High  street  church. 

July,  1*74,  Mr.  Q.  returned  to  Lexington,  and  went,  for  his  health,  to 
spend  the  summer  in  Colorado.  In  the  fall,  for  the  support  of  his  familv, 
he  opened  a  drug  store  in  Lexington:  and  this  proving  inadequate,  he 


accepted  from  Mr.  Wm.  B.  Steele  the  position  of  deputy  county  clerk  of 
Lafayette  county,  and  entered  upon  his  labors  January,  1875.  Here  he 
remained  until  the  summer  of  1877,  having  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  the 
county  in  far  better  condition  than  when  he  entered  its  service. 

In  the  summer  of  1870,  while  Mr.  Q.  was  pastor  of  the  Presbyterian 
church,  he  was  elected  to  the  presidency  of  the  Elizabeth  Aull  seminary, 
under  the  control  of  that  congregation.  For  three  years  he  discharged 
the  double  duties  without  rest,  winter  or  summer,  Saturday  or  Sunday. 
This  was  doubtless  the  cause  of  the  failure  of  his  health.  In  1S73,  as 
already  stated,  he  resigned  and  went  to  St.  Louis.  In  1877  he  was 
re-elected  to  the  presidency  of  the  seminary  for  a  term  of  ten  years.  This 
position  he  now  fills. 

Oct.  11,  1859,  he  was  united  in  marriage  to  Miss  Carrie  W.  Field, 
daughter  of  Wm.  H.  Field,  Esq.,  a  distinguished  lawyer  of  Pettis  county, 
Missouri,  whose  tragic  death  at  the  hands  of  the  federal  soldiery  was  one 
of  the  most  shocking  incidents  of  our  civil  war.  Mrs.  Q.  still  lives,  and 
is  the  mother  of  ten  children,  but  five  of  whom,  however,  are  now  living. 


The  seed  germ  from  which  this  excellent  institution  of  learning  sprang, 
was  sown  in  about  1853,  in  the  shape  of  the  first  female  seminary,  or 
select  school  for  young  ladies,  established  in  Lexington,  by  Rev.  A.  V.  C. 
Schenck,  which,  at  that  time  was  not  under  the  auspices  of  any  particu- 
lar denomination.  Rev.  Mr.  Schenck  had  in  June,  retired  from  the  pas- 
torate of  the  first  Presbyterian  church  of  Lexington,  and  then  started  this 
school.  In  1855,  this  was  merged  into  the  Baptist  female  college,  under 
the  auspices  of  a  joint-stock  company,  known  as  the  "Blue  River  Baptist 
Association,"  the  trustees  of  which  procured  a  charter  in  the  same  year, 
and  purchased  a  building  at  a  cost  of  $24,000,  [the  old  brick  court  house], 
located  in  that  part  of  Lexington,  known  as  "  Old  Town,  "  and  elected  the 
Rev.  E.  S.  Dulin,  D.  D.,  president.  Under  his  direction  some  $6,000  or 
$8,000  were  expended  in  fitting  up  the  building,  and  beautifying  the 
grounds  in  order  to  render  it  a  suitable  place  for  the  education  of  young 
ladies.  As  the  result  of  his  judicious  management  the  school  became  one 
of  the  best  female  colleges  in  the  state.  He  resigned  the  presidency  in 
1859,  and  Professor  J.  B.  Budwell  was  requested  to  occupy  the  place  until 
a  suitable  successor  could  be  found.  In  the  same  year  the  Rev.  J.  A. 
Hollis  was  elected  president,  under  whose  control  the  school  attained  a 
high  degree  of  prosperity,  the  attendance  reaching  above  two  hundred. 
He  retained  his  position  until  1861.  During  that  year  when  the  federal's 
came  to  occupy  Lexington,  it  was  at  once  seen  that  the  edifice  of  the 
Baptist  college,  and  that  of  the  Masonic  college,  for  the  education  of 
young  men,  were  very  suitably  located  for  garrison  and  hospital  purposes, 


and  the  federal  authorities  required  that  these  buildings  should  be  vacated. 
Thus  two  of  the  best  educational  institutions  of  the  state  were  obliged  to 
suspend.  Except  for  the  short  time  during  which  General  Price  held 
Lexington,  the  federal  authorities  held  undisputed  possession  of  the  col- 
lege building  for  hospital  purposes,  and  even  during  that  time  the  sick 
and  wounded  federals,  who  were  unable  to  bear  transportation  were 
allowed  to  remain,  and  upon  the  departure  of  the  confederates  were  left 
in  quiet  possession  of  the  building,  where  they  were  found  by  the  feder- 
als upon  their  re-occupation  of  the  city. 

Shortly  afterwards  the  authorities  converted  the  building  into  a  pest- 
house,  and  the  small-pox  patients  of  their  army  were  sent  to  it.  During 
the  mutations  of  the  war,  these  poor  fellows  were  frequently  neglecLed. 
The  citizens  of  Lexington  kept  them  from  starving,  but  for  want  of  trans- 
portation could  not  furnish  them  with  the  necessar}*-  supplies.  In  conse- 
quence ot  the  severity  of  the  weather,  and  of  the  limited  supply  of  fuel, 
they  were  obliged  to  burn  the  doors,  door  and  window  casings,  etc.,  in 
order  to  keep  themselves  from  freezing.  Hence  when  the  building  again 
came  into  the  possession  of  the  trustees,  after  the  war,  it  was  found  to  be 
entirely  unfit  for  occupancy,  and  this  fact,  together  with  that  of  its  having 
been  used  as  a  pest-house,  rendered  the  board  unwilling  to  re-occupy  it 
as  a  college.  They,  therefore,  disposed  of  the  building  and  grounds  for 
the  pitiable  sum  of  $4,000.  Thus  was  a  property  worth  at  least  $35,000, 
sacrificed.  The  board  of  trustees  has  never  put  in  a  claim  for  this  loss, 
but  they  have  petitioned  the  general  government  to  allow  them  a  fair 
rental, — or  about  what  they  had  previously  received,  a  thousand  dollars  a 
year,  for  the  four  years  during  which  the  federals  were  in  possession. 
They  have  been  informed  that  the  claim  has  been  allowed,  but  no  appro- 
priation has  yet  been  made  for  its  payment.  This  has  worked  a  great 
hardship  to  the  friends  of  the  institution.  In  their  efforts  to  re-establish 
it  they  have  contributed  and  expended  $25,000,  but  in  defiance  of 
their  best  efforts  they  find  the  college  burdened  with  a  debt  of  $4,227, 
and  during  the  past  twelve  years  they  have  been  obliged  to  provide  for 
the  annual  interest  at  the  rate  of  ten  per  cent  on  the  above  debt. 

During  the  year  1854,  while  the  college  edifice  was  still  occupied  by 
troops,  Dr.  K.  S.  Dulin  consented  to  resume  the  presidency,  and  other 
buildings  were  secured.  Under  his  judicious  management  the  prosperity 
of  the  school  was  restored,  and  it  soon  became  necessary  to  provide  addi- 
tional accommodations.  Accordingly,  in  1868,  the  present  college  build- 
ings were  purchased  for  $11,500,  and  $4,300  expended  in  fitting  them  up 
for  school  purposes.  Dr.  Dulin  presided  over  the  interests  of  the  college 
until  1869,  when  he  was  induced  to  accept  the  presidency  of  Stephen's 
college  at  Columbia,  Missouri.  The  lamented  D.  H.  Selph,  D.  D.,  was 
his  successor,  becoming  president  of  the  college  in  1869,  and  although  as 


well  fitted  to  occupy  the  position  as  any  man  could  be,  the  complete  fail- 
ure of  his  health  compelled  him  to  resign  in  1873. 

In  June,  of  the  same  year,  Prof.  A.  E.  Fleet  was  chosen  to  the  presi- 
dency and  during  his  administration  the  school  steadily  increased  in  pop- 
ularity and  efficiency.  During  the  summer  of  1876,  owing  to  the  increase 
in  the  number  of  boarding  pupils,  the  trustees,  at  a  cost  of  $2,000,  added 
a  new  story  to  the  main  building,  which  with  its  mansard  roof  and  tower, 
make  it  one  of  the  handsomest  and  most  convenient  school-buildings  in 
the  state.  The  whole  house  has  been  fitted  for  gas  and  the  use  of  kero- 
sene has  been  entirely  discontinued.  During  the  session  of  1876-7  the 
number  of  boarding  pupils  was  fifty-six  and  that  of  day  pupils  the  same — 
one  hundred  and  twelve  in  all. 

Frequent  improvements,  have  since  been  made,  involving  the  expendi- 
ture of  several  thousand  dollars.  In  1»79,  Prof.  Fleet  resigned  his  posi- 
tion to  take  the  chair  of  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  State  University,  and 
Professor  John  F.  Lanneau,  who  still  occupies  the  presidency,  was 
appointed  to  succeed  him.  Prof.  Lanneau  was  formerly  professor  of 
mathematics  in  William  Jewell  College,  and  for  several  years  president  of 
the  Female  College  at  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama. 

The  Baptist  Female  College  is  divided  into  three  departments — literary, 
art  and  home.  The  faculty  for  the  coming  year  (1881-2),  consists  of  fif- 
teen teachers;  six  in  the  literary,  six  in  the  art,  and  three  in  the  home 
departments.  Prof.  Charles  Gimbel,  of  the  art  department,  is  a  gentle- 
man of  national  repute,  as  a  music  composer,  being  the  author  of  over 
fifty  pieces  of  sheet  music  published  by  leading  houses.  The  average 
attendance  during  the  school  term  in  this  college  for  ten  years  past  has 
been  about  125.     The  number  in  attendance  October,  1881,  was  121. 

John  F.  Lanneau,  A.  M.,  president  Baptist  Female  College,  Lexing- 
ton, Mo.  Born  in  Charleston,  S.  C.  in  1836.  In  1856  graduated  at  the 
South  Carolina  Military  Academy,  at  the  head  of  his  class,  and  was 
during  his  senior  year  assistant  professor  of  drawing.  In  1856,  became 
tutor  in  mathematics  in  Furman  University,  Greenville,  S.  C,  and  the 
next  year  was  appointed  adjunct  professor  of  natural  philosophy  and 
chemistry.  In  1861  he  enlisted  in  the  war  on  the  side  of  his  native  state, 
and  was  commissioned  captain  of  cavalry  in  the  Hampton  Legion;  in  1862 
was  lieutenant,  and  in  1864  captain  of  engineers;. and  in  this  capacity 
served  on  the  staff  severally  of  Gen.  Longstreet,  Gen.  Lee,  and  Gen. 
Hampton.  At  the  close  of  war  in  1865  he  returned  to  his  post  in  the 
Furman  University  and  was  made  profesor  of  mathematics  and  astron- 
omy. In  1868  he  became  professor  of  mathematics  in  the  William  Jewell 
College  at  Liberty,  Mo.  In  1873  Prof.  Lanneau  accepted  the  presidency 
of  the  Alabama  Central  Female  College  at  Tuscaloosa,  Ala.  In  1879  he 
took  charge  as  president  of  the  Baptist  Female  College  of  Lexington,  Mo., 


his  present  position ;  and  under  his  management  the  school  is  enjoying  a 
very  high  degree  of  popular  favor  and  financial  success.  Prof  Lanneau 
was  married  in  1869  to  Miss  Louise  S.  Cox,  of  Greenville,  S.  C,  a  gradu- 
ate of  the  Baptist  Female  College  at  that  place. 


Wm.  Wentworth,  son  of  Stephen  G.  and  Eliza  Jane  Wentworth,  was 
born  at  Lexington,  Mo.,  December  30,  1852.  When  about  fifteen  years 
old  he  united  with  the  Presbyterian  church,  and  was  a  young  man  of  high 
moral  character;  indeed,  he  was  held  in  esteem  and  affectionate  regard 
by  the  entire  community.  For  about  rive  years  he  was  well  known  to 
the  business  men  of  Lexington  as  acting  teller  of  the  Morrison-Went- 
worth  bank.  But  his  health  began  to  decline;  and  in  January,  1877,  he 
went  to  Texas,  hoping  that  the  change  of  climate  would  restore  him ;  it 
did  benefit  him  for  two  seasons — but  death  had  marked  him  for  its  own, 
and  there  could  be  no  permanent  rejuvenation  of  the  frail  body.  He 
returned  to  Lexington,  May  2,  1879,  and  in  ten  days  thereafter  yielded  up 
his  spirit,  falling  asleep  in  Jesus,  the  dear  and  loving  Savior  in  whom  he 
put  his  trust.  It  was  a  great  comfort  to  his  father  that  William  was 
providentially  permitted  to  spend  his  last  days  at  home,  surrounded  by 
true  and  faithful  friends,  and  to  breathe  his  life  out  with  the  serene  and 
peaceful  trust  of  the  Christian's  well  anchored  hope. 

The  father's  heart  was  so  profoundly  touched  with  gratitude  to  God 
for  this  blessed  comfort  in  his  affliction,  that  he  decided  to  make  a  thank- 
offering  in  some  form  of  public  benefaction,  in  token  of  his  heartfelt 
thankfulness,  and  as  a  memorial  of  love  for  his  noble  son.  After  med- 
itating upon  and  considering  prayerfully  various  modes  of  public  benefac- 
tion which  presented  themselves  to  his  mind,  he  finally  decided  that  as  the 
Christian  education  of  young  women  in  Lexington  was  well  provided  for 
by  three  excellent  female  colleges,  liberally  sustained  by  their  different 
religious  demonstrations,  he  could  not  do  a  more  useful  thing  than  to 
establish  in  the  same  city  a  first-class  academy  for  boys  and  young 
men.  These  were  the  circumstances,  and  these  the  motives  out  of  which 
was  born  the  new  educational  institution  we  are  here  recording.  In  1878 
the  "  First  Presbyterian  church  of  Lexington  "  dissolved  its  organization, 
and  Mr.  Wentworth  bought  their  house  of  worship,  on  the  corner  of  Elm 
and  North  streets,  for  $2,500,  (the  building  orignally  cost  $11,000),  with 
a  view  to  carrying  out  the  plan  which  he  had  formed  for  a  male  academy. 
In  September,  1880,  a  school  was  opened  in  this  building,  under  the  name 
of  "Wenworth  Male  Academy."  In  September,  1879,  Prof.  B.  L. 
Hobson  had  opened  in  Lexington  a  select  school  for  boys,  but  in  view  of 
Mr.  Wentworth's  plans,  he  merged  his  enterprise  into  the  new  academy, 
and  associated  with  himself  Prof.  Sandford  Sellers;  they  conducted  the 


school  one  year,  when  Prof.  Hobson  retired  on  account  of  failing  health. 

April  18,  1881,  the  institution  was  duly  incorporated  by  the  following 
named  persons,  constituting  the  first  board  of  trustees: 

"  Now  therefore,  we,  the  undersigned,  S.  G.  Wentworth  and  Wm.  G. 
McCausland,  of  the  Presbyterian  church ;  Henry  C.  Wallace  of  the  Mis- 
sionary *  Baptist  church;  Edward  Winsor  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
church  south;  George  M.  Catron  of  the  Christian  f  church;  Wm.  F.  Ker- 
dolff,  Sr.,  of  the  Episcopal  church,  and  Benjamin  D.  Weedin,  of  the  Cum- 
berland Presbyterian  church,  hereby  constitute  ourselves,  our  associates, 
and  successors,  a  body  corporate  and  politic  under  the  corporate  name  of 
'  Wentworth  Male  Academy,'  for  the  period  of  990  years  from  and  after 
the  date  hereof,  subject  to  renewals  and  extensions,  and  vested  with  all  the 
rights,  immunities,  powers,  and  privileges  granted  to  educational  associa- 
tions under  article  ten  of  chapter  twenty-one  of  the  revised  statutes  of  Mis- 
souri of  1879." 

Article  III  says:  "The  affairs  of  said  corporation  shall  be  managed  by 
a  board  of  seven  trustees  who  shall  be  resident  male  members  of  the  prin- 
cipal protestant  churches  in  Lexington,  Missouri,  and  vicinity.  Said  Acad- 
emy shall  be  free  from  the  control  of  any  one  religious  denomination,  but 
shaH"always  be  managed  and  taught  by  Christian  men."  Full  provision 
is  made  for  the  filling  of  vacancies  in  the  board;  and  if  from  any  cause 
any  one  of  the  churches  named  should  cease  to  exist  in  Lexington,  then 
the  church  next  nearest  like  it  in  form  of  doctrine  and  mode  of  worship 
shall  be  entitled  to  the  lapsed  representation  in  the  board.  And  thus  every 
contingency  of  the  perpetual  succession  is  provided  for.  This  is  in  some 
respects  a  "  new  departure,"  and  the  very  fact  that  six  different  religious 
denominations  have  thus  united  on  a  basis  of  mutual  trust  and  mutual  res- 
pect to  manage  a  christian  college  by  jointure  of  representation  in  its  gov- 
erning board,  is  one  of  the  signs  of  the  times  full  of  good  hope  for  the 

The  first  annual  catalogue  of  this  Academy  was  issued  in  July,  1881, 
and  showed  a  roll  of  fifty-three  students  at  that  time.  Prof.  Sandford 
Sellers,  A.  M.,  principal;  Prof.  A.  W.  Payne,  A.  B.,  assistant.  S.  G. 
Wentworth,  president  board  of  trustees;  Geo.  M.  Catron,  secretary;  Wm. 
F.  Kerdolff,  treasurer. 

In  addition  to  the  Academy  building,  Mr.  Wentworth  also  purchased  a 
house  two  squares  further  west,  on  the  corner  of  north  and  oak  streets, 
commonly  called  College  street,  for  the  Academy  boarding  house,  so  that 
students  who  did  not  reside  with  their  parents  or  friends  in  the  city  could 
have  a  home  together  under  the  constant  guard  and  counsel  of  the  pro- 

*  There  is  a  branch  or  body  of  Baptist  people  commonly  called  "  Hardshell  Baptists,1' 
who  are  opposed  to  missionary  operations;  and  those  Baptist  churches  which  do  engage 
in  missionary  work  use  the  name  il  Missionary  Baptist"  to  distinguish  themselves  from 
the  anti-missionary  body.     fOr  Disciples. 


tessors,  and  a  discreet,  motherly  Christian  woman  as  matron.  This  build- 
ing contains  ten  good  rooms,  besides  the  dining  room  and  outside  kitchen. 
Mr.  Wentworth's  idea  has  been  to  do  for  the  cause  of  Christian  educa- 
tion what  he  could  during  his  own  lifetime,  and  while  he  could  see  to  it 
himself  that  his  intentions  were  carried  out  and  his  money  properly 
applied,  instead  of  leaving  a  bequest  to  take  all  the  chances  of  misman- 
agement or  misappropriation  by  others  after  his  death — an  idea  which  is 
worthy  of  all  commendation  and  public  gratitude. 



This  society  was  orgagized  in  1852,  at  Lexington,  and  had  from  fifteen 
to  twenty  members.  Monthly  meetings  were  held  regularly,  with  inter- 
est and  benefit.  Matters  concerning  the  diseases  peculiar  to  this  region, 
and  their  medical  treatment,  were  sometimes  discussed  with  much  ability 
and  research.  Dr.  J.  B.  Alexander  and  Dr.  J.  F.  Atkinson  were  its  dele- 
gates to  the  American  Medical  Association  at  its  St.  Louis  session,  in 
May,  1854.  Dr.  Alexander  was  secretary  most  of  the  time,  but  the 
society  was  broken  up  and  its  records  lost  during  the  civil  war. 

June  13,  1865,  a  meeting  or  convention  of  physicians  was  held  at  the 
court  house,  to  organize  a  medical  society  to  be  "composed  of  resident 
physicians  of  the  city  and  county."  One  object  stated  was  to  establish  by 
joint  interest  a  medical  library  which  all  might  consult,  of  such  costly  books 
and  charts  as  one  physician  alone  could  not  afford  to  purchase.  Of  this 
meeting  Dr.  W.  P.  Boulware  was  president  and  Dr.  J.W.  Teader  secre- 
tary. A  committee  consisting  of  Drs.  Atkinson,  Cooley,  and  Alexander  was 
appointed  to  draft  a  constitution  and  by-laws.  But  we  found  no  further 
record  of  this  society. 

The  next  record  we  find  shows  that  the  physicians  of  Lafayette  county 
l^-  met  on  Saturday  November  20,  1869,  in  the  court  house  in  Lexington,  for 
the  purpose  of  organizing  a  county  medical  association,  having  for  its 
object  the  discussion  of  medical  subjects  and  the  cultivation  of  brotherly 
feeing  among  the  members  of  the  profession.  Dr.  J.  F.  Atkinson  was 
called  to  the  chair  and  Dr.  O.  F.  Renick  was  chosen  secretary 

On  motion  of  Dr.  A.  V.  Small  the  following  gentlemen  were  elected 
permanent  officers  for  the  ensuing  year:  Dr.  J.  F.  Atkinson,  president;  Dr. 
O.  F.  Renick,  vice-president;  Dr.  Wm.  P.  Boulware,  secretary.  On 
motion  the  president  appointed  the  following  committee  to  draft  a  Con- 
stitution and  By-laws,  by  which,  when  adopted  the  society  is  to  be  gov- 
ernened.  Said  committee  to  report  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  society, 
viz.:  Wm.  P.  Boulware,  M.  D.;  T.  S.  Bolton,  M.  D.;  P.  H.  Chambers, 


M.  D.;  Geo.  W.  Young,  M.  D.;  J.  B.  Alexander,  M.  D.      On  motion  of 
Dr.  Chambers,  the  president  was  added  to  the  committee. 

In  1879  a  "Lafayette  County  Medical  Society"  was  organized  at  Hig- 
ginsville.  It  holds  monthly  sessions  at  different  places  throughout  the 
county  It  has  met  at  Higginsville,  Odessa,  Mayview,  and  Lexington. 
No  further  particulars  furnished. 


This  society  was  incorporated  in  1855,  for  the  purpose  of  promoting 
improvements  in  agriculture  and  manfactures,  and  in  the  raising  of  stock. 
It  was  the  first  enterprise  of  the  kind  in  the  county.  The  following  were 
the  original  members  or  incorporators: 

Minos  Adams,  George  W.  Smith,  R.  Hale,  Street  Hale,  C.  Ben.  Russell, 
John  Cather,  George  Zeiler,  Geo.  P.  Venable,  R.  E.  Hays,  Geo.  Kennedy, 
Benj.  Marshall,  C.  Easter,  D.  Russell  &  Co.,  B.  T.  John,  John  C.  Young, 
Evan  Young,  W.  M.  N.  Green,  Wm.  Ewing,  J.  M.  Julian,  James  Clowds- 
ley,  Eneberg  &  Jennings,  J.  F.  Hassell,  Strother  Renick,  Linn  B.  Gordon, 
Thomas  B.  Campbell,  Alex.  Mitchell,  Wm.  Limrick,  O.  F.  Thomas,  Benj. 
Fish,  A.  Green,  C.  O.  Grimes,  Geo.  H.  Ambrose,  E.  Winsor,  A.  J.  Wil- 
liams, John  K.  Lord,  J.  M.  McGirk,  John  Catron,  J.  H.  Page,  A.  N.  Small, 
Henry  C.  Chiles,  J.  Russell,  James  F.  Campbell,  James  Peddicord,  Wm. 
T.  Wood,  Wm.  T.  Bell,  J.  D.  Robinson,  Loeb  Terhune,  Leroy  L.  Hill,  J. 
W.  Zeiler,  B.  R.  Ireland,  R.  W.  Kune,  Tilton  Davis,  R.  M.  Spurtly, 
James  C.  Kelly,  G.  T.  Douthitt,  F.  M.  Fields,  R.  J.  Smith,  John  W.  Wad- 

The  society  was  authorized  to  hold  land  not  exceeding  thirty  acres,  and 
other  property,  including  exhibition  building,  not  exceeding  in  value  $10,- 
000.  Judge  Wm.  T.  Wood  was  its  first  president  and  E.  Winsor,  Esq.,  its 
first  secretary.  This  society  established  and  built  the  historic  fair  ground, 
about  two  miles  southeast  from  Lexington  city.  It  held  many  fine  exhibi- 
tions, and  kept  up  a  good  interest  until  the  war  time;  but  since  that  it  has 
lain  dormant. 

In  September,  1880,  a  new  organizntion  was  formed  at  Higginsville, 
called  the  Lafayette  county  Industrial  and  Stock  Association.  It  was 
incorporated  in  June,  1881,  with  the  following  officers:  president,  Jack- 
son Corder;  vice-president,  Col.  Joseph  Davis;  treasurer,  Capt.  A. 
E.  Asberry;  secretary,  L.  T.  Bell;  general  superintendent,  Dr.  C.  W. 
Seeber.  The  board  of  directors  consist  of  Jackson  Corder,  Joseph  Davis, 
Ryland  Todhunter,  Charles  Hoefer,  W.  H.  Waddell,  John  O.  Lockhart, 
T.-  B.  Campbell,- H.J.  Higgins,  W.  A.  Redd,  C.  W.  Seeber,  Geo.  P.Gor- 
don, J.  D.  Conner  and  H.  H.  C.  Chiles.  The  capital  stock  is  $8,000. 
Their  grounds  comprise  about  forty  acres,  with  buildings,  stables,  yards, 
ponds,  a  good  race  track,  etc.,  three- fourths  of  a  mile  from  Higginsville, 


and  near  the  Chicago,  Alton  &  St.  Louis  railroad.  Their  first  annual 
exhibit  occurred  in  August,  1881,  and  was  a  grand  success.  The  man- 
agers of  the  first  fair  held  by  this  society  were:  Dr.  C.  W.  Seeber, 
general  superintendent;  H.  G.  Smith,  assistant  superintendent;  B.  S.  Hig- 
gins,  chief  marshal;  Mansfield  Wilmot,  assistant  marshal;  J.  D.  Conner, 
general  superintendent  of  floral  hall,  agricultural  and  mechanical  depart- 
ment; W.  W.  Preston,  superintendent  agricultural  department:  D.  S. 
Swacker,  superintendent  of  mechanical  department;  W.  C.  Beatie,  super- 
intendent, and  Mrs.  R.  Todhunter,  assistant  superintendent  of  homi',  field 
and  garden:  Mrs.  H.  C.  Chiles,  superintendent  fruits  and  flowers;  Mrs. 
Jackson  Corder,  superintendent  of  fine  arts  department;  Mrs.  H.  J.  Hig- 
gins,  superintendent  textile  fabrics  and  materials;  Geo.  Catron,  superin- 
tendent of  poultry  department;  H.  C.  Chiles,  superintendent  sheep  and 

old  men's  association. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  old  citizens  and  soldiers  of  the  war  of  1812,  held 
August  4,  1868,  at  the  residence  of  Mr.  James  Hicklin,  on  motion  of 
Henry  Wallace,  it  was  agreed  that  an  "  Old  Men's  Association  "  should  be 
formed,  comprised  of  persons  of  seventy  years  of  age  and  upwards;  that 
all  persons  present  should  record  their  names,  age  and  place  of  nativity, 
which  was  done.  On  motion,  Henry  Wallace  w  is  elected  president  and 
Jabez  Shotwell,  clerk. 

On  motion,  Henry  Wallace  and  Jabez  Shotwell  were  appointed  a  com- 
mittee to  draft  and  present  to  the  consideration  of  the  association,  a  con- 
stitution, which  duty  was  duly  performed;  the  committee  reporting  the 
following  which  was  unanimously  adopted  by  the  members  present  : 


Article  1.  A  president  shall  be  elected  at  each  meeting,  whose  duty 
it  shall  be  to  preside  and  keep  order. 

Art.  2.  A  clerk  shall  be  elected  at  each  meeting,  whose  duty  it  shall 
be  to  keep  a  record  of  all  the  names  of  the  members,  their  age  and  nativ- 
ity, and  the  proceedings  of  each  meeting. 

Art.  3.  Meetings  shall  be  held  during  the  months  of  May  and  Sep- 
tember of  each  year,  at  the  houses  of  the  different  members,  for  mutual 
conversation  and  enjoyment. 

Art.  4.  All  members  of  this  association  must  be  seventy  years  of  age, 
or  upwards  and  must  be  elected  by  the  unanimous  consent  of  the  associa- 

Art.  5.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  each  member  when  requested,  to  relate 
his  experience,  either  verbally  or  in  writing. 

Art.  6.  Each  member's*  name  shall  be  enrolled,  with  his  age  and 

Art.  7.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  all  the  members  to  visit  each  other, 
particularly  in  sickness  or  distress. 

Art.  8.     Each  meeting  shall  be  opened  with  prayer. 



Where  born. 

N.  Carolina 
Virginia.  .  . 
Tennessee  . 
Kentucky  . 

Daniel  Sims 
George  Buckner .... 

S.  Carolina. 
-1 795 Virginia . . . 


Street  Hale Dec.  25,  1798    ... 

Lucien  Dumaine. . . .  March  25,  1800.  .      France  .  . . 

John  R.  Ford    ....  May  8, 1801 Kentucky 

Wm.  McCormack  .  .  Feb.  15, 1800 Virginia  .  . 

Wm.  Frick    May  4,  1792 Germany  . 

Thos.  Callaway Nov.  26,  1789. .  .      Virginia'.  . 

N.  J.  Carter.  ." Nov.  21,  1807    .  . 

Hiram  M.  Bledsoe.  .  April  2,  1798 Kentucky 

J.  G.  Suddath April  12,  1800 ....     Virginia" . 

*--Wm.  McCausland.  .  Oct.  9,  1797 Ireland  .  . 

James  Sommerville.  .  Feb.  27,  1793. . 

R.  C.  Johnson Nov.  19,  1789.  . 

Robert  Renick March  16,  1798 

David  Locke Sept.  3,  1799   . 

Jesse  Schofield July  15.  1801 . . 

Philip  Prather Feb!  27, 1799 . . 

Elias  Wheatly July  2, 1803. . . . 

Levi  Simpson * * 

Isaac  Chanslor Jan.  23,  179!) Kentucky  . 

Joel  P.  Wiles Sept.  12,  1804..  .  .     * 

Thos.  C.  Bledsoe.  .  .  April   15,  1802.  .  .      Kentucky  . 

Gideon  Flournoy .  . ..  April  25,  1805 ...     *..... 

James  Baird July  11, 1803 Kentucky. . 

Alexander  Cheatham  *1801 Virginia .  . . 

Rev.  F.  R.  Gray. . .  July  30,  1806 Kentucky.. 

♦Record  defective;  dates  and  place  of  birth  or  death  not  given . 

Virginia.  . 





Date  of  death 


"4871  or '72. 

The  following  is  a  complete  list,  as  far  as  can  be  obtained  from  the 
records,  of  all  who  have  joined  up  to  the  present  time,  with  date  of  birth, 
place  of  nativity,  and  date  of  death  if  not  living: 

Name.  Date  of  birth. 

Edward  Minnis Oct.  13,  1  7S4 .  . 

Wm.  Robinson Feb.  25,  1791    . 

Lewis  Green July  12,  1791 .  . 

Jabez  Shotwell Nov.  28,  1791. 

Henry  Wallace.  . .    .  March  24,  1792 

John  Nelson Feb.  7,  1792 Tennessee  . 

Arthur  G.  Young..  .  Sept.   26,  1794. 

James  Hicklin Jan.  7,  1795 " 

John    Vaughn Sept.  3,  1795 Kentucky.  . 

Washington  Johnson  July  10,  1795 Virginia.  . . 

Robert  N.  Smith.  .  .  June  6,  1794 

R.  H.  Bradley Feb.  19,  1790 Georgia  .  . . 

James  H.  Graham..  .  Dec.  5,  1798 New  York. 

George  Houx March  8,  1797.  .  .      Kentucky.. 

Wm.  Houx Feb.  22,  1799 .... 

Howard  Williams.  .  .  Dec.  5, 1797 " 

G.  T.  Chrisman May  7,  1794 

Jesse  Roberts June  11,  1795 ....   Virginia 

Wm.  Helms June  18, 1795 

May  3,  1879. 
April  14, 1877 

July  9, 18S1 . . 

Dec,  1873 .  . . 



Jan.  17, 1871 

May  28,  1881 
*1875  or  '76. 

Oct!  25,  1876. 

Dec.  26,  1876 
Oct.  23,  1876 


*1880 , 

Sept.  18,  1879 

June  10,  1876 
Dec.  1,  1879. 



Rev.J.  L.  Yantis...  Sept.  14,  1804... .  "  

Wm.  M.  Whitsett...  Sept  11.  1805 "  

Alex.  P.  Hogan *1788 *.. 

Wm.  F.  Bradley Sept.  15,  1806 Tennessee 

Col.  James  Young..  May  11,  1800. .  ..  "          ...     Feb.  9,  1878. 

John  Prico Feb.  21,  1807.  .  ..     Kentucky 

James  H.  Norfolk.  ..  Oct.  26,  1799 Maryland 

Isaac  Ruffner Jan.  21,  1804 West  Virginia     

Lawson  Grant July  1 ,  1810 Kentucky 

Paschal  A .  Gibbs .  .  .  Aug.  6,  1810 Virginia 

Henry  Wallace,  Sr.,  founder  of  the  "  Old  Men's  Club  "  association. 
Mr.  Wallace  was  born  in  Woodford  county,  Kentucky,  March  24,  1792, 
and  died  in  Lafayette  county,  Missouri,  May  27,  1875.  His  father,  Hon. 
Caleb  Wallace,  a  physician  and  Presbyterian  minister  of  considerable 
eminence,  was  one  of  the  earliest  settlers  of  that  region  of  territory 
afterwards  formed  into  the  State  of  Kentucky,  residing  there  as  early  as 
1782,  when  it  formed  a  part  of  Virginia.  His  father  was  a  native  of  Vir- 
ginia, and  was  a  member  of  the  several  conventions  held  preparatory  to 
the  formation  of  the  state  of  Kentucky,  as  well  as  of  the  constitutional 
conventions  of  1792  and  1799,  under  the  former  of  which,  Kentucky  was 
admitted  into  the  union.  He  was  appointed  judge  of  the  court  of  appeals 
of  Kentucky  in  1792,  and  filled  the  position  with  honor  till  1812.  The 
maiden  name  of  the  mother  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was  Rose  Ann 
Christian,  who  was  a  daughter  of  Col.  Israel  Christian,  a  revolutionary 
soldier  and  highly  respected  citizen  of  Virginia.  The  subject  of  this 
notice  had  seven  brothers  and  one  sister,  and  was  the  survivor  of  them 
all.  The  sister,  Priscilla,  became  the  wife  of  Judge  Wm.  Logan,  a  well 
known  citizen  of  the  state  of  Kentucky,  also,  a  member  of  its  court  of 

Mr.  Wallace  was  raised  to  manhood  in  his  native  county,  with  only  sue 
opportunities  for  an  education  as  a  new  country  then  afforded.  At  the 
age  of  twenty,  he  volunteered  into  the  cavalry  regiment  of  Col.  McDowell 
for  the  war  of  1812,  and  served  under  Gen.  Wm.  H.  Harrison,  in  a  vig- 
orous winter  campaign  against  the  Indian  allies  of  Great  Britain,  in  Ohio 
and  Indiana.  After  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  enlistment,  he  became 
a  farmer  within  his  native  county,  and  soon  after,  on  August  18,  1814,  led 
to  the  marriage  altar,  Miss  Elizabeth  C.  Carlyle,  daughter  of  George 
Carlyle,  an  old  veteran  of  the  revolutionary  war,  and  also,  an  early  setder 
of  Kentucky,  from  Virginia.  This  estimable  Christian  lady  is  still  living 
near  the  city  of  Lexington,  Missouri.  Mr.  Wallace  united  with  the  Bap- 
tist church  in  Woodford  county,  Kentucky,  in  1823,  and  ever  after  lived 
in  the  communion  of  that  denomination,  a  consistent  Christian,  character- 
ized by  deep  piety  and  wide  benevolence.  He  immigrated  to  Missouri 
and  settled  in  Lexington,  Lafayette  county,  in  the  spring  of  1844,  and 


resided  in  the  city  till  1853,  when  he  removed  to  his  farm  a  mile  and  a 
half  south  of  Lexington,  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days.  He 
enjoyed,  in  a  high  degree,  the  respect  and  confidence  of  his  fellow-citizens, 
both  in  Kentucky  and  Missouri,  a  tribute  won  by  his  exemplary  life,  pub- 
lic spirit  and  unimpeachable  Christian  character.  He  was  endowed  with 
great  force  of  character;  had  a  vigorous  and  well  cultivated  mind,  and 
maintained  to  the  end  of  life  an  abiding  faith  in  the  truth  of  the  Christian 
religion,  and  the  government  and  providence  of  God. 

He  was  the  founder  of  the  "  old  soldiers'  club,"  afterwards  known  as 
the  "old  mens'  club  "  of  Lafayette  county,  most  of  the  members  of  which, 
like  himself,  have  passed  away  from  the  battles  and  {oils  of  this  life.  He 
raised  ten  children.  The  eldest  son,  Caleb  B.  Wallace,  a  well  known 
lawyer  and  once  state  senator  of  Kentucky,  died  in  Missouri  while  on  a 
visit  to  his  parents  and  friends  in  1855. 

Three  sons,  Hon.  H.  C.  Wallace,  a  prominent  lawyer  of  Lexington, 
Missouri;  Charles  C.  Wallace,  of  the  same  place,  and  Curtis  O.  Wal- 
lace of  St.  Louis,  still  survive  him.  One  of  his  surviving  daughters 
resides  in  Mound  City,  Illinois,  and  another  in  Jackson  county,  Missouri, 
and  one,  unmarried,  at  home  with  her  mother;  Three  others,  Mrs.  G.  W. 
Carter,  Mrs.  Dr.  P.  H.  Chambers,  and  Mrs.  F.  C.  Short,  died  some  years 
ago,  all  leaving  descendents. 


Mrs.  Marie  Uphans,  who  resides  in  Freedom  township,  near  Concor- 
dia, was  born  in  Prussia,  March  11,  1780.  Her  100th  birthday  was'  cele- 
brated by  a  gathering  of  about  three  hundred  persons.  She  is  still  living, 
October  1,  1881,  aged  101  years  and  7  months,  and  is  doubtless  the  oldest 
living  person  in  the  county. 

Alexander  C.  Hogan,  of  Davis  township,  was  born  March  1;  1783,  near 
Richmond,  Virginia..  He  came  to  Davis  township  in  1839,  and  has  lived 
there  ever  since. 

Dr.  Robert  W.  Rankin,  now  residing  with  Judge  F.  E.  Barnet,  in  Snia- 
bar  township,  was  born  in  Kentucky,  August,  1790.  Served  as  magis- 
trate in  Lillard  county  several  years  before  the  name  was  changed,  in  1825, 
to  Lafayette. 

Bettie  Langhorn,  a  negro  woman  who  died  in  Lexington,  March  29, 
1880,  was  born  in  Buchingham  county,  Virginia,  during  the  winter  of 
1876-77.  This  was  vouched  for  by  Mrs.  A.  F.  Brown,  of  Malta  Bend, 
Mo.,  whose  grandmother's  family  originally  owned  Betty  as  a  slave  and 
knew  her  age.  Old  Betty  was  the  mother  of  eleven  children,  and  finally 
raised  a  child  of  her  own  granddaughter.  She  was  over  104  years  old 
when  she  died. 


Richard  Collins  Johnson,  of  Sniabar  township,  is  over  9S  years  of  age. 
He  was  a  soldier  under  Gen.  Jackson,  and  was  in  the  battle  of  Talladega 
during  the  war  against  the  Creek  Indians  in  Florida. 

The  following  persons,  now  living,  August,  1881,  have  resided  in 
Lafayette  county  since  1819,  a  period  of  62  years: 

Clay  Township. — Mrs.  Ish,  widow  of  Wm.  Ish. 

Dover  Township. — Mrs.  John  Lovelady,  who  was  the  bride  of  the  first 
wedding  in  the  county,  and  the  mother  of  the  first  child  born  in  the  county. 
Jesse  Cole,  also  of  Dover. 

Lexington  Township. — John  Catron,  and  Mrs.  Rebeeca  Robinson, 
widow  of  Wm.  Robinson. 

Lexington  City. — Thomas  B.  Wallace. 

Washington  Township.—  Mrs.  Dolly  Marshall,  widow  of  Absalom  Mar- 

There  is  a  sort  of  "  Early  Settlers  Association  "  in  existence,  of  which 
every  person  who  has  resided  forty  years  in  the  county  is  ex-qfficio  a  mem- 
ber; but  no  statistics  of  the  organization  were  furnished. 


In  1861  that  patriarch  of  the  press  in  Lafayette  county,  Mr.  Charles 
Patterson,  wrote  for  the  Waverly  Visitor,  some  political  reminiscences 
which  have  a  historic  interest  and  value.  We  here  quote  the  main  facts, 
after  eliminating  sundry  personal  and  partisan  matters  that  were  local  to 
the  time: 

When  Lafayette  county  was  first  organized  out  of  old  Lillard,  she  had 
only  thirteen  whigs  in  her  limits.  *  *  *  The  county  never  exhibited 
signs  of  returning  reason  until  1838,  when  Mr.  Burden  and  his  compeers 
in  the  "  good  cause,"  at  the  sacrifice  of  much  precious  time,  "  bush- 
whacked" every  neighborhood,  and  Mr.  Burden,  young  as  he  was, 
mounted  the  "  stump  "  in  opposition  to  Democracy's  champion,  Col. 
"James  Young,  who  had  had  the  field  almost  to  himself. 

Two  years  passed  over,  and  the  campaign  of  1840  approached.  *  * 
The  whig  cause  increased  in  enthusiasm;  'log  cabins'  were  built,  'hard 
cider'  was  drank,  'latch  strings'  were  hung  out  side;  and  'mass  meetings' 
were  held.  'Tippacanoe  and  Tyler  too'  were  the  watch  words,  and  the 
'union  of  the  whigs  for  the  sake  of  the  union'  was  the  great  motto  of  the 
land.  Previous  to  the  state  election  in  August,  1840,  the  whigs  of  Lafay- 
ette in  mass  meeiing  nominated  Drs.  J.  B.  Vivion  and  Wm.  Ward  for  the 
legislature.  The  canvass  was  an  interesting  one,  and  was  conducted 
with  enthusiasm. 

Election  day  came  on,  and  when  the  polls  were  closed,  Lafayette  was 
redeemed — the  two  doctors  were  elected  by  25  majority.  The  result 
added  a  new  impulse  to  the  whig  cause,  and  all  attention  was  then 
directed  to  the  presidential  canvass.  An  immense  'log  cabin'  was  erected 
and  a  'tall'  Harrison  pole  was  raised.  Election  day  arrived,  and  when  the 
votes  were  counted,  Harrison  and  Tyler  had  75  majority  over  Van  Buren 
and  Johnson.     *     *    John  B.  Clarke  of  Howard,  was  the  whig  candidate 


for  governor,  in  August,  and  carried  the  county.  Two  years  rolled  by, 
and  another  county  election  was  at  hand.  Mr.  Burden  was  the  nominee 
of  the  whigs  for  the  legislature,  the  county  having  but  one  delegate  under 
a  recent  apportionment.  *  *  In  1844,  Mr.  Burden  was  returned  to 
the  legislature,  and  before  the  close  of  his  second  term,  secured  the  loca- 
tion of  the  fifth  branch  of  the  state  bank  at  Lexington. 

*  In  November,  Clay  and  Frelinghuysen  obtained  480  majority, 
the  parties  then  being  purely  whig  and  democrat.  In  1846,  the  opposi- 
tion to  the  whig  party  was  only  limited,  and  their  candidates  were  elected 
without  a  struggle,  and  the  year  passed  quietly.  In  1848,  the  August 
election  resulted  in  Lafayette,  in  large  whig  majorities  for  state  and 
county  tickets,  and  in  November,  over  500  majority  for  Taylor  and  Fil- 
more.  Two  parties  still  extant.  In  1850,  we  had  an  excited  canvass  for 
the  legislature — Mr.  Burden  again  being  a  candidate,  and  almost  desper- 
ate efforts  were  made  to  defeat  him.  But  the  whigs  of  old  Lafayette 
were  true  to  themselves,  and  saved  their  county  and  party,  by  electing 
their  entire  ticket. 

In  1852,  the  county  still  remained  firm,  and  rm  August  returned  the 
whig  candidates  to  the  legislature.  Dr.  I.  S.  Warten  and  Col.  R.  N. 
Smith  were  elected  by  a  respectable  majority.  In  November  she  gave 
Scott  and  Graham  a  handsome  majority.  In  1854,  owing  to  certain 
movements  among  our  foreign  guests,  and  the  manifest  ambition  of  many 
•naturalized  citizens  in  the  union,  the  'American,'  or  'know  nothing'  party 
was  organized,  and  whigs  and  democrats  abandoned  their  former  associa- 
tions, and  united  with  the  'dark-lantern'  club.  The  elections  all  over  the 
union  were  disastrous  to  any  party  that  attempted  to  sustain  the  cause  of 
foreign  aspirants.  Lafayette  sent  Wm.  S.  Field,  Esq.,  and  Maj.  S.  T. 
Niell  to  the  legislature  by  large  majorities.  In  1856,  at  the  August  elec- 
tion, R.  C.  Ewing  carried  the  county  by  upwards  of  600  for  governor, 
and  the  'American'  delegates  to  the  legislature,  Messrs.  E.  Burden  and 
Wm.  Morrison,  were  elected  by  nearly  as  large  a  vote.  In  November, 
•  Filmore  and  Donnelson  carried  the  county  by  a  large  vote.  During  the 
years  of  1854,  '55,  '56  and  '57,  the  Kansas  imbroglio  occupied  a  considera- 
ble share  of  the  public  attention,  and  attempts  were  made  to  seduce  the 
^American'  majority  in  Lafayette  into  new  issues.  All  failed,  however, 
and  Lafayette  remained  true  to  her  virtue. 

In  1858  Messrs.  S.  F.  Taylor  and  E.  Burden  were  elected  delegates  to 
the  legislature  by  large  majorities.  There  was  no  particular  excitement, 
and  the  "American"  candidates  met  with  only  a  limited  opposition.  In 
1860,  just  past,  our  readers  recollect  all  the  events  and  results.  August 
placed  two  constitutional  union  candidates  in  the  legislature,  all  the  union 
state  and  county  nominees  were  successful;  and  in  November  Bell  and 
Everett  carried  the  vote  by  a  triumphant  majority.  New  issues  springing 
up  after  the  presidential  election  had  been  decided,  all  parties  underwent 
a  material  change.  The  union  party  retained  its  organization,  only  losing 
a  few  of  its  former  members,  while  at  the  same  time  large  accessions  were 
made  from  the  Douglas  party,  and  a  few  from  Breckenridge  side.  The 
result  on  the  18th  of  February  last  proves  conclusively  that  Lafayette  is 
decidedly  a  constitutional  union  county. 



Lexington  Express. — In  October  of  1839,  Mr.  Charles  Patterson  issued 
the  prospectus  of  the  Lexington  Express — the  first  newspaper  published 
in  Lafayette  county — from  the  office  of  the  paper  published  at  Liberty, 
Clay  county,  Missouri,  which  at  that  time  was  the  only  paper  published 
west  of  Boonville  and  Fayette.  In  November  of  the  same  year  he  went 
to  Cincinnati  and  purchased  printing  material;  but  on  account  of  the  Ohio 
river  being  low  his  press  was  not  shipped  until  February  following,  and 
reached  Lexington  in  March.  Mr.  Patterson  was  assisted  in  his  enterprise 
by  Messrs.  James  and  Robert  Aull,  Eldridge  Burden,  Samuel  B.  Stramcke 
and  Gen.  James  H.  Graham.  On  the  4th  of  March,  1840,  the  initial 
number  of  the  Express  was  issued.  When  the  prospectus  was  issued, 
Henry  Clay  was  the  expected  whig  candidate  for  the  approaching  cam- 
paign ;  but  in  the  Harrisburg  convention  Gen.  Harrison  received  the  nom- 
ination for  president,  and  the  Express  hoisted  his  name  to  its  mast-head. 
This  paper  was  published  continuously  until  1861,  by  the  successive 
administrations  of  Charles  Patterson;  Patterson  and  Jacob  M.  Julian; 
Patterson,  Julian  and  John  R.  Gaut;  Patterson,  Julian  and  Wm.  Mus- 
grove,  Sr.;  W.  M.  Smallwood  and  Julian,  and  Julian  and  R.  C.  Vaughan* 
It  was  issued  as  a  daily  during  portions  of  1860  and  1861,  by  Smallwood 
and  Julian.  The  paper  was  suspended  early  in  1861,  and  the  material  was 
in  custody  of  Ethan  Allen  at  the  time  of  the  seige  or  battle  of  Lexington. 
With  it  he  printed  an  "  Official  Bulletin,"  containing  the  reports  of  all  the 
confederate  officers,  the  next  day  after  Col.  Mulligan's  surrender. 

Western  Chronicle. — In  1848  a  democratic  journal  was  founded  by  Har- 
rison Branch;  this  was  succeededby  the  Western  Chronicle  in  1850,  which 
was  published  until  after  the  Presidential  election  of  1852. 

American  Citizen. — This  paper  was  founded  in  1855  by  William  Mus 
grove,  Senior.     It  advocated  the  "Know  Nothing"  branch  of  politics;  but 
after  a  brief  existence  of  two  years  expired  with  its  founder. 

The  Expositor  was  established  in  1856,  by  Yost  &  Stofer,  who  wer 
succeeded  in  1858  by  William  Anderson,  as  editor.  It  was  democratic  in 
principle  and  its  publication  was  continued  until  the  latter  part  of  1861, 
when  the  greater  part  of  their  apparatus  was  carried  away  by  the  First 
Regiment  Kansas  Volunteers. 

Missouri  Cumberland  Presbyterian  was  established  in  Lexington  in 
1850  and  was  edited  by  Rev.  J.  B.  Logan.  It  was  subsequently  moved 
to  St.  Louis,  where  it  was  published  until  1874;  about  this  time  it  was  pur- 

*  We  are  indebted  largely  to  the  very  excellent  centennial  4th  of  July  address  of  Wm. ' 
H.  Chiles,  Esq.,  for  the  facts  embodied  in  this  article.  His  address  was  delivered  at  the 
court  house  in  Lexington,  July  4,  1876,  and  afterwards  published  in  pamphlet  form  as  a 
"History  of  Lafayette  County,"  from  the  Lexington  Register  office.  But  we  have  gathered 
many  additional  facts  not  before  published. 



chased  by  the  general  assembly  and  removed  to  Nashville,   Tennesse, 
where  it  is  still  published. 

The  Lafayette  Pioneer,  a  German  paper,  was  established  in  1860,  at 
Lexington  b}'  Phillip  Reichert,  but  was  soon  discontinued. 

The  Visitor. — This  paper  was  edited  at  Waverly  by  Charles  Patterson, 
the  founder  of  the  Express.  It  was  established  in  1858  or  59  and  existed 
a  little  more  than  one  year.  A  paper  called  the  Waverly  Express  was 
puplished  awhile  but  we  could  not  get  particulars. 

The  Citizen's  Daily  Advertiser. — Howard  S.  Harbaugh  started  the 
above  named  paper  in  1860,  but  his  editorial  career  was  soon  cut  short 
because  of  his  advocacy  of  Abraham  Lincoln  for  President.  He  was 
notifiied  by  the  "Knights  of  the  Golden  Circle"  to  leave  the  State  within 
six  days  of  they'd  hang  him.  He  left,  and  afterwards  became  editor  of 
the  Chilicothe  Constitution. 

When  the  war  broke  out  there  were  but  two  newspapers  published  in 
Lexington,  the  Express  and  the  Expositor,  which  were  discontinued  as 
before  stated,  in  consequence  of  the  unsettled  condition  of  the  times,  and 
for  a  while  there  was  no  paper  published  in  the  city.  In  1862,  however, 
H.  K.  Davis  established  the  Lexington  Weekly  Union  which  supported 
Gen.  McClellan  for  President  in  the  campaign  of  1864.  In  1865  it  was 
changed  to  the  Lexington  Weekly  Express,  and  that  in  turn  gave  way  to 
The  Caucasian  in  1866,  owned  by  Jacob  M.Julian,  Ethan  Allen  &  Com-- 
pany  (Wm.  Musgrove,  Jr.)  The  control  of  this  paper  was  varied:  Peter 
Donan  and  Allen;  Donan  and  Charles  J.  Nesbit;  Allen,  Jacob  T.  Child, 
and  Wm.  Musgrove,  Jr.;  Donan,  Reavis,  Andrew  Donan,  and  Wm.  G. 
Musgrove,  Jr.,  being  successively  its  proprietors  until  it  was  merged  into 
the  Intelligencer  in  1875.     It  was  democratic  in  politics. 

Lexington  Weekly  'Journal. — This  paper  was  started  June  9,  1864,  by 
C.  C.  Coffinberry,  editor  and  publisher.  It  was  republican  in  politics  and 
supported  Abraham  Lincoln  and  Andrew  Johnson  for  president  and  vice- 
president.  The  way  this  paper  was  started  is  worthy  of  record.  Some 
of  the  decisive  Union  men  of  Lexington,  thought  they  ought  to  have  a 
newspaper  of  their  own,  so  they  clubbed  together  and  raised  money  for 
the  purpose,  Henry  Turner  being  their  treasurer;  Wm.  H.  Bowen  went 
to  St.  Louis  and  bought  the  printing  material,  and  brought  up  with  him 
a  printer  to  take  charge  as  foreman.  It  was  soon  discovered  that  they 
had  not  enough  printing  material,  so  they  raised  $300  more  and  sent  the 
printer  man  to  St.  Louis  to  buy  more  types;  but  the  printer  got  drunk, 
and  never  returned  with  either  money  or  types.  During  Gen.  Price's 
raid  in  1864,  the  paper  was  stopped,  and  the  types  all  knocked  into  pi  by 

In  April,  1865,  Col.  Casper  Gruber  bought  the  material,  and  on  the 
29th  he  issued  the  first  number  of  a  new  paper  called  the 


Lafayette  Advertiser. — This  paper  was  edited  by  a  Rev.  Mr.  Craw- 
ford, a  Methodist  preacher,  although  his  name  did  not  appear.  Col.  Gru- 
ber's  name  stood  at  the  head  as  "proprietor  and  assistant  editor."  Some 
time  in  the  latter  part  of  1865,  the  paper  was  bought  by  Dr.  F.  Cooley 
and  Lewellyn  Davis;  Davis  became  its  editor,  and  they  changed  the 
name  to 

Missouri  Valley  Register :— In  1867,  Samuel  S.  Earle  bought  Dr. 
Cooley's  interest.  In  1868  Col.  Mark  L.  DeMotte  bought  out  Mr.  Earle. 
In  1869  Edwin  Turner,  brother-in-law  to  Mr.  Earle,  bought  out  Mr. 
Davis.  During  the  state  election  campaign  of  1872,  the  Register  being 
the  republican  paper  and  the  Intelligencer  (edited  by  L.  W.  Groves),  the 
democratic  paper,  very  sharp  personalities  were  indulged  in  by  the  edi- 
tors on  both  sides.  This  resulted  in  personal  exchange  of  harsh  words 
between  Mr.  Turner  and  Mr.  Groves  when  they  met;  and  finally  Edwin 
Turner  shot  Groves  and  instantly  killed  him,  at  the  corner  of  Laurel  and 
North  streets,  on  November  8th,  1872.  Turner  immediately  gave  him- 
self up  to  the  sheriff,  Mr.  Taubman,  and  was  taken  to  Kansas  City  for 
confinement,  from  fear  that  Groves'  friends  would  break  into  the  jail  and 
lynch  Turner  if  he  was  kept  at  Lexington.  By  change  of  venue  his  trial 
was  had  at  Kansas  City;  and  after  lying  in  jail  there  thirteen  months  he 
was  finally  acquitted  on  the  ground  of  self  defense,  the  testimony  of  Dr. 
J.  F.  Atkinson  and  others  showing  that  Groves  had  a  cocked  pistol  in  his 
hand  when  he  fell.*  Edwin  Turner  still  owns  a  half  interest  in  the  prin- 
ting office.  DeMotte  &  Turner  dropped  the  words  "Missouri  Valley" 
from  the  name  of  the  paper,  and  called  it  Lexington  Register ',  the  name  it 
still  bears.  In  1874  Henry  W.  Turner  bought  Col.  DeMotte's  interest 
although  the  latter  continued  as  editor  until  1877.  During  the  winter  of 
1874_5  the  office  was  burned  out,  losing  everything;  but  the  paper  did 
not  miss  an  issue.  Two  numbers  were  printed  at  The  Caucasian  office, 
and  by  that  time  new  material  had  been  obtained  and  they  went  ahead  in 
their  own  office  again.  After  Col.  DeMotte  left,  in  1877,  the  paper  was 
edited  by  Edwin  Turner  and  Cam.  B.  Wilson,  until  August,  1881,  when 
W.  G.  Phetzing  took  the  editorial  chair.  The  paper  has  .always  been 
straight  republican  in  politics.  H.  W.  Turner,  one  of  its  proprietors,  was 
appointed  postmaster  of  Lexington,  in  April,  1877,  and  was  reappointed 

in  June,  1881. 

The  Lexington  Intelligencer,  the  organ  of  the  democracy,  was  estab- 
lished in  April,  1871,  and  was  founded  by  Judge  William  Young,  John 
T.  Smith  and  R.  B.  Vaughan,  with  the  first  named  as  its  editor.     Sooi 
after  its  commencement  Lafayette  W.  Groves  bought  out  Smith  and  sue 
ceed  to  the  editorship,  which  position  he  filled  until  his  tragic  death,  in 

*The  court  proceedings  and  testimony  of  witnesses  were  all  published  entire  in  the  Kan- 
sas City  papers  at  the  time. 


November,  1872.  During  the  fall  of  the  same  year,  John  S.  Davis  pur- 
chased an  interest  in  the  paper  and  became  its  publisher,  it  being  edited 
successively,  after  the  death  of  Mr.  Groves,  by  Michael  A.  Steele  and 
Henry  L.  Haynes,  until  its  consolidation  with  the  Caucasian,  as  previously 
stated,  in  1S75.  The  paper  is  now  owned  by  the  corporation  known  as 
the  "Intelligencer  Printing  Company,"  managed  by  Ethan  Allen  and  W. 
G.  Musgrove,  Jr.  Since  the  consolidation.  Capt.  A.  A.  Lesueur  has  filled 
the  editorial  chair  of  the  Intelligencer.  In  1879  Capt.  Lesueur  was  elected 
to  the  state  legislature  from  Lafayette  county,  and  at  this  writing  is  still 
the  incumbent.  In  May,  1881,  he  was  chosen  president  of  the  state  press 
association,  the  most  honorable  position  known  to  the  newspaper  frater- 
nity of  Missouri.  Under  his  management  the  Intelligencer  has  won  the 
reputation  of  being  the  best  local  weekly  newspaper  in  the  state.  The 
office  is  supplied  with  one  Cincinnati  cylinder  newspaper  press  and  two 
Gordon  jobbers,  all  run  by  steam.  The  origial  cost  of  their  printing 
establishment  as  it  now  stands  was  $15,000. 

The  Aullville  Times  made  its  appearance  in  1870,  edited  by  W.  H.  Win- 
frey, but  soon  ran  its  brief  career  of  a  year.  No  other  particulars 

The  Missouri  Thalbote,  a  German  newspaper,  was  established  in  Lex- 
ington in  April,  1871,  by  Wm.  P.  Beck.  It  was  at  first  edited  and  then 
owned  by  R.  Willibald,  Willibald  and  John  G.  Fisher,  and  afterward  by 
Egid  Kist.  Mr.  Kist  was  succeed  in  the  proprietorship  by  Daniel  Schle- 
gal,  who  in  turn  sold  out  to  Albert  AlthofF,  who  subsequently  removed 
the  paper  to  Concordia,  where  he  is  still  publishing  it.  The  paper  was 
originally  independent  in  politics,  but  afterwards  became  republican,  and 
so  continues. 

The  Dispatch. — Messrs.  Jack  Williams,  Ed.  Bowman  and  Cam.  B.  Wil- 
son conducted  with  success,  in  1873,  a  sprightly  little  daily,  named  as 
above,  which,  however,  succumbed  to  the  great  financial  panic  of  that 

The  Lafayette  County  Advance  was  established  at  Higginsville  July  9, 
1879,  by  George  E.  King,  of  St.  Joseph,  Mo.,  and  for  the  first  year  was 
conducted  by  Wm.  P.  King  and  H.  H.  Luce.  It  was  then  purchased  by 
H.  H.  Luce  and  Frank  L.  Houx,  who  conducted  the  business  about  four 
months.  Houx's  interest  was  then  bought  by  Mrs.  Frances  M.  Venable,  of 
Savannah,  Mo.,  the  mother  of  H.  H.  Luce,  and  is  now  owned  by  them 
jointly  and  conducted  by  Mr.  Luce  under  the  name  of  the  "Advance 
Printing  Company."  The  paper  is  democratic  in  politics,  but  more  espec- 
ially devoted  to  the  local  interests  of  Higginsville  and  Lafayette  county. 

Odessa  Herald. — Nov.  13,  1880,  the  first  number  of  this  paper  was 
issued  by  D.  Reddington,  formerly  of  the  Mexico  Herald.  It  is  a  weekly 
local  paper  devoted  to  the  interests  of  Odessa  and  vicinity. 



The  first  newspaper  ever  printed  in  Lafayette  county  was  issued  in 
1840  by  C.  Patterson;  but  we  were  unable  to  find  any  copies  of  this  paper 
of  earlier  date  than  August  1,  1843.  By  the  kindness  of  Ethan  Allen,  Esq., 
of  the  Lexington  Intelligencer,  we  had  access  to  a  file  of  Mr.  Patterson's 
paper  ( The  Lexington  Express),  in  part  for  the  years  1843  and  1844. 
These  are  the  oldest  news  sheets  of  this  county  known  to  be  in  existence. 
They  are  well  filled  with  politics,  general  news,  miscellany  and  advertise- 
ments, but  are  very  meager  in  the  matter  of  local  items.  The  paper  was 
devoted  to  the  interests  of  the  old  Whig  party,  then  under  the  national 
leadership  of  Henry  Clay,  of  Kenmcky.  The  Democrats  had  no  paper 
of  their  own  in  the  county  then,  and  so  were  at  the  mercy  of  their  oppo- 
nents so  far  as  any  publication  of  their  views  was  concerned ;  but  there  is 
an  occasional  notice  of  their  meetings,  which  serves  to  show  at  least  that 
they  had  an  organization  in  the  county,  although  very  greatly  in  the 
minority.  This  Whig  paper  almost  unvaryingly  calls  them  by  their  bur- 
lesque nickname  of  the  time,  "Locofoco." 

We  have  gleaned  from  these  old  papers  such  items  as  have  a  local  his- 
toric interest  for  citizens  of  this  city  and  county;  arranging  them  in  the 
order  of  their  date  of  publication : 

August  /,  184.3. — "The  steamboat  Edna  arrived  here*  yesterday,  in  2 
days,  15  hours  and  30  minutes  from  St.  Louis,  including  all  stoppages  for 
wood,  to  discharge  freight,  etc.  This  is  the  quickest  trip  ever  made  by  a 
steamboat  from  St.  Louis  to  Lexington,  if  we  remember  correctly." 

"On  the  Fourth  of  July,  at  Harrison ville,  Van  Buren  county,  Judge 
Ryland  addressed  the  temperance  society.  At  the  close  of  the  address, 
65  persons  subscribed  the  pledge,  and  during  that  evening,  5  others; 
making  in  all,  70  persons,  which  added  to  the  society  of  that  county, 
makes  the  number  about  200.  A  good  4th  of  July  movement,  this.  A 
temperance  society  was  organized  at  Clinton,  Henry  county,  during  the 
last  circuit  court.  Rev.  Wm.  Horn  addressed  the  meeting.  Judge 
Ryland  also  added  a  few  remarks,  after  which  84  persons  signed  the 
pledge.     Let  the  good  cause  advance." 

At  a  Whig  celebration  of  the  Fourth  of  July,  1843,  there  were  13 
toasts  given,  from  which  we  take  the  following: 

3d — The  Union — When  time  is  wound  up,  then,  and  not  till  then,  may 
its  days  be  numbered. 

9th —  Tom  Benton — In  politics  about  a  match  for  Joe  Smith  in  religion 

11th — The  Town  of  Lexington — Nature  has  done  her  part — let  the 
citizens  do  theirs,  and  be  satisfied  with  the  Dutchman's  one  per  cent 
instead  of  two. 


12th — Our  County — Rich,  beautiful  and  healthy — the  asparagus  bed  of 
Upper  Missouri. 

13th —  Woman — The  jack-screw  of  creation. 

August  8,  184.3. — The  population  of  Lexington,  at  the  present  time,  is 
computed  to  be  fully  2,000.  Some  think  it  is  more.  Every  boat  landing 
at  our  wharf  adds  its  quota  to  this  population.  The  accession  by  immi- 
gration, and  otherwise,  is  also  considerable.  We  have  no  doubt  but  that 
one  hundred  dwelling  houses  could  be  rented  to  new  comers  between  this 
time  and  Christmas  if  they  were  erected.  Nearly  every  house  in  the  town, 
suitable  for  a  residence,  is  now  occupied  and  more  demanded.  Improve- 
ments in  the  way  of  building,  we  are  pleased  to  say,  are  progressing 
finely,  if  we  take  into  consideration  the  tightness  of  the  times.  Thirty  or 
forty  buildings  (ware-houses,  stores,  shops  and  residences),  it  is  calculated 
will  be  erected  here  during  the  present  year.  Some  of  them  are  already 
completed,  others  under  way  and  others  under  contract. 

We  copy  the  following  from  the  same  issue  as  an  illustration  of  the  jokes 
the  whigs  had  on  the  democrats: 

"  A  gentleman  traveling  in  the  interior  of  our  state,  fell  in  with  a  rip- 
roarer  from  one  of  the  wolf-scalping  counties,  and  commenced  discussing 
politics  with  him.  He  inquired  who  he  was  in  favor  of  for  president? 
*  Why,'  says  wolf-scalp,  '  I  go  dead  for  democracy.'  '  Well,'  inquired  the 
stranger,  '  which  one  of  the  democracy?'  '  O,'  said  he,  'thar  ain't  but  one 
democracy,  and  that  thar's  Benton — he's  old  democracy;  the  other  you 
want  to  talk  about  is  spurious.  I  tell  you,  stranger,  thar  ain't  but  one 
genuine  democracy,  and  that's  the  old  gold-bug  of  Missouri;  he  hums  the 
right  tune  for  these  diggins.'  " 

August  22,  184.3. — The  Blue  River  Association  of  the  Baptist  church, 
commences  its  session  for  the  present  year  in  this  place  on  Saturday,  the 
9th  day  of  September. 

The  Presbytery  for  the  western  portion  of  this  state  will  meet  in  this 
place  on  Thursday  the  14th  day  of  September,  and  remain  in  session  four 
or  five  days. 

The  conference  of  the  Methodist  E.  Church  for  the  state  of  Missouri, 
will  convene  in  this  place  on  Wednesday,  the  27th  day  of  September  next. 

There  is  but  little  doubt  that  the  western  counties  of  this  state  are  now 
more  or  less  infested  with  horse  thieves.  The  horses,  as  soon  as  stolen, 
are  run  off  towards  Texas  and  Santa  Fe. 

September  3,  184^. — The  patent  hemp  brake,  owned  by  Mr.  Poyntz,  is 
now  fitted  up  in  this  place,  and  is  to  be  put  in  operation  every  Wednesday 
and  Saturday  afternoon,  if  the  days  are  fair,  for  the  inspection  of  the 
hemp-growers  of  upper  Missouri.  The  farmers  are  invited  to  come  in 
and  examine  said  machine. 

The  fourth  electoral  district  is  composed  of  the  counties  of  Jackson, 


Lafayette,  Saline,  Cooper,  Miller,  Morgan,  Pettis,  Johnson,  Henry,  St. 
Clair,  Van  Buren  and  Bates. 

September  12,  184.3. — We  have  before  us  an  odd  specimen  of  a  beet  and 
potatoe  combined.  It  is  in  the  form  of  a  Mercer  potatoe,  and  has  the 
color  and  smell  of  a  blood  beet.  It  had  no  top,  and  grew  in  a  hill  with 
beets  and  potatoes.  It  grew  in  the  garden  of  our  townsman,  Mr.  Thomas 

The  St.  Charles  Advertiser  says:  "The  U.  S.  snag  boat,  "Sampson," 
has  passed  up  the  Missouri  river,  drawing  out  many  formidable  snags  on 
its  route.  It  is  a  magnificent  sight  to  see  this  river  monster  take  hold  of 
a  large  walnut  tree  six  feet  in  diameter  at  the  root  and  more  than  one 
hundred  feet  long,  and  fifty  or  sixty  feet  of  which  have  been  deeply 
imbedded  in  the  mud  for  five  hundred  years,  and  draw  it  out  with  more 
ease  than  a  dentist  extracts  a  tooth ;  yet,  such  is  its  daily  business.  The 
largest  sycamores,  walnuts  and  cottonwood  are  pulled  out,  sawed  and 
set  afloat  in  the  stream.  Many  large  trees  that  appear  to  have  been 
imbedded  for  many  hundred  years,  are  as  sound  as  when  they  first  fell. 
These  boats  should  be  kept  in  constant  operation." 

September  26,  1843. — The  clerks  of  the  steamers  Lexington,  John 
Aull,  and  lone,  are  each  entitled  to  our  thanks  for  late  papers  and  other 

October  3,  184.3. — The  new  steamer,  Lexington,  arrived  at  our  landing 
on  the  24th  ult.  She  was  detained  several  weeks  on  her  way  from  Pitts- 
burg, by  the  extreme  low  stage  of  water  in  the  Ohio,  for  the  last  two 
months.  At  last,  however,  the  boat  effected  her  escape,  and  made  her 
way  westward  in  good  plight.  In  the  name  of  the  citizens  of  this  place, 
we  tender  to  Capt.  Littleton  their  thanks  for  the  compliment  he  has  con- 
ferred on  us,  by  giving  his  boat  the  name  of  our  town.  May  success 
attend  the  "Lexington,  Mo." 

November  ?,  1843,^- The  boats  arriving  at  our  wharf  from  the  Ohio 
river  are  crowded  with  emigrants  from  the  older  States,  all  seeking  a 
better  home  in  Missouri.  So  also  an  immense  immigration  overland 
passes  through  our  streets  everj'  day,  destined  for  western  Missouri.  Let 
them  come.  There  is  room  and  abundance  of  everything;  and  we  know 
that  they  will  add  greatly  to  the  whig  vote  in  November. 

We  copy  the  following  to  show  who  were  leading  citizens  and  partisans 
at  that  time: 

Pursuant  to  a  previous  notice,  a  large  number  of  the  whigs  of  Lafay- 
ette county  assembled  in  the  Christian  church  in  Lexington,  on  the  6th 
day  of  November,  1843,  for  the  purpose  of  appointing  delegates  to  the 
district  convention  for  the  4th  electoral  district  in  Missouri.  The  meeting 
was  organized  by  calling  Judge  Young  Ewing  to  the  chair,  and  appoint- 
ing C.  Patterson  secretary.     By  request,  Jno.  P.  Campbell,  Esq.,  arose 


and  explained  in  a  brief  but  eloquent  manner,  the  object  of  the  meeting,, 
urging  diligence  and  energy  among  its  members  and  the  friends  of  the 
whig  cause  throught  the  Slate  and  Union. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  James  Aull,  the  chair  appointed  a  committe  of  seven, 
one  from  each  municipal  township  of  the  county,  to  draft  a  preamble  and 
resolutions  expressive  of  the  sentiments  of  the  meeting  and  its  purposes. 
Whereupon  the  following  gentlemen  were  selected  by  the  chair  to  consti- 
tute said  committee,  viz:  James  Aull,  Wm.  Simpson,  Col.  T.  M.  Ewing, 
Strother  Renick,  A.  W.  Ridings,  W.  H.  Anderson,  and  B.  F.  Tantis. 
On  motion,  J.  P.  Campbell,  Esq.,  was  added  to  the  committee. 
During  a  brief  absence  of  the  committee,  the  meeting  was  addressed 
by  E.  S.  Burden  and  P.  D.  Hockaday,  Esqs.,  and  Major  S.  T.  NeilL 
[Resolutions  omitted.] 

The  chair  appointed  the  following  gentlemen,  in  pursuance  of  the  res- 
olution above  reported  as  delegates  to  the  district  convention  to  be  held  in 
Warrensburg  on  the  20th  day  of  the  present  month,  viz: 

Clay  township — Col.  W.  Y.  C.  Ewing,  Strother  Renick,  Fountain 
Livesay,  James  Pearson,  Dr.  Wm.  Ward,  Peter  Wolfe,  Wm.  L.  Evans, 
Jas.  W.  Renick,  Judge  Nath.  Price,  John  D.  Richardson,  Reuben  E.  San- 
ders, and  Jas.  M.  Halloway. 

Lexington  township — John  P.  Campbell,  P.  D.  Hockaday,  Geo.  H. 
Gordon,  H.  Lightner,  C.  Patterson,  H.  C.  Boteler,  Jas.  Aull,  Wm.  Mus- 
grove,  Dr.  Letton,  B.  Sanders,  C.  Osborn,  H.  Smock,  and  on  motion  the 
chair  was  added  to  the  list. 

Dover  towship  —  Dr.  Jas.  Warren,  Geo.  W.  Hillman,  Dr.  J.  B.  Vivion, 
M.  W.  Obannon,  W.  Hall,  John  G.  Ridge,  Thos.  J.  White,  John  Tearby, 
James  S.  Plattenburg,  and  A.  S.  Harris. 

Sniabar  township— James  Walton,  James  W.  Manion,  Alex.  Cheatham, 
Wm.  Bullard,  Archibald  Scott,  and  A.  W.  Ridings. 

Davis  township — James  Drummond,  S.  T.  Neill,  Joseph  H.  Bledsoe, 
Nathan  Corder,  Geo.  B.  Warren  and  Alfred  Nicholas. 

Freedom  township — W.  H.  Anderson,  John  Walker,  James  Atterburg, 
T.  J.  Hawkins,  A.  Hargrove,  and  H.  C.  Davis. 

Washington  township— Capt.  Wm.  Bryant,  Major  J.  H.  Fulkerson, 
Col.  Wm.  P.  Walton,  N.  W.  Letton,  Major  L.  H.  Renick,  and  Col.  T. 
M.  Ewing. 

On  motion  of  Col.  T.  M.  Ewing,  Messrs.  Jas.  Aull,  John  P.  Campbell, 
John  T.  Richardson,  Henry  C.  Boteler,  V.  Burgess,  and  Arnold  T.  Win- 
sor,  were  appointed  delegates  from  this  county  to  the  Young  Men's  Con- 
vention to  be  held  in  Baltimore  in  May  next. 

November  7,  184.3. — Distances  from  St.  Louis  to  places  on  the  Missouri 
River:  From  St.  Louis  to  Fine's  Landing,  (a  few  miles  above  the  present 
town  of  Waverly)  329;  Dover  Landing,  (about  two  miles  below  present 


town  of  Berlin)  334;  Lexington,  344;  Wellington,  350;  Wolfs  Landing, 
359;  Napoleon,  375. 

December  ip,  184.3. — The  annual  meeting  of  the  Lexington  Temperance 
Society,  will  be  held  on  the  25th  inst.,  (Christmas  Day,)  at  the  Baptist 
church  in  this  place.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Ligon  is  expected  to  address  the 

December  23,  184.3. — Last  Monday  about  100  wagons  came  into  this 
place,  loaded  with  the  produce  of  the  surrounding  country. 

Never,  since  we  have  noticed  the  seasons  and  their  changes,  has  a 
milder  and  more  agreeable  December  passed  over  our  heads — the  weather 
for  three  weeks  has  been  delightful.  The  sun,  to-day,  is  shining  bright 
and  clear,  and  under  foot  the  earth  is  dry  and  dusty.  How  long  this  fine 
weather  will  last  is  another  matter.  The  river  is  now  low,  but  we  think 
there  is  water  enough  for  the  smaller  boats. 

February  10,  1844. — Notice  is  hereby  given  to  the  citizens  of  the  north 
side  of  the  Missouri  River,  that  an  arrangement  has  been  entered  into 
with  the  Messrs.  Pomeroys,  of  the  Lexington  Ferry,  by  which  all  traders 
from  the  north  side,  together  with  their  produce  and  teams,  will  be  crossed 
and  recrossed  free  of  charge  for  twelve  months.  The  only  items  excluded 
under  this  contract,  are  fire  wood,  rails  and  loose  cattle. 

The  subject  of  debate  for  the  Lexington  Lyceum  next  Tuesday  even- 
ing, will  be:  "  Should  the  fine  imposed  on  Gen.  Jackson  by  Judge  Hall  at 
New  Orleans,  be  refunded."  The  ladies  and  gentlemen  are  respectfully 
invited  to  attend. 

April  6,  1844. — The  logs  for  the  "  Cabin  "  have  been  cut,  and  arrange- 
ments made  for  their  delivery  on  the  bank  on  the  upper  end  of  Water 
street.  Due  notice  will  be  given  of  the  "  raising."  Subscriptions  to  meet 
the  expenses  in  building  the  "  Cabin,"  making  the  "  Flag,"  and  procuring 
a  "  cannon,"  are  still  wanted.  [A  log  cabin  was  the  peculiar  emblem  of 
the  Whig  party]. — Historian. 

The  materials  for  the  new  Presbyterian  church  are  being  prepared,  and 
the  body  of  the  building  will  be  completed  during  the  coming  summer. 

Houses  are  now  in  demand,  and  we  know  of  no  point  on  the  Missouri 
where  capitalists  could  make  more  profitable  investments  in  the  line  of 
building.     Every  store,  house  and  dwelling  in  the  place  is  now  occupied. 

A  stage  passenger  yesterday  morning,  direct  from  Jefferson  City,  brings 
the  intelligence  that  the  Locofoco  Convention,  which  assembled  there  on 
the  1st,  have  nominated  John  C.  Edwards,  Esq.,  for  Governor,  and  Col. 
James  Young,  of  this  county,  for  Lieutenant-Governor. 

Last  week  upwards  of  $11,000  in  cash  was  paid  out  for  hemp  by  the 
merchants  of  this  place;  and  for  this  week  we  are  within  bounds  in  stat- 
ing that  $10,000  have  been  paid.     The  highest  notch  to  which  the  article 


has  gone  since  the  opening  of  navigation,  was  $3.50.      We  quote  for  this 
day,  a  good  article  of  hemp  at  $3.37i;  for  second  rate  $3.25. 

April  ij,  184.4.. — We  are  authorized  to  announce  Lillburn  W.  Bogg, 
Esq.,  as  a  candidate  for  the  office  of  Governor  of  the  State  or  Missouri,  at 
the  approaching  August  election. 

April  20,  1844. — We  stated  a  short  time  since,  that  a  deputation  from 
the  Grand  Lodge  of  Missouri,  I.  O.  O.  F.,  was  expected  to  visit  this 
place,  to  establish  a  lodge  of  the  Order,  &c.  This  duty,  we  understand, 
was  performed  on  last  Thursday  evening  by  William  S.  Stewart,  of  St. 
Louis,  Deputy  Grand  Sire  of  the  United  States  for  this  district. 

May  7,  184.4. — The  steamer  Western  Belle  lay  at  this  landing  all  day 
yesterday,  receiving  freight.  We  are  informed  that  between  120  and  130 
tons  of  hemp  were  shipped  on  board  of  her  to  St.  Louis  by  one  house. 

The  first  number  of  the  Harry  of  the  West  was  issued  last  Friday. 

The  new  steam  flouring  mill  recently  erected  in  this  place,  by  Messrs. 
"Waddell  and  Hudson,  we  understand,  will  commence  operation  about  the 
first  of  July.     The  mill  contains  four  run  of  French  burs. 

May  21,  1844. — The  steamer  Western  Belle  will  take  the  Lafayette 
county  delegation  to  St.  Louis  and  back,  and  board  while  in  St.  Louis,  for 
six  dollars  each,  the  boat  to  furnish  a  good  band  of  music  and  a  gun. 

The  army  worm  is  now  doing  much  damage  to  the  growing  crops  and 
gardens  in  this  vicinity.  They  are  very  severe  on  the  gardens  in  this 
place.  The  only  remedy  for  them  is  a  change  of  weather;  dry  weather 
and  a  warm  sun  will  destroy  them.  Much  hemp  will  have  to  be  resown 
and  corn  replanted. 

May  28,  1844. — MR-  Patterson:  Please  publish  the  following  list  of 
names  of  the  ladies  who  subscribed  to  the  Whig  Banner:  Mesdames  L. 
Stratton,  Boulware,  E.  Bullard,  Bliss,  Alvin  Chadwick,  George  Thomas, 
Eliza  Robinson,  E.  Wiley,  Russell,  Andsrson,  Bennett,  Whelan,  H.  Chad- 
wick, Martha  Royle,  Fitzpatrick,  Fall,  Stone,  Ligon,  Aull,  Henderson,  A. 
Mundy,  R.  H  Renick,  Lucinda  Day,  M.  Soister,  Silver,  N.  Waddell,  B. 
G.  Chinn,  M.  M.  Hockiday,  Warren,  Wentworth,  J.  P.  Bowman,  S.  P. 
Patterson,  M.  Spratt,  Mary  Gaunt,  Georgietta  Gaunt,  Locke,  E.  C.  Wal- 
lace, Mary  Donohoe,  Catlett,  Sawyer,  M.  B.  Waddell,  Asbury,  Mary 
Stone,  Abigail  Warder,  Ellen  Waddell,  Sarah  Jones,  M.  B.  Williams, 
Pomeroy,  Susan  Waddell,  H.  Bledsoe,  Misses  J.  Hale,  Elizabeth  Aull,  C. 
Wilson,  K.  M.  Renick,  E.  A.  Waddell,  M.  A.  Buckner,  A.  G.  Wallace, 
M.  Royce,  S.  S.  Blackwell,  Lavina  Letton,  Ann  Asbury,  Scott,  Mary 

yum  4,  1844. — We  are  pleased  to  say  that  several  new  buildings  are 
now  under  way  in  this  place.  We  hope  the  improvements  will  advance 
sufficiently  to  supply  the  demand  for  houses. 

Lexington  races — Second  Day —Two  mile  heats;  purse,  $200,  won  by 


James  Shy's  gr.  c.  Billy  Tonson,  four  years  old,  by  Mons.  Tonson,  beat- 
ing Wendover,  by  Medoc,  Magdalen,  by  Medoc,  Isola,  by  Bertrand,  and 
distancing  three  others.     Time,  3:58,  3:53£ 

Third  Day — Mile  heats ;  won  by  Farris'  ch.  f .  Liz.  Tillett,  three  years 
old,  by  Frank,  beating  b.  c,  by  Gray  Eagle.     Time,  1 :51,  1:54^. 

Fourth  Day — Two  mile  heats;  sweepstakes,  $50  entrance;  silver 
pitcher,  valued  at  $50,  added.  Won  by  J.  R.  Smith's  ch.  c.  Gold  Eagle, 
beating  Edward  Eagle,  by  Grey  Eagle,  and  distancing  two  others.  Time, 
3:58,  3:50. 

June  ii,  184.4.. — [This  paper  contains  an  account  of  a  grand  rally  of  all 
the  Clay  clubs  in  the  state  at  St.  Louis,  on  June  4,  1844.  It  was  the 
grandest  thing  of  the  kind  that  had  ever  been  held  in  the  state  up  to  that 
time.  Twenty-one  organizations  with  banners  took  part  in  the  proces- 
sion. The  St.  Louis  Republican  has  this  to  say  of  the  Lafayette  county 
club's  banner:  "  This  banner  is  deserving  of  more  than  a  passing  notice. 
It  was  worked  by  the  fair  ladies  of  Lexington,  and  by  them  presented  to 
the  club,  who  bore  it  in  the  procession.  The  whole  banner  was  got  up 
with  a  taste  characteristic  of  their  ladies,  and  their  handiwork  in  this,  as  in 
«very  similar  case,  bore  off  the  palm.  The  Lexington  Banner  was  unan- 
imously pronounced  the  most  beautiful  in  the  procession." 



Wetmore's  Gazetted-  of  Missouri  was  published  in  1837,  (printed  by 
Harper  &  Brothers,  N.  Y.,)  and  it  contains  some  items  of  historic  interest 
for  Lafayette  county  which  we  quote.  / 

"Five  saw  mills  and  five  gristmills  are  driven  by  water  power,  in  the 
county  of  Lafayette."  The  region  about  Dover  village  was  called  Tare 
Bean  (beautiful  land)  grove;  in  this  grove  was  a  grist  mill  driven  by  the 
water  from  a  large  spring,  but  owner's  name  is  not  given.  At  Lexington 
there  was  a  United  States  land  office,  and  the  author  further  says: 

Lexington  is  one  of  the  towns  from  which  outfits  are  made  in  mer- 
chandise, mules,  oxen,  and  wagons  for  the  Santa  Fe  or  New  Mexico 
trade.  The  fur  traders  who  pass  to  the  mountain  by  land  make  this  town 
a  place  of  rendezvous,  and  frequently  are  going  out  and  coming  in  with 
their  wagons  and  packed  mules,  at  the  same  period  of  going  and  coming 
that  is  chosen  by  the  Mexican  traders.  Lexington  is  therefore,  occasion- 
ally, a  thoroughfare  of  traders  of  great  enterprise,  and  caravans  of  infinite 
value.  The  dress  and  arms  of  the  traders,  trappers,  and  hunters  of  these 
caravans,  and  caparison  of  the  horses  and  mules  they  ride,  present  as 
great  diversity  as  the  general  resurrection  itself  of  all  nations  and  ages  can 
promise  for  the  speculations  of  the  curious. 


Wetmore's  book  contained  a  table  of  the  population  of  the  state  by 
counties,  from  which  we  quote: 

Lafayette  county  population  in  1821,  1340;  1830,  2912;  1836,  4683. 

Lexington  is  given  as  319  miles  bv  river  from  St.  Louis.  Fine's  Land- 
ing  (in  Lafavette  county,)  is  put  at  15  miles  below  Lexington.  There 
were  at  this  time  only  three  postoffices  in  the  county: 

Lexington,  James  Aull,  postmaster;  Dover,  Benjamin  F.  Yates,  post- 
master; Pleasant  Grove,  W.  H.  Ewing,  postmaster. 

LAFAYETTE    COUNTY     IN    THE    MEXICAN    vVAR — 1846. 

In  May,  1846,  a  company  was  formed  at  Lexington  to  join  Col.  Doni- 
phan's regiment,  and  was  mustered  as  company  B.  The  following  were 
the  men  from  Lafayette  county,  and  their  present  locations  are  as  follows:    \ 

Capt.  William  Walton,  deceased;  1st  Lieut.,  Booth  Barnett,  deceased; 

2d  Lieut., Kirkpatrick,  killed  at  the  battle  of  Sacramento;  1st  Ser., 

Thomas  Hinkel,  unknown;  H.  J.  Mallory,  lives  in  Dover  township;  G.  W. 
Vivion,  lives  in  Davis  township,  at  Higginsville;  Baxter  D.  Kavanagh, 
lives  in  ray  county;  Isaac  Braden,  lives  in  Clay  township;  George  King, 
deceased;  John  Boykakin,  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Bracito;  John  Ridge, 
deceased;  Wm.  Osborn,  deceased;  B.  W.  Coffee,  deceased;  Jacob  Ridge, 
deceased;  Wm.  Cromwell,  lives  at  Fort  Worth,  Texas;  Upton  Winsor, 
deceased;  Jere  Bear,  lives  in  Kansas  City;  John  Musick,  deceased;  W.  B. 
Tyrce,  deceased;  H.  M.  Bledsoe,  lives  in  Cass  county,  was  commander  of 
"Bledsoe's  Battery,"  so  famous  in  the-late  war;  Wm.  Nelson,  lives  in  Car- 
roll county;  Joseph  Chinn,  jailor  at  Lexington;  Buck  Chinn,  deceased; 
Alex.  Green,  resides  in  Saline  county;  Daniel  Horn,  deceased;  Thomas 
Hughes,  deceased;  John  McDougal,now  resides  in  Dover  township;  Wm. 
Hale,  lives  at  Lexington ;  Wm.  Chancellor,  lives  at  Lexington. 

Col.  Doniphan's  command  consisted  of  1,000  mounted  men;  they 
marched  over  land  from  Fort  Leavenworth,  by  the  way  of  Sante  Fe,  to 
the  city  of  Mexico.  They  took  with  them  quite  a  number  of  cattle  and 
sheep.  The  Indians  kept  up  a  continuous  raid  upon  them  to  get  posses- 
sion ol  their  stock,  and  at  one  time  stole  away  1,000  sheep;  they  pursued 
the  Indians  for  three  days,  but  failed  to  recover  the  mutton.  They  were 
at  the  battles  of  Bracito  and  Sacramento,  and  numerous  skirmishes  on  the 
march.  At  the  battle  of  Sacramento  a  Major  Campbell  of  Lafayette 
county  was  with  them,  though  not  belonging  to  any  command.  He 
appears  to  have  been  in  Mexico  on  some  trading  enterprise.  Col.  Doni- 
phan's regiment  received  very  high  praise  from  Gen.  Taylor,  and  also 
from  Gen.  Wool  for  its  gallant  action  and  brilliant  success  at  Sacramento, 
part  of  which  of  course  belonged  to  our  Lafayette  men.  [See  article 
headed  "Lafayette  men's  first  battle,"  1861,  for  an  account  of  a  famous 
cannon  captured  at  Sacramento  by  Col.  Doniphan.]     There  was  a  com- 


pany  of  ninety  men  from  Saline  county.  When  the  regiment's  time  (one 
year)  was  out,  a  detail  was  made  of  three  men  from  each  company,  30  in 
all,  to  bring  back  their  horses,  numbering  about  700,  over  land  from 
Camargo  to  Missouri,  while  the  rest  took  steamboat  at  New  Orleans, 
where  they  were  mustered  out,  and  came  up  the  river.  The  Lafayette 
men  who  came  over  land  with  the  horses,  were  Vivion,  Braden  and  Kav- 


James  Aull  of  Lexington  went  out  with  Col.  Doniphan's  regiment,  not 
in  the  capacity  of  sutler,  as  has  been  believed  by  many,  but  merely  as  a 
private  trader.  While  the  troops  were  at  Chihuahua  (pronounced  she- 
wah-waJi)  he  opened  a  store;  and  when  the}^  moved  on  to  join  Gen.  Tay- 
lor the  Lexington  men  advised  Mr.  Aull  not  to  stay  back  there  alone,  for 
the  Mexicans  would  kill  him;  but  he  decided  to  take  the  risk,  and  did 
stay,  and  in  a  short  time  the  Mexicans  did  kill  him.  This  was  in  the 
spring  of  1847. 

events  in  1847. 

February  3,  1847,  John  F.  Ryland,  Street  Hale,  Wm.  T.  Wood,  Hen- 
derson Young,  Wm.  Early  and  James  Crump  were  appointed  commis- 
sioners to  propose  a  plan  for  a  new  court  house  to  be  erected  in  the  city 
of  Lexington. 

February  2,  1847,  John  Payne  was  appointed  overseer  for  a  road  in 
Freedom  and  Davis  townships,  commencing  at  Christopher  Mulky's  sign 
board,  and  running  by  Nathan  Corder's  saw  mill,  and  intersecting  the 
salt  works  road  at  the  northwest  corner  of  Wm.  C.  Barns'  farm.  This 
shows  the  rude  style  of  waymarks  and  boundaries  at  that  time. 

The  following  item  will  have  a  historic  interest  to  the  younger  class 
now,  and  to  future  citizens  of  the  county:  January  4,  1847,  the  county 
court  makes  this  record:  "  Now  at  this  day  comes  Harriet,  a  free  mulatto 
woman,  wife  of  Henry  Dorsey,  a  free  mulatto  man,  and  makes  applica- 
tion to  the  court  here  for  a  license  to  reside  within  this  state;  and  it  appear- 
ing to  the  satisfaction  of  the  court  here,  that  said  Harriet  is  of  the  class  of 
persons  who  may  obtain  such  license.  It  is  therefore  ordered  that  a 
license  be  issued  authorizing  the  said  Harriet,  (aged  about  32  years,  five 
feet  and  one  inch  high,  with  a  scar  in  the  palm  of  the  left  hand,)  and  also 
the  two  children  of  the  said  Harriet  and  said  Henry  Dorsey,  to-wit: 
Charlotte  Ann,  aged  about  13  years,  and  Ellen  Chester,  4  years  old,  to 
reside  within  this  state  as  long  as  she,  the  said  Harriet  shall  be  of  good 
behavior,  and  no  longer.  " 


The  river  was  high,  a  good  deal  of  ice  floating,  and  the  steamboat 
"  Saluda,"  with  a  heavy  load  of  freight  and  crowded  with  Mormon  emi- 
grant passengers,  had  tried  in  vain  for  two  or  three  days  to  stem  the  cur- 


rent  and  get  away  from  Lexington.  On  Friday,  April  9th,  the  captain 
determined  to  make  another  desperate  effort  to  go  on  up  the  river,  and 
ordered  an  extra  pressure  of  steam  to  be  carried.  About  9  o'clock  the 
signal  was  given  to  start,  and  at  the  second  revolution  of  the  wheel  both 
boilers  burst  at  once,  blowing  the  boat  all  to  slivers  forward  of  the  wheel- 
house,  so  that  she  sunk  immediately.  The  captain  and  clerk  were  blown 
half  way  up  the  bluff,  and  two  pilots  as  far  the  other  way  out  into  the 
river  and  instantly  killed.  The  boat's  iron  safe,  weighing  about  six  hun- 
dred pounds,  with  a  dog  chained  to  it,  was  thrown  clear  over  the  levee 
warehouse  and  part  way  up  the  bluff.  Eighty-three  persons  were  buried 
at  Lexington  from  this  wreck,  and  it  was  never  known  how  many  more 
bodies  were  lost  in  the  river. 

EVENTS  in   1856. 

This'  was  the  historic  year  of  the  Kansas  troubles,  which  form  a 
marked  period  in  Lafayette  county  history.  In  August  of  this  year,  a 
handbill,  headed  "  War  in  Kansas,"  and  calling  a  meeting  of  citizens  of 
Lafayette  county  at  Lexington,  August  20,  1856,  was  widely  circulated. 
It  contained  about  one  and  a  half  coumns  of  ordinary  newspaper  matter, 
reciting  many  bad  things  the  abolitionists  were  reported  to  have  done  in 
Kansas;  and  then  made  a  strong  appeal  for  volunteers,  from  which  we 

Now,  men  of  Lafayette,  what  will  you  do?  Will  you  stand  still  and  see 
the  enemy  approach,  step  by  step,  until  he  stands  upon  your  door-sill  and 
finds  you  unarmed,  or  will  you  go  out  to  meet  him,  and  drive  him  from 
your  soil.  We  have  stood  still  long  enough.  The  time  has  come  when 
we  must  do  something  to  protect  our  firesides.  *  *.  We  must  have 
men  to  go  to  the  territorv  immediately,  or  all  will  be  lost.  The  intention  of 
the  abolitionist  is  to  drive  us  from  the  territory  and  carry  the  next  election 
and  get  possession  of  the  reins  of  government.  This  we  must  not  sub- 
mit to.  If  we  do,  Kansas  is  lost  to  the  south  forever,  and  our  slaves  in 
upper  Missouri  will  be  useless  to  us,  and  our  homes  must  be  given  up  to 
the  abolition  enemy.  Come,  then,  to  the  rescue!  Up,  men  of  Lafyette! 
Meet  at  Lexington  on  Wednesday,  at  12  o'clock,  August  20.  Bring  your 
horses  with  you,  your  guns  and  your  clothing — all  ready  to  go  on  to 
Kansas.  *  *.  We  want  two  hundred  to  three  hundred  men  from  this 
county.  Jackson,  Johnson,  Platte,  Clay,  Ray,  Saline,  Carroll,  and  other 
counties  are  now  acting  in  this  matter.  All  of  them  will  send  up  a  com- 
pany of  men,  and  there  will  be  a  concert  of  action.  New  Santa  Fe,  in 
Jackson  county,  will  be  the  place  of  rendezvous  for  the  whole  crowd,  and 
our  motto  this  time  will  be  'no  quarter;'  etc.,  etc. 

This  was  signed  by  twelve  well  known  citizens.  The  meeting  was 
held,  and  a  company  sent.  This  is  a  historic  incident  which  shows  the 
feeling  and  action  of  Lafayette  county  at  that  time;  a  copy  of  the  original 
handbill  referred  to  being  before  us.     Persons  wishing  to  investigate  the 



subject  further,  in  its  political  relations  and  aspects,  will  find  the  pro- 
slavery  or  southern  view,  in  Pollard's  "  Lost  Cause"  chapter  IV;  the 
anti-slavery  or  northern  view,  in  Greeley's  "  American  Conflict"  Vol.  1, 
chapter  XVII;  the  Missouri  statesman's  view,  in  Col.  Benton's  "  Thirty 
years  in  the  United  States  Senate"  Vol.  II. 


It  would  take  a  volume  by  itself  to  give  all  the  official  orders,  proclama- 
tions, and  other  public  documents  affecting  Lafayette  county,  during  the 
war  time.  But  a  few  pertinent  extracts  will  serve  to  show  some  impor- 
tant features  of  the  situation.  On  June  23,  1862,  Gen.  Schofield  issued 
his  general  order  No.  3,  from  which  we  quote: 

II.  The  sum  of  $5,000  for  every  soldier  or  union  citizen  killed;  from 
$1,000  to  $5,000  for  every  one  wounded;  and  the  full  value  of  all  prop- 
erty destroyed  or  stolen,  by  guerrillas,  will  be  assessed  and  collected  from 
the  rebels  and  rebel  sympathizers  residing  in  the  vicinity  of  the  place  where 
the  act  is  committed. 

The  order  provided  that  the  money  collected  in  such  cases  should  be 
paid  to  the  legal  heirs,  or  els^  the  person  suffering  the  injury  or  loss. 
Also,  that  division  commanders  should  appoint  a  civil  board  in  each 
county,  to  "  consist  of  not  less  than  three  members,  who  will  be  selected 
from  the  most  respectable  and  reliable  citizens  of  the  county,  who  will 
take  an  oath  to  discharge  faithfully  and  impartially  all  the  duties  required 
of  them  by  this  order."  Then  each  board  must  "  proceed  to  enroll  all 
the  residents  and  property-holders  of  the  county  who  have  actively  aided 
or  encouraged  the  present  rebellion."  If  an  assessment  was  made,  and 
not  paid  within  the  time  allowed  by  the  board,  then  property  was  to  be 
seized  and  sold  till  the  amount  was  realized.     Another  paragraph  said: 

In  making  an  assessment  of  damages,  the  Board  will  be  governed  by 
the  wealth  of  an  individual,  and  his  known  activity  in  aiding  the  rebellion 
— particularly  in  countenancing  and  encouraging  guerrillas,  robbers,  and 
plunderers  of  the  loyal  people.  Each  county  Board  will  keep  an  accurate 
record  of  its  proceedings,  and  will  send  a  duly  certified  copy  of  each  case 
to  District  Headquarters. 

It  was  more  than  a  month  after  Gen.  Schofield  had  issued  the  above 
order  before  it  was  enforced  in  Lafayette  county.  This  county  was  then 
embraced  in  the  Central  Division,  under  Gen.  Totten,  with  headquarters 
at  Jefferson  City.  And  on  Aug.  6th  he  issued  ;'  Special  Orders  No.  140," 
in  which  he  said:  "The  following  named  gentlemen,  citizens  of  Lafayette 
county,  are  appointed  and  hereby  announced  as  the  '  County  Board  '  for 
said  county,  to  wit.:  R.  C.  Vaughan,  Wm.  Spratt, Eldridge  Burden,  John 
F.  Neill,  John  F.  Eneberg."  They  were  required  immediately  to  "  meet 
in  Lexington  and  organize  for  business."  And  all  officers  and  soldiers, 
whether  of  U.  S.   army  or  state   militia,  were  "  ordered  to  render  said 


Board  protection  and  assistance  in  the  execution  of  their  duties,  whenever 
and  wherever  called  upon." 

At  that  time  Col.  Dan.  Huston,  Jr.,  was  in  command  of  Lexington  post; 
and, on  August  Sth  he  issued  his  "  General  Orders  No.  13,"  saying:  "  All 
persons  in  the  county  of  Lafayette  who  have  suffered  any  loss  of  property, 
or  injury  to  person,  since  the  date  of  said  Orders,  (Gen.  Schofield's  Order 
No.  3,  above  cited,)  or  may  hereafter  sustain  injury  or  loss  of  property, 
are  hereby  notified  to  report  the  circumstances  of  their  several  cases  to 
these  headquarters,  in  order  that  assessments  may  be  made  to  indemnify 

The  next  day,  August  9th,  the  county  Board  published  a  card,  with 
their  names  signed  to  it,  announcing  their  appointment  as  such  Board,  and 
that  they  intended  "  promptly  and  fearlessly  to  discharge  their  duty 
without  favor  or  affection." 

May  6,  1862,  Capt.  N.  Cole,  then  commanding  Lexington  post,  had 
issued  a  circular,  composed  of  extracts  from  sundry  general  orders,  to 
show  the  people  what  the  military  were  authorized  or  required  to  do. 
From  this  document  we  quote  a  few  points:  "  Treasonable  language  is  to 
be  punished,  upon  trial  and  sentence  by  a  military  commission,  under  the 
charge  of  '  encouraging  rebellion  against  the  government  of  the  United 
States,  while  enjoying  its  protection.'  Neither  sex  nor  age  (after  the  age 
of  legal  responsibility)  will  be  overlooked.  All  must  be  taught  to  obey 
and  respect  the  laws  of  the  land,  or  submit  to  punishment  for  their  dis- 
loyalty, whether  it  consist  in  word,  act  or  deed."  Any  who  had  been  in 
arms  under  Gen.  Price  but  had  returned  to  their  homes,  were  required  to 
"  surrender  themselves  to  the  military  authority,  and  give  bonds  for  their 
future  loyal  conduct,  or  they  will  be  arrested  and  tried  as  spies,  being 
within  the  lines  of  our  army,  and  in  citizen's  dress;"  etc.,  etc.  (These 
were  from  Orders  issued  by  Gen.  Halleck.) 

June  18th,  Col.  Dan  Huston,  Jr.,  being  in  command  at  Lexington  at  this 
date,  issued  his  General  Orders  No.  9,  in  which  he  notifies  all  who  have 
been  in  arms  against  the  U.  S.  government,  to  report  themselves  to  the 
provost  marshal  and  take  the  oath  of  loyalty  and  give  bond  for  their 
future  good  conduct,  or  "  they  will  be  considered  as  spies,"  etc. 

And  he  says  further — 

"  III.  All  bushwhackers  or  guerrillas  taken  with  arms  in  their  hands  or 
without  arms,  will  be  shot  upon  the  spot  where  they  are  found.    Command- 
ing officers  are  strictly  enjoined  to  enforce  this  order  rigorously.  (General 
\  Orders  No.  18,  by  Gen.  Schofield,  May  29th.) 

The  bushwacker  devilment  had  been  carried  on  with  impunitv,  until  it 
had  become  an  absolute  necessity  for  the  government  authorities  to  out- 
law them,  and  the  soldiers  to  hunt  them  down  just  as  they  would  hunt 
ravenous  wild  beasts.     And  a  knowledge  of  the  above  and  similar  official 

288  histora   of  lafayette  county. 

orders  is  necessary  to  an  understanding  of  many  things  done  by  the  state 
militia  which  are  still  matters  of  bitter  remembrance  in   Lafayette  county. 

The  military  body  known  as  "enrolled  militia"  was  provided  to  secure 
an  organized  local  police  under  the  militia  laws  of  the  state,  for  prompt 
and  ready  action  against  the  bushwhackers  and  guerrillas.  General 
orders  No.  19,  issued  July  22,  1862,  said: 

"An  immediate  organization  of  all  the  militia  of  Missouri  is  hereby 
ordered,  for  the  fair-pose  of  exterminating  the  guerrillas  that  infest  the 
state."  Every  man,  subject  to  military  duty,  was  required  to  report  him- 
self, bringing  whatever  arms  he  had,  or  could  procure,  and  be  enrolled. 
And  it  was  ordered  that  "all  arms  and  ammunition  of  whatsoever  kind, 
and  wherever  founds  not  in  the  hands  of  the  loyal  militia,  will  be  taken 
possession  of  by  the  latter,  and  used  for  the  public  defense.  Those  who 
have  no  arms,  and  cannot  procure  them  in  the  above  manner,  will  be  sup- 
plied, as  quickly  as  possible,  by  the  ordnance  department." 

These  extracts  are  sufficient  to  show  the  animus  of  the  order,  which 
was  promulgated  by  Gen.  Schofield,  with  the  indosement  and  sanction  of 
the  governor,  H.  R.  Gamble.  In  Lafayette  county,  probably  not  one- 
third  of  the  population  was,  at  that  time,  on  the  union  side;  and  the  work- 
ing of  the  above  orders,  in  such  a  community,  can  be  readily  imagined. 
It  was  grim-visaged  war,  glaring  and  scowling,  at  every  man's  door. 


To  the  Honorable  the  County  Court  of  Lafayette  County : 

We,  the  undersigned  citizens  of  Lafayette  county,  most  respectfully  ask 
your  honorable  court  to  appropriate  a  reasonable  sum  out  of  any  money 
of  the  county  treasury,  not  otherwise  appropriated,  for  the  purpose  of  pur- 
chasing suitable  clothing,  blankets,  etc.,  for  the  militia  who  have  or  may 
enroll  themselves  as  militiamen,  in  Lafayette  county,  under  the  late  order 
of  Gov.  Gamble: 

William  Spratt,  Franklin  Winkler,  Edgar  Youngs,  C.  B.  Shelton,  J.  J. 
Perdur,  Hillory  Simcox,  Jerry  Goodwin,  W.  S.  Payne,  D.  G.  Prigmore, 
James  B.  Johnson,  Benj.  Pointer,  Henry  Brockman,  W.  C.  Long,  Samuel 
Norris,  Samuel  Vanhook,  James  Ware,  Gilbert  Pointer,  B.  Whitworth, 
I.  M.  Hickman,  D.  Worthington,  William  Cain,  B.  H.  Wilson,  W.  H. 
Wert,  H.  M.  Simcock,  J.  M.  Gain,  William  Lake,  Uriah  Farrell,  J.  B. 
Taggart,  S.  G.  Wentworth,  R.  M.  Henderson,  H.  F.  Coolege,  John  F. 
Nielle,  James  L.  Pointer,  Samuel  J.  Drysdale,  William  H.  Meinecke, 
Frederick  Bruns,  G.  Brockmann,  L.  Shinkle,  S.  S.  Earle,  W.  L.  Hick- 
man, David  Tevis,  David  M.  Welborn,  J.  W.  Zeiler,  G.  Clayton,  John  E. 
Bascom,  R.  C.  Vaughn,  A.  Persiver,  S.  F.  Currie,  Harrison  Smith,  John 
R.  Runyon,  Street  Hale,  James  Hays,  J.  A.  Price,  Charles  Bergmaster, 
John  E.  Ryland,  C.  A.  Bussen,  William  H.  Davis,  M.  Morrison,  Thomas 
Adamsen,  Thomas  B.  Clagett,  John  B.  Alexander,  P.  W.  Whittlesey,  J. 
H.  Delap,  A.  Hoffuth,  E.  Burden,  William  Spratt,  John  F.  Neille,  Alex. 
Mitchell,  C.  H.  McPheeters,  Henry  Turner,  W.  H.  Bowen,  Oscar  V. 
Purdue,  J.  J.  McConicks,  W.  B.  Waddell,  John  Peffer,  E.  Winsor,  Thos. 


Wemwee,  Henry  A.  Self,  D.  Leny,  John  B.  Fleming,  E.  Stratton,  Strather 
Renick,  E.  W.  Carpenter,  W.  D.  Wainright,  S.  T.  Went  worth,  G.  M. 
Jaques,  S.  H.  Graham,  Frederick  Zeigler,  John  Kirkpatrick,  Washington 
Johnson,  D.  W.  B.  Lewis,  William  H.  Davis,  J.  A.  Price,  F.  Cooledge, 
James  W.  Waddle,  Jr. 

On  the  back  of  the  petition  the  following  note  is  written: 

"John  F.  Ryland*  says,  wait,  and  see  how  much  can  be  spared,  and  is 
needed.     Not  to  exceed  two  thousand  dollars  now." 

[This  paper  was  filed  August  6,  1862.] 

August  25,  1862,  the  county  court  passed  an  order  to  issue  $5,000  of 
county  bonds  at  10  per  cent,  interest,  to  "  be  expended  in  the  purchase  of 
blankets,  clothing,  tents,  etc.,  for  the  militia  companies  raised  and  to  be 
raised  in  the  said  county  of  Lafayette,  for  the  purpose  of  putting  down 
and  suppressing  the  inhuman  guerrilla  warfare  in  our  county  and  state." 
Jesse  Schofield,  one  of  the  county  judges,  was  appointed  agent  in  this 

In  November  Judge  Schofield  reported  that  he  had  sold  the  bonds  at 
par,  and  used  the  money  as  follows: 

Two  bonds  of  $1,000  each  to  Farmers'  bank  of  Missouri.. $2,000. 00 

One  bond  to  Wm.  H.  Ewing  for 500.00 

One  bond  to  Christian  Catron  for 400 .00 

One  bond  to  John  Catron  for 300.00 

One  bond  to  S.  G.  Wentworth  for 500.00 

Three  bonds  to  Wm.  Cain,  two  for  $500  each  and  one  for 

$300 1,300.00 

Amount  of  bonds  sold  at  par $5,000 .  00 


Paid  out  for  blankets,  clothing,  etc.  (vouchers  filed) $4,794.33 

Expenses  to  St.  Louis  to  make  purchases ....!.... 35 .  25 

Discount  on  Farmers'  Bank  notes 103.43 

Total  expenditure $4,960.01 

Balance  on  hand 39 .  99 

Jesse  Schofield,  Agent. 
Lexington,  Mo.,  Nov.  j,  1862. 

The  balance  was  used  up  afterwards. 

events  in  1863. 
In  April,  1863,  Lieut.  Col.  King,  with  one  hundred  soldiers  from  Lex- 
ington Post,  killed  four  bushwhackers,  named  Joe  Fickel  (brother  of  the 
l  noted  Miss  Anna  Fickel),  Wagoner,  and  two  Wingates,  near  the  house 
.  of  Wm.  Holmes;  about  fifteen  miles  southwest  of  the  city  on  the  road  to 
"  Chapel  Hill.  Others  of  the  gang  escaped. 
\      *  Ryland  was  then  judge  of  the  circuit  court. 



Sept.  9,  1863,  a  man  named  Carlyle,  one  of  Quantrell's  band,  who  had 
been  captured  after  the  massacre  at  Lawrence,  Kansas,  was  executed  by. 
the  military  at  Lexington,  Col.  B.  F.  Lazear  commanding. 

In  1863  Dr.  J.  F.  Atkinson  was  post  surgeon,  and  his  report  of  Nov. 
28  showed  40  sick  aud  wounded  in  hospital — then  known  as  the  "  Ander- 
son house,"  but  now  owned  by  Tilton  Davis,  Esq. 

Sept.  14,  1863,  an  order  was  promulgated  for  a  commutation  tax  on  all 
who  refused  to  serve  in  the  "enrolled  Missouri  Militia;"  and  the  order 
said:  "The  district  commander  shall  cause  all  such  persons  to  be  arrested 
without  delay,  and  require  them  to  perform  militia  duty  until  said  tax  is 
fully  discharged."  Brig.  Gen.  R.  C.  Vaughan,  of  Lexington,  was  then 
commanding  the  fifth  military  district,  E.  M.  M.,  which  included  Lafay- 
ette county,  and  M.  Chapman  was  his  adjutant. 

The  law  under  which  this  order  was  made  was  part  of  the  act  or  ordi- 
nance to  provide  for  the  issuance  and  ultimate  payment  of  the  union 
defense  bonds  of  Missouri;  and  many  of  our  citizens  had  promptly  paid 
the  tax  long  before  the  above  order  in  regard  to  delinquents  was  issued. 
The  Lexington  Union  of  June  6  says: 

The  following  persons  have  paid  their  exemption  fee  within  the  last 
week : 

James  P.  Reinhard $  30 .  05     A.  Brockman $30 .  00 

C.B.Russell 112.50     Henry  Koopman 30.50 

John  W.  White 56.00     Henry  Allers 30.00 

Gilbert  Jennings 81 .  20     Martin  Goodwin 31 .  50 

Charles  L.  Ewing 68.50     D.  J.  Walers 43.75 

A.  F.  Sheets 30.00     Thomas  R.  James 30.00 

A.J.Armstrong 30.00    John  Johnson 53.75 

T.  Brockman 36.25     L.B.Gordon 63.00 

J.  W.  Graddy 58.50     W.  H.  Grigsby 30.00 

Henry  Oetting 36.00     Daniel  Roberts 30.00 

We  did  not  find  any  other  reports  in  regard  to  this  matter. 

events  in  1864. 

On  Monday  evening,  February  22,  a  couple  of  Federal  soldiers,  going 
home  on  furlough,  stopped  for  the  night  at  Arthur  G.  Young's  house, 
five  miles  out  from  Lexington,  on  the  Sedalia  road.  About  ten  o'clock  in 
the  night,  five  bushwhackers  came  and  captured  these  two  men,  tied  their 
hands  behind  them,  took  them  out  into  a  field  and  shot  them.  One  was 
a  sick  old  man,  name  or  residence  not  known,  as  the  murderers  took  away 
all  money  and  papers  he  had.  They  had  shot  him  just  over  the  left  eye. 
The  other  man  was  Elzy  Sanders,  of  Independence,  Jackson  county,  who 
had  enlisted  in  the  6th  Kansas  Volunteers,  at  Westport,  Missouri,  in 
May,  1863.  The  bodies  were  brought  into  Lexington  and  buried  by  the 

The  following  incident  is  historic: 

history  of  lafayette  county.  291 

September  29,  1864. 
To  the  Commander  of  Post,  Lexington : 

We,  M.  L.  Belt  and  David  Pool,  commanding-  Confederate  forces, 
demand  an  immediate  surrender  of  the  city,  in  the  name  of  the  Confed- 
eracy. If  the  surrender  is  made,  citizens  and  their  property  will  be 
respected  and  all  soldiers  paroled.  If  it  is  not  made,  we  will  burn  the 
town,  and  kill  all  men  that  fire  upon  us.        » 


Belt  &  Pool. 

As  Belt  and  Pool  were  not  confederate  soldiers  in  the  regular  way, 
but  only  bushwhackers,  Lieut.  Shumate,  then  in  command  of  the  post, 
made  no  official  reply,  but  told  the  alarmed  citizens  to  "let  them  come  on, 
we're  ready  for  them!"  They  had  compelled  Mr.  Lewis  Smallwood  to 
bring  in  their  note.  Alarm  bells  were  immediately  rung  and  the  Home 
Guards  mustered  promptly  at  the  call.  The  bushwhackers  came  up 
Franklin  as  far  as  Oak  street,  but  were  met  and  driven  back  by  a  few 
men  under  command  of  Serg.  Stone  of  Co.  M.  1st  M.  S.  M.  One  bush- 
whacker was  shot  through  the  shoulder  and  another  had  his  horse  killed. 
They  robbed  Mr.  Kellerman's  store  in  Old  Town,  and  took  Mr.  Small- 
wood's  horse  from  him,  and  made  their  escape. 

August  10,  1864,  the  doctors  of  the  county  adopted  a  rule  to  increase 
their  charges  50  per  cent,  for  medicines  and  medical  services,  owing  to 
the  general  increase  of  prices.  It  may  be  interesting  to  see  who  were 
our  doctors  at  that  time,  and  here  is  the  list:  Wm.  T.  Lamkin,  M.  M. 
Robinson,  A.  B.  Hereford,  D.  K.  Murphy,  O.  F.  Renick,  B.  D.  Ragland, 
W.  H.  Ruffin,  J.  Bull,  J.  F.  Atkinson,  W.  P.  Boulware,  Geo.  W.  Love, 
J.  B.  Alexander,  F.  Cooley,  G.  W.  Young,  John  Vaughn,  T.  S.  Smith, 
S.  P.  Smith,  M.  Chapman,  Thomas  H.  Bolton. 

In  1864  Gen.  W.  S.  Rosecrans  passed  through  Lexington  on  his  way 
to  the  Little  Blue,  and  while  here  he  appointed  Dr.  Boulware  as  surgeon, 
in  charge  of  the  Federal  hospital,  in  the  Anderson  House,  Dr.  Atkinson 
being  then  on  duty  in  St.  Louis. 


The  Lexington  Union  of  February  27th,  1864,  contains  the  following 
bloody  incident: 

It  will  be  remembered  by  our  readers  that  some  time  in  December  last, 
Otho  Hinton,  a  noted  guerrilla  and  robber,  was  captured  at  Mrs.  Neill's, 
twelve  miles  from  this  city,  on  the  Sedalia  road.  Hinton  was  kept  closely 
guarded  with  ball  and  chain  attached,  until  last  Monday  night,  when  he 
was  killed  hy  his  guard.     The  facts  are  as  follows: 

Blount,  the  captain  of  the  band  of  guerrillas  to  which  Hinton  belonged, 
entered  into  a  conspiracy  with  Miss  Anna  Fickel,  daughter  of  Helvy  H. 
Fickel,  near  Greenton,  Mrs.  Ann  Reid,  of  this  city,  and  a  soldier  whom 
they  believed  they  had  bribed,  to  kill  the  guard  and  rescue  the  prisoner. 
The  soldier  was  to  have  it  so  arranged   that  the  prisoner,  at  precisely 


seven  o'clock,  on  Monday  evening,  would  be  at  Mrs.  Reid  s  house,  which 
is  near  the  college,  where  the  prisoners  are  kept,  under  the  pretext  of  get- 
ting his  supper;  the  soldier  of  course  to  be  ignorant  of  what  was  going 
on.  The  time  rolled  round,  and  prompt  to  the  moment,  Hinton,  under 
guard  of  Sergeant  Kinkead,  walked  down  to  Mrs.  Reid's,  where  every- 
thing was  arranged  as  had  been  preconcerted,  and  as  their  supposed 
accomplice  had  stated  it  would  be. 

The  signal  to  commence  and  plan  of  carrying  out  the  conspiracy  was  as 
follows:  At  precisely  seven  o'clock  Mrs.  Reid  was  to  step  into  another 
room,  when  Hinton  was  to  gather  up  his  ball  and  chain  and  propose  to 
his  guard  to  return  to  the  guard  house,  and  at  the  same  time  to  advance  to 
the  door,  open  it,  and  step  leisurely  out  and  to  one  side,  and  as  the  guard 
came  out  he  was  to  be  met  and  killed  by  Blount,  the  guerrilla,  and  John 
Burns,  a  member  of  Company  I,  5th  Prov.  Reg.  E.  M.  M.  They  were 
to  cut  the  guard's  throat  if  possible,  otherwise  to  shoot  him,  then  remove 
Hinton's  shackles,  and  take  him  away.  Mrs.  Reid,  at  the  appointed 
time,  stepped  into  the  adjoining  room.  Hinton  gathered  his  ball  and  chain 
and  proposed  to  return,  and  advanced  to  the  door,  but  no  sooner  had  he 
placed  his  hand  upon  the  latch  than  Sergeant  Kinkead  fired  and  killed 

The  soldier  who  disclosed  the  whole  plan  to  Lieut.  Kessinger,  the  com- 
mander of  the  post,  was  with  the  lieutenant  and  Captain  Johnson,  who, 
with  a  dozen  men  were  laying  in  ambush  one  hundred  yards  from  Mrs. 
Reid's  house,  waiting  for  the  approach  of  the  guerrillas.  In  a  few  min- 
utes after  Hinton  was  killed,  Burns  and  Blount  came  walking  up  instead 
of  being  on  horseback,  as  was  expected  they  would,  and  the  officers  sup- 
posing them  to  be  soldiers  and  ignorant  of  what  was  going  on,  halted 
them.  Burns  answered,  "  I  am  a  friend."  Lieut.  Kessinger  replied, 
"Advance  friend  and  give  the  countersign."  Burns  advanced  boldly; 
Blount  kept  his  position  while  Burns  approached.  Billy  Savins,  the  noble 
boy,  whom  they  had  attempted  with  women  and  money  to  bribe,  recog- 
nized Burns  (he  had  served  in  the  same  company  with  him),  and  at  the 
top  of  his  voice  cried  out,  "Blount  and  Burns!  shoot!"  Burns  was 
instantly  killed,  but  Blount  wheeled  and  ran.  Volley  after  volley  was  fired 
at  him,  but  without  effect.  He  ran  through  gardens,  over  ravines  and 
was  pursued  by  Cavalry.  He  jumped  Judge  Tutt's  high  paling  fence, 
and  at  this  moment,  young  Asher,  of  company  H,  rode  to  him,  but  before 
he  could  fire,  Blount  turned  and  shot  him  dead,  then  ran  through  Judge 
Tutt's  garden  into  the  woods,  and  made  good  his  escape.  Mrs.  Reid  is 
seventy-eight  years  old,  and  Miss  Fickel  is  not  twenty.  These  women 
will  be  sent  to  Warrensburg  where  they  will  be  tried  by  military  commis- 

The  above  occurred  on  Monday  evening.  The  next  Wednesday  night, 
Mrs.  Reid's  house  was  burned  down  by  a  man  named  Dennis  Gaughan, 
for  which  he  was  promptly  arrested  by  Lieut.  Kessenger,  and  delivered  to 
the  sheriff,  Jacob  A.  Price  for  trial  by  the  civil  authorities. 

Anna  Fickel  was  sent  to  the  state  penetentiary  by  the  military  court; 
but  on  February  4,  1865,  she  was  pardoned  by  President  Lincoln.  She 
was  afterwards  sent  into  the  confederate  lines. 


•      LADIES'    UNION    AID    SOCIETY. 

Early  in  the  war  time  a  Union  Aid  Society  was  formed  in  Lexington 
by  those  men  and  women  whose  sympathies  were  on  the  federal  side  in  the 
great  conflict,  and  their  services  were  in  full  demand  to  aid  the  sick  and 
wounded  federal  soldiers,  some  of  whom  were  constantly  in  the  Lexing- 
ton post  hospital.  (Those  on  the  other  side  were  equally  faithful  to  their 
sick  and  wounded,  but  we  found  no  account  of  any  definite  organization, 
though  there  doubtless  was  one.)  Mrs.  Dr.  Boulware  was  president  of 
the  Union  Ladies'  Aid  Society,  and  the  following  were  members:  Mes- 
dames  Dr.  Alexander,  J.  M.  Fleming,  Adam  Young,  Dr.  Chapman,  S. 
Zeiler,  S.  G.  Wentworth,  S.  Price,  John  Eneberg,  Wm.  H.  Green,  Fin- 
ley,  Bascomb,  A.  Comingo,  Gen.  Vaughan,  J.  Wallace,  A.  H.  McFad- 
den,  Macey,  B.  Wilson,  George  Sedgwick,  Schofield,  Col.  Morton,  Ardin- 
ger;  Misses  Mattie  Runyan,  Whalan,  Mary  Boulware,  Belle  Wainwright, 
Clara  Fall,  Virginia  Fleming,  Sue  Alexander,  Mary  Adamson,  Mary 
Wernway,  Bettie  Haley,  Rebecca  McPheeters. 

The  following  letter  was  received  by  them  and  explains  itself: 

Rooms  of  the  Mississippi  Valley  Sanitary  fair,* 
St.  Louis,  Mo.,  April  2,  1864. 
Mrs.  Dr.  Boulware,  President  of  Union  Aid  Society,  Lexington,  Missouri: 

Dear  Madam: — Your  favor  of  the  29th  ult.,  addressed  to  Samuel 
Copp,  Jr.,  Esq.,  treasurer  of  the  Mississippi  Valley  Sanitary  Fair,  enclos- 
ing a  donation  of  $350.00  from  the  Union  Aid  Society  of  Lexington, 
Missouri,  is  before  me.  It  affords  me  the  greatest  pleasure  to  observe  the 
truly  loyal  and  patriotic  sentiments  of  your  letter.  While  it  challenges 
the  wonder  of  all  good  citizens  of  our  great  and  free  country,  to  see  and 
realize  that  so  many  of  our  citizens — forgetting  what  is  due  to  honor,  pat- 
riotism, self-interest  and  self-respect,  are  found  in  arms  against  that  coun- 
try's peace,  and  conspiring  for  its  overthrow, — our  admiration  rises  in  pro- 
portion for  those,  who,  under  the  circumstances  that  surround  you,  boldly, 
unflinchingly  and  with  fidelity  to  God  and  the  country,  stand  up  for  the 
right.  May  heaven  bless  and  prosper  the  good  union  people  of  Lexing- 
ton, and  especially  the  patriotic  ladies.  , 

With  high  respect  madam,  your  obedient  servant, 

W.  S.  Rosecrans,  Maj.  General. 

events  of  1865. 
In  May,  18*65,  Maj.  B.  K.  Davis  was  in  command  of  the    post  of  Lex- 
ington, and  on  the  11th  of  the  month  he  received  the  following  sanguinary 

Major  Davis:  Sir — This  is  to  notify  you  that  I  will  give  you  until 
Friday  morning,  10  o'clock,  A.  m.,  May  12th,  1865,  to  surrender  the  town 
of  Lexington.  If  you  surrender,  we  will  treat  you  and  all  taken  as 
prisoners  of  war.     If  we  have  to  take  it  by  storm  we  will  burn  the  town